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ADAM'S 

LATIN GRAMMAR; 

BY MEANS OF AN 

INTRODUCTION : 

DESIGNED TO FACILITATE THE STUDY OF 





BY SPREADING BEFORE THE STUDENT, 

IN THE OOMFASS OF A FEW PAGES, WHAT IS MOST ESSENTIALLY NECESSARY t4 BE 

REMEMBERED : 

TO IMPRESS ON THE MEMORY THE DECLENSIONS AND INFLECTIONS 

OF THE 
AND 

TO EXEMPLIFY AND ILLUSTRATE 

THK 



BY ALLEN FISK. 



irritant aniinos 



que sunt ocnlis tubjecta fidelibiUy et 9^ 



Ipse sibi tradit spectator. Hob. 

THIRD EDITION, ^BOM THE 
SECOND EDITION, BEVISED AND COBBECTED. 



KEW'YOBKi 
PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY 
WHITE, GALLAHER, & WHITE, 

JVb. 7 WaH-Street. 



STEREOTYPED BY A. CHANDLER. 

1827 



.v-^, 



,*.-»:■. •l^^'-rf 



' ■ f . 


1;; 


• 


THE NEW TOBK 


• 


PUBLIC UBBA&T 


^ 


i5deson 




Afirros. LENOX AND 




TOLitTA irOUXDATIONS 




B IMl L 



SOUTHERN DISTBiCT Of mCW-TORK, m. 

I 

Bb . rr KsMBinntBDy that oa the IStb day of AprQ, in the fortj-tizth year of the 
(U S.) Indepcndenoe of the Uoked Statee of AaMrica, Cbablxs Stabb, of the said Diftrict, 
hath dwelled 1b Ihia olBee the title of a Boak, the right whereof he daimi as pre- 
prieter," to the wofde jWewtogt to wit; 

MmHC% hMn Qrmnmmi SSmMU^ bjf wmou 9f an hUroiudim : duigned tofaciUiaU the dudg 
of LaHn Chrfmmmr^ ^ Mn&Atg Uftrt the thtdmif m lAe €mn§mm 0/ m fm pagiut «fA«tf ti mod 
•atmtialfy neciMM to ho nmSmbtnd: wiih'tffrofnaU exivouesf to impreu on the memory Uu 
dedmmmumidimjuoHmu tflho PmU^fSp€uk$andto extmplify tmd iUudraUtbe RuUt of ajjniajL 
By AlUn FUt. 

• hrriCBBt aBlnHN * 

^ -... qM Mmt ocollt tubJectB fideUbot, et qua 

t pee- jibi tradit spectator. Hpa. 

In eonfomiiqr to the Aet of ^ngreM of the United Statee, entitled « An Act Ibr the «icoiiraffe« 
ment of Leamnr, kf oocuimg the coplee of Mapt> Chartiy and Booki, to tiie authon and proprie- 
tors of such cepiMy davlBr tlMLtllMr iiereto mentioned." And also to an Act, entitled ** an Act, 
sonplementaiy to an Act, entltleW an Aei Ibr the eDoovragement of Learninf , hv secnring the copies 
of Maps, Charts* and Boolu»ip the aoUiofe and proprietors of such copies, darfaif the times therein 
mentioned, and eztendbg tie' bcBefiti .thereof to thB.arts of designinf, engraThig, and etchmg 
hiftorieal and other prints." 

JAMES DILL, 
CMt of tho SotUhom Dittnet ofM^York. 



:FmsBVA<iim 



1 HE Grammar of Alexander Adam, LL. D. Rector of the High School in Edin- 
burg:h. first published in 1772, is too well known, and too generally approved, to need, 
at the present day, either advertisement or encomium. In 17'99, it was adopted by the 
University at Cambridge, (Mass.) and publickly recommended to be used by those 
intended for that Seminary, ^^ as a book singularly calculated for the improvement of 
students in the Latin Language." It has passed through numerous editions, both in 
Europe and in this country ; and is, unquestionably, the most complete Grammar of 
the Latin tongue, especially in its Syntax, that has ever yet been published. The 
great variety of notes and observations annexed to the Rules, the frequent and com- 
prehensive lists of exceptions, and the numerous explications of anomalous and intri* 
cate constructions, discover an Intimate acquaintance with the Latin classics, and give 
a clue to the resolution of the most difficult passages. 

But, as an elementary scbool-book, the Grammar of Dr. Adam has one fault; a 
fault, however, by no means peculiar, but common, it is believed, to all the Latin 
Grammars hitherto published. Its arrangement is better suited to a book of reference, 
for the use of those who have already studied the language, than far the inexperienced 
tyro, who knows nothing of the subject. The student is obliged to commit nis whole 
book to memory, or at least the principal parts. Etymology and- Syntax, bef(»re he 
understands a word of it. This, at best, is a most odious and disgusting task. To 
crowd the memory with page after page of unintelligible matter, to wade throu|^ a 
whole volume without any apparent design or utility, and be required to repeat a mul- 
titude of rules and definitions of no obf ious meaning or application, blunts the curiosity 
of youth, disheartens their ambition, and not unfrequently leads to fatal discouragement. 
Nor are the difficulties of the student at an end when he has got through his Grammar. 
To prove his skill and try the fidelity of his memory, he is then set to parsing in promis-- 
^ cuous exercises, in long and intricate sentences, ^o resolve which requires a knowledge 
of the Grammar and of the idioms of the language, to be acquired only by practical illus- 
tration and patient research. However apt, tlil^fore, he may have been in conning 
by rote, \vhen the learner comes to ^ply tlie rules and definitions promiscuously, he 
finds himself in a labyrinth ; his ju4|ment is bewildered; his memory, in many in* 
stances, fails him ; and thus he is often compelled to begin with his Grammar anew. 

To remedy these inconveniences, to t^3ieve the student from the irksome and unpro^ 
fitable task of committing to memory what he does not understand, and to furnish easy 
exercises adapted to the illustration of the several parts of speech and rules of syntax, 
in progressive detail; presenting, at one view, me example of declension, the lesson 
for parsing, and the appropriate rules, to the eye of. the student, have been the Com- 
piler's aim in thb publication. And these facilities )ie has endeavoured to afford with 
as little innovation upon the 'Usual arrangement of the several parts of Grammar as 
was deemed consistent with the design of the undertaking, and the nature of the sub- 
let ; thus attempting to- render the book suitable for the young beginner, without ren- 
dering it inconvenient for the more advanced scholars. In conformity with these 
^iews. Dr. Adam's Grammar has, in general, been left unaltered ; and an introduc- 
tion, containing examples of the various declensions and conjugations of the Parts of 
'^Speech, and the Rules of Syntax, with appropriate exercises successively adapted to 
>tthose rules and examples, has been prefixed to his work. In a (qw instances, indeed, 
>g the order and phraseology of the rules have been altered, with a view to render them 
more convenient for parsing, and more conformable with the arrangement of the intro- 
v*^ duction ; and that part of Dr. Adam's work, relating exclusively to English Grammar, 
T' has been entirely omitted, as being superseded by later and more popular treatises ; and, 
(if it were not) as being generally useless to scholars, in this country at least, on account 
of their having studied English Grammar before they commence the study of the 
Latin 



ADAM'S 

LATIN GRAMMAR; 

^amiPiLiiiFai&iD^ 

BY MEANS OF AN 

INTRODUCTION : 

DESIGNED TO FACILITATE THE STUDY OF 





BY SPREADING BEFORE THE STUDENT, 

IN THE OOMFASS OF A FEW PAGES, WHAT IS MOST ESSENTIALLY NECESSARY t4 BE 

REMEMBERED : 

TO IMPRESS ON THE MEMORY THE DECLENSIONS AND INFLECTIOrfS 

OF THE 
AND 

TO EXEMPLIFY AND ILLUSTRATE 

THK 



BY ALLEN FISK. 



irritant animos 



qiuB sunt ocolis nibjecta fideUbus, et q«n 



Ipse sibi tradit spectator. Hob. 

THIRD EDITION, FROM THE 
SECOND EDITION, BEVISED AND CORRECTED. 

s=-5ss=5===sasss=s 

J^EW'YORK: 
FURLISHED AND SOLD BY 
WHITE, GALLAHER, & WHITE, " 

No. 7 Wall-Street, 



STEREOTYPED BY A. CHANDLER. 



t827. 



THE NEW TORK 
PUBLIC IIBRARY 

155!fs50H 

ASrrA, LENOX AND 
TiLMN FOINIUIKJNS 



SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW-TORK, ■«. 

Be it Remembxrxd, that on the ISth day of April, in the forty-sixth ^ear of the 
(L. S.) Independence of the United States of America, Charles Starr, of the said District, 
hath deposiOMl in thb office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as pro- 
prietor, in the words following, to wit : 

AdanCt LaHn Grammar; Stmplifiedj by means of an Introduction : designed to facilitate the study 
of Latin Grommarj by svrioding before the studmtf in the compass of a few paf^Sy what is most 
essentially necessary to be remembered : with appropriate exereisesy to impress on the memory the 
declensions and inflections of the Parts of Speeds, ana to exemplify and illustrate the Rules of Syntax, 
By Men Fide, 

' irritant animos — 

-«— — que sunt ocniis subjecta fidelibus, et quas 
Ipse sibi tradit spectator. Hoe. 

In conformity to the Act of Congress of the United States, entitled « An Act for the encourage- 
ment of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprie- 
tors of such copies, durinir thft time herein mentioned." And also to an Act, entitled " an Act, 
supplementary to an Act, entltler' an Act for the encouragement of Learning, b^ securing the copies 
of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, durmg the times therein 
mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etchmg 
historical and other prints." 

JAMES DILL, 
Clerk of the Southern District ofJfew-York, 



N 



i^miBVA<om 



JL HE Grammar of Alexander Adam, LL. D. Rector of the High School m Edin- 
burgh, first published in 1772, is too well known, and too generally approved, to need, 
at the present day, either advertisement or encontium. In it 99 9 it was adopted by the 
University at Cambridge, (Mass.) and publickly recommended to be used by those 
intended for that Seminary, ^^ as a book singularly calculated for the improvement ol 
students in the Latin Language." It has passed through numerous editions, both in 
Europe and in this country; and is, unquestionably, the most complete Grammar ol 
the Latin tongue, especially in its Syntax, that has ever yet been published. The 
great variety of notes and observations annexed to the Rules, the frequent and com- 
prehensive lists of exceptions, and the numerous explications of anomalous and intri- 
cate constructions, discover an intimate acquaintance with the Latin classics, and give 
a clue to the resolution of the most difficult passages. 

But, as an elementary school-book, the Grammar of Dr. Adam has one fault; a 
fault, however, by no means peculiar, but common, it is believed, to all the Latin 
Grammars hitherto published. Its arrangement is better suited to a book of reference, 
for the use of those who have already studied the language, than for the inexperienced 
tyro, who knows nothing of the subject. The student is obliged to commit his whole 
book to memory, or at least the principal parts, Etymology and' Syntax, befcnre he 
understands a word of it. This, at best, is a most odious and disgusting task. To 
crowd the memory with page after page of unintelligible matter, to wade through a 
whole volume without any apparent design or utility, and be required to repeat a mul- 
titude of rules and definitions of no obf ious meaning or application, blunts toe curiosity 
of youth, disheartens their ambition, and not unfrequently leads to fatal discouragement. 
Nor are the difficulties of the student at an end when he has got through his Grammar. 
To prove his skill and try the fidelity of his memory, he is then set to parsing in promis- 
. cuous exercises, in long and intricate sentences, ^o resolve which requires a knowledge 
of the Grammar and of the idioms of the language, to be acquired only by practical illus- 
tration and patient research. However apt, tlffkrefore, he may have been in conning 
by rote, when the learner comes to ^ply the rides and definitions promiscuously, he 
finds himself in a labyrinth ; his jd||[ment is bewildered; his memory, in many in- 
stances, fails him ; and thus he is often compelled to begin with liis Grammar anew. 

To remedy these inconveniences, to mieve the student from the irksome and unpro^ 
fitable task of committing to memory what he does not understand, and to furnish easy 
exercises adapted to the illustration of the several parts of speech and rules of syntax, 
in progressive detail ; presenting, at one view, llie example of declension, the lesson 
for parsing, and the appropriate rules, to the eye of. the student, have been the Com- 
piler's aim in this publication. And these facilities lie has endeavoured to afford with 
as little innovation upon the 'Usual arrangement of the several parts of Grammar as 
was deemed consistent with the design of the undertaking, and the nature of the sub- 
ject ; thus atlbmpting to- render the book suitable for the young beginner, without ren- 
dering it inconvenient for the more advanced scholars. In conformity with these 
^iews. Dr. Adam's Grammar has, in general, been left unaltered ; and an introduc- 
tion, containing examples of the various declensions and conjugations of the Parts of 
'^Speech, and the Rules of Syntax, with appropriate exercises successively adapted to 
>!tthose rules and examples, has been prefixed to his work. In a few instances, indeed, 
J>§ the order and phraseology of the rules have been altered, with a view to render them 
more convenient for parsing, and more conformable with the arrangement of the intro- 
^*^ duction ; and tiat part of Dr. Adam's work, relating exclusively to English Grammar, 
''■ has been entirely omitted, as being superseded by later and more popular treatises ; and, 
(if it were not) as being generally useless to scholars, in this country at least, on account 
of their having studied English Grammar before they commence the study of the 
Latin 



/ 



; 



PBEfACX. 



This wdrki in its present anrangenent, will be found to combine the followini^ 
advantages : 

1. Exclusive of the Introduction, and considered merely as a book of reference, it 
is indosputably superior to any preceding edition of Adam's Latin Grammar, on 
account of its typographical neatness and accuracy. The Publishers, have 
spared neither pains nor expense to render the work c<XTect, and worthy of general 
patronage. 

2. The Exercises and Exccrpta Liatind, in the Introduction, will supersede the 
necessity of purchasing, and putting Into the hands of boys, larger and more expensive 
books. To the student the Exercises will serve as an introduction to the Grammar, 
and the Excerpta as an introduction to the classics. To render these the more valuable, 
examples of all the different kinds of verse have been selected from Horace, and the 
9canmng marked according to the best authorities. 

S. The Introduction will enable the student to commence liis task with parsing, and 
thus lead him to understand the definitions of Etymology and the Rules of Syntax, 
previous to his committing them to memory. These parts of Grammar should always 
be studied simultaneously, because they mutually explain and illustrate each other ; and 
parsings which exemplifies the meaning and application of the definitions and rules, 
is an exercise of the utmost importance to the pupil^and should accompany, pari 
passu, hb progress through Etymology and Syntax. The declensions of Adjectives, 
Nouns, and Pronouns, the ccMojugation of Verl^ the nature and use of Adverbs, Pre- 
positions, Conjunctions, and Interjections, are moite easily learned and more readily 
understood by parsing, than by committing to memory the various rules and explications 
of the Parts of Speech. The best method, for instance, to make the pupil understand, 
and consequently remember, the declensions of Adjectives and Substantives, is to place 
before him an example of those declensions, and set him to parsmg Adjectives and 
Substantives. He will then readily see the distinctive properties of these two parts 
of speech, and abo the meaning of the rule, ^^ Adjectives agree with their Substantives 
in number, case, and gender." It is parsingy thierefore, which illustrates Etvmology 
and Syntax, and which indelibly impresses these two parts of Grammar on the memory 
of the pupil I and, consequently, the sooner he begins parsing, the easier will his task 
be, and the more profitable his labours. 

4. By means of the Introduction, not only the understanding, but the eye also, is 
render^ subservient to the memory. It is undoubtedly true, that we commit to 
memory with more facility, and retain, for a greater length of time, what we understand, 
than mat we do not understand ; and it is equally true, that impressions received 
throu^ the eye are more vivid and permanent than any others. 



irritant animos 



qiUB sunt oculU fubjecta fideUbus, et qu» 



Ipse sibi teadit spectator. t -Horace. 

^^ Those things forcibly affect the mind which are submitted to the faithful eyes, and 
which the spectator delivers to, or teaches himself." This doctrine will hardly be 
questioned by any one who has ever studied geography, and observed how much brighter 
and more durable are the impressions of what he learned from the map, than of what 
he learned from the book. The comparative sdze, course, situation, and importance of 
the principal rivers, lakes, mountains, and cities, are remembered, and easily called to 
mind long after the description and account of those rivers, lakes, mountains, and 
cities are totally obliterated from the memory. To take advantage of this hint, and 
yet not render the size of the book unwieldy, the octavo form has been preferred, as 
combining the greatest utility ^th the least inconvenience. Page 10th presents a tnap 
of all the regular declensions of Substantives, and page 11th of the declension and 
Comparison of Adjectives. The declensions of Pronouns, and the conjugations of 
Verbs, are exhibited in tiie same manner in subsequent pages. All the principal rules 
are placed on the margin^ in a body by themselves; and, after they have been once 
exhibited in detached iders, they are repeatedly exhibited at a single view, in oKder to 
make the impression more distinct and connected. 



ADVamTIBBMBlTT 

TO THE 



In presenting the second edition of <^ Adam's Latin Grammar Simplified'^ to the 
world, the publisher would observe, that no pains have been spared to nave it correct, 
deserving of public patronage, and a credit to himself as publisher. 

Owing to the carelessness or ignorance of printers and proof-readers, in copying, in 
each succeeding edition, the errors of its predecessor, and adding thereto a long cata- 
logue of new ones, when the first edition of this work was about to be put to press, there 
could not be found a copy of Adam's Latin Grammar sufficiently correct 'to print from. 
It became necessary, therefore, to employ a person, (Mr. Fbk being out of the city*) of 
sufficient leisure and ability, to undertake its correction. Mr. Joseph Osbom, <h this 
city, a gentleman well known as combining in himself, with a cultivated educaticm, the 
advantages of many years' experience in proof-reading, was therefore engaged j and to 
him the publick is, in a good degree, indebted for a tolerably correct copy of a Latin 
Grammar. The proof sheets, after bemg read and corrected by Mr. Osbom, were sent 
to the author, at Troy, to be read and revised by him, which was done in order to di- 
vest the work, if possible, of every error, even the most trifling. To secure for the suc- 
ceeding editions the corrections thus obtained, by this immense labour, and at this great 
expense ; and, in order to provide for the correction of any errors which might aifter- 
wards be discovered, without the possibility of creating new ones, it was found necessary 
to stereotype the work. 

In addition to the pains thus taken to have the first edition comparatively correct, and 
in order, if possible, to have the second entirely free from errors, a copy has been cardfoUy 
preserved, in which have been recorded, from time to time, such errors as have been dis- 
covered by the proof-reader, by the author, and by such teachers as have had the good- 
ness to favour me with a list of the errors that they have discovered while using the 
book, (for which they have my grateful acknowledgments.) 

The publisher conceives tluU, to say nothing of the improvements in this edition, by 
possessing a Latin Grammar comparatively correct, and that can easily be read, in- 
stead of one so erroneously and slovenly printed, as to be scarcely legible to the young 
and vigorous eye, whose every nerve must be strained to ijs utmost powers, to store the 
mind with erroneous words and sentences, the publick wifl be amply remunerated for 
the trifling diflerence in the cost of this and the commckn editions. 

How far the author may have succeeded in facilitating the attainment of the highly 
important and ornamental branch of a refined education, designed to be taught by the 
use of tins work, and in rendering the study pleasing and interesting to the pupil, I am 
not prepared to say, never having witnessed it in operation ; but, judnng from the 
efiects produced by the use of ^^ Greenleaf s [English j Grammu: Simplined," to which, 
in a considerable degree, it is conformed in its arrangement, I cannot but entertain very 
sanguine hopes of its ultimate success in the hands of judicious and able instructers 
One thing, however, is certain, viz. that nothing will be lost by ^ving it a trial ; fofy 
should the introductory part fail of accomplishing the object contemplated by the author, 
the purchaser will still have by far the best copy of Adam'^X^\\\i0^wKsssssa^V^^\^^ 



VI ASTEBTISEUECIT. 

mencing at fofio GT,) cxtsnt; one that can be read with eaie, and that is tolerably 
rect; which cannot be said of any other edition now offered to the publick. 

Id addition to the satisfaction to be enjoyed by possessing a well printed and cor 
copy of Adam's Latin Grammar, there is another advantage to be gained bythe j 
chase of this edition, and that is on the score of economy.. The numerous extr 
from the Latin Classics will supersede the necessity of purchasing severd iwoks t( 
med for exercises, which will effect a. very considerable saving of expense in 
purchaie of bookg. 

Should the " Latin Gnunmar Simplified" prove successful in aidiD| and assisting 
teacher in imparting, and the pupil in obtaining, a knowledge of the important scie 
of which it treats, my satisfaction will not arise solely from the prospect of receii 
a pecuniary compensation for my labour arid expense, but it will Ik a source of gi 
£cation to reflect on my being, in any way, instnuuenlal in accomplishing so desin 
an object as that contemplated in th^ publication of this work ; but, should my ha 
and expectations prove abortive, by its failure of success, I shall console myself uii 
the disappointment, and endeavour lo liear my loss wilh a. degree of cheerfulness, fi 
the reflection, that its failure cannot be attributed to the want of exertion, on my p 
to render it deserving of publick patronage, and that the discerning will know hov 
appreciate the well-meant services of a member of thb enlightened republic, altfao: 
' the contemplated object should not be attained. 

That this work should meet with tlie unqualified approbation of the whole comi 
nity, especially as it is of American origin, is not at all to be expected ; nor can ii 
supposed that open enemies will not be found. Fulton, and his apparatus for stei 
boat oavigBtion, have their enemies; and the same may be said of all the plans wl 
have ever been divulged for the moral, intellectual, or political improvement 
mankind, in all ages, particularly when such improveraents are calculated to inleri 
with the interest of the individual whose prosperi^ depends on the deatrucdon of s 
improvementB. 

Encouraged by the approbation with which the first edition of tfaif work has b 
recrived, and the r^id sale it has met, the second is confidently submitted tc 
enli^itened publick, for patronage and support, by 

THE PUBLISHEB 
Ufao-York, lit Jamtaty, 1824. 



<X>NTENTS. 



PART. I. 

InflectioM of the Parts of Speech. 

. Page. 



Dedension of Substantives . • 10 
and Comparison of Adjectives 11 

ofPronouns . . .12 

Conjugation of the Verb Sum . .13 

of Regular Verbs . 16—23 

First Conjugation) Active Voice . 16 

• Passive Voice . 17 1 

Rmka and ExerciBes. 



Second Conjugation, Active Voice 

Passive Voice 
Tiiird Conjugation, Active Voice 

* Passive Voice 
Fourth Conjugation, Active Voice 

Passive Voice 



Paiirei 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 



Rule 1, and Exercises . . 10, 11 
Rules, from 2 to 6 inclusive, and Ex- 
ercises . 12, 13 
7 to 30 inclusive, and Ex- 
ercises . 14, 15 
Exercises adapted to the Conjugation 
of Regular Verbs . . 16—23 



Rules 31 to 54 inclusive, and Ex- 
ercises • . 24, 25 
55 to 69 inclusive,- and Ex- 
ercises . . 26, 27 

Copdensed Views of all the Rules ?8— 44 









Excerpt 


a Latink. 




■ 


De Virls Elustribus Urbis Romae 


28—44 


De Viri^ Julius Caesar ^ 


.'^ . 86 


Regulus . 




. 28 


Cato Uticensis • 




\ Z6 


Fabius Maximus 




. 28 


Cicero • . 




. 38 


Scipio Africanus 




. 30 


Caesar Augustus 




38—44 


Scipio Nasica . 




. 32 


Sallustii Catilina • 




. 44 


Paulus ^milius 




. 32 


E. Ciceronis Orationibus 




45-^50 


Tiberius Gracchus and Caius 


Ex Ovidii Operibus 




51,52 


Gracchus 


• 


. 32 


Virgilu Operibus . 




53—59 


Lucius Lucullus 


. 


. 34 


Horatii Operibus • 




59-^5 


Pompeius Magnus 


• 


* 34 

PAR' 

I. ORTHG 


T IL 

KJRAPHY. 






Of Letters • 


\ 


. &T 


Of Diphthongs 


• 


. 67 


Vowels f • . - 


: 


: er 


Syllables • • 


• 


• 68 


Consonants • • 




. 67 


Words . • • 


• 


'. 68 






2. ETYIV 


lOLOGY. 






Of the Parts of Speech 




. 68 


Of Pronouns 




. 95 


Of Nouns or Substantives 




. 69 


Of Simple Prononns 




. 9^ 


Declension of Nouns 




. 69 


Compound Pronouns 


■ 


. 96 


(lender of Nouns 




• 70 


Of Verbs . 




. 97 


First Declension 






. 72 


Conjugation of Verbs 




. 98 


Second Declension . 






. 73 


Formation of Verbs 




. 100 


Third Declension 






. 74 


Signification of the different Tenses 100 


Fourth Declension 






. 84 


First Conjugaticm . 


* 


. 102 


Fifth Declension 






. 85 


Second Conjugation 


. 


. 103 


Irregular Nouns 






. 85 


Third Conjugation 


• 


. 105 


Variable Nouns * , 






. 85 


Fourth Conjugati<m 


• 


. iir 


Defective Nouns 






• 85 


Deponent and Common Verbs 


111 


Redundant Nouns , 






. 88 


Irregular Verb 




. 114 


Division of Nouns accor 


dini: 


to 


Defective Verbs 




. 117 


their signification and derivation 89 


Impersonal Verbs • 




. 117 


Of Adjectives 


• 


. 89 


Redundant Verbs 




. 118 


Declension of Adjectives 


• 


- 90 


Obsolete Conjugation 




. 11^ 


Numeral Adjectives 


• 


. 92 


Derivation and Composition 


of 


Comparison of Adject 


ives 




. 94 


Verbs 


• 


. 120 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Of Participles .... 120 
Gerunds and Supines • .121 

Of Adverbs . - . .121 

Derivationi Comparison and Com- 



position of ditto 
Of Prepositions • 
Of Interjections . 
Of Conjunctions . 



8. SYNTAX. 



Of S^tences, simple and compound 126 
Of Concord or Agreement . .127 
Agreement of an Adjective with a 
Substantive ... .127 
of a Verb with a Nominative 127 
of a Relative with the Ante- 
cedent . . .128 
Construction of Relatives . 128 
same case after a Verb as before it 129 
Agreement of one Substantive 
with another • .130 
Of Government . . .ISO 
Government of Substantives . ] 30 
one Substantive governing another 130 
latter of two Substantives . 131 
Adjectives taken as Substantives 131 
Opus and Uatis signifying need 131 
Of the Government of Adjectives 132 
Adjectives governing the Genitive 132 

the Da^ve 133 
the Ablative 184 
the Genitive 
or Ablative 184 
Of the Government of Verbs . 134 

Government of the Verb, Sum 1 34 

Sum^ signifying possession, pro- 
perty, &c. . . 134 
taken for Habeo . .135 
taken for Ofiero . . 135 
Compounds of Sum . .135 
Of the construction of Comparatives, 

when <2^teaiii is omitted . 135 
Construction of Adverbs . 136 
Government of Adverbs . 187 
Of tiie Construction of Prepositions 137 
Prepositions governing the Accu- 
sative .... 137 
governing the Ablative « 138 
governing the Accusative* or 
Ablative . . .139 
Of the Construction of biteijections 140 



P«ge. 

123 

124 
125 
125 

140 



Of the construction of Conjunctions 
Of two or more nouns singular con- 
nected by a Conjunction . 140 
Of Conjunctions governing the sub- 
junctive mood . • . 141 
Of Verbs governing one case . 142 

the Accusative 142 

theGenitive 142 

the Dative . 143 

the Ablative 144 
the Accusative or 

Genitive . 144 
Of a Verb compounded with a Pre- 
position . . . .145 

Of the construction of the Infinitive 145 

Accusative before the Infinitive 145 

Of the construction of Participles 1 46 

of Gerunds 14(i 
, of Supines 147 
of Circumstances 148 
Of Verbs governing two cases . 1 49 
the Accusative and Geni- 
tive . . : 149 
the Accusative and Dative 150 
two Accusatives . 150 
the Accusative and Abia- ^ 
tive . . . 151 
Of the construction of Passive Verbs 151 

of Impersonal Verbs 1 52 

ofthe Names of Places 153 

Of the Ablative Case Absolute 



154 



APPENDIX TO SYNTAX. 

Various Signification and Construction 

of Verbs 
Figures of Syntax 
Analysis and Translation 
Different kinds of Style 
Figures of Rhetoric 



156 
166 
168 
169 
170 



4. PROSODY. 



Of the Quantity of Syllables 175 

of first and middle Syl- 
lables . . 176 
of Final Syllables 179 
of Derivatives and 
Compounds • 181 

» • • • 182 

a • • • ZoZ 



Of Accent 
Of Verse 



measurmg Verses by Scanning 1 83 



Of the Difierent kinds of Verse . 1 83 
Figures in Scanning . r85 

Dmerent kinds of Poems . 186 
Combination of Verses in Poemsl 87 

Of the difiereat kinds of Verse in 

Horace and Buchanan . .187 



APPENDIX. 



Punctuation,*^Capitals^ &c. 



189 



TO INSTRUCTERS: 



The principal design of prefixing these introductory exercises 
to the Grammar is to relieve the student from the ii^Lsome and 
unprofitable task of committing to mem(H*y what he does not un- 
derstand ; to impress the inflections of the parts of q[>eech and the 
rules of syntax clearly and forcibly on his memory, by exhibiting 
them in condensed views ; and^ by fiirnishing easy exercises 
adapted to those inflections and rules in detail, to facilitate the 
labour of translating and parsing. 

The follo^ng plan of instruction is in conformity with this 
design. 

Commence at page lOth, and read over the declensions of sidi- 
stantives and adjectives, explaining to (he pupil the distinctive 
marks of the difierent declensions, and the manner in which an 
adjective agrees with a substantive. Then practise him a short 
time in translating and parsing a few of the examples under 
^' Exercises," on page 10th, declining the adjective and substan* 
tive, first separately, and then conjointly. This will prepare him 
to understand, and consequently to commit to memory with fa* 
cility and pleasure, the general rules relating to 'the declensions 
of substantives and adjectives, as contained in the grammar, 
commencing at page 69. By proceeding in this manner, illus-" 
trating each part of speech, and practising the student in parsing 
it, before he is called upon to commit to memory its Etymology and 
Syntax, his progress through the grammar will be rendered both 
pleasing and profitable. His task will be much lighter, and the 
impression on laS^ memory more permanent, than if he had pro- 
ceeded hi the inverted order, committing what he could not un- 
derstand, and deferring the exercise of parsing till he had gone 
through the grammar. 



% 



■«. i 



10 



DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



RULE. 

1. 
The adjective agrees 
with its substantive, in 
number, case, and gen- 
der. 

eSercises. 

Bona Musa. Bonus pa- 
er. Bonttm donnni. Uuut 
liber. Felix dominas. Le- 
cAp wrmo. IiOiMr puer. 
Tenemm caput Ful^h- 
«r cornis. Pulchra res. 
Ipdldurom comu. Felix 
^1^. Felix iter. Tene- 
jvm comtf. Tenera res. 
Bonus sermo. Bona res. 
Bonum sedile. Lenis do- 
nunos. Lcne iter. Ful- 
eher liber. Pulchra fades. 
Pukhmm caput. Lenior 
dominus. Lenior res. Le- 
niuaiter. Uuuspuer. Una 
ropes, ijuumdonum. Duo 
libri. Don Musce. Duo 
CMiraa. Trcs libri. Tres 
Sfrmonei. Tria capita. 
Tres rapes. Unus lapis. 
Tres lapides. Puo currus. 
Dub flides. Duo sedilia. 
Altus cmrrns. Durus la- 
pis^ Dnrior rapes. Altior 
currns. Altiuscornu. Du- 
rins caput Fclicior puer. 
Felicius iter. Fulchrior la- 
pis. Falchrius caput Te- 
nerior Musa. Tenerius 
cornn. Facilior res. Fa- 
cOius iter. Melior pu- 
er. Melius donum. Pejor 
dominus. Pejus donum. 
Blajor liber. Majus sedile. 
Minor rapes. Minus cor- 
Bo: Altlssima rupcs. Du- 
riisimus lapis. Felicissi- 
muspuer. Optimus dorai- 
Bus. Optima Musa. Opti- 
mum donum. Parvus puer. 
Mains liber. Ma^us cur- 
rus. Magna rupcs. Mag- 
num caput Parvum 8e<U- 
le. Minus sedile. Minimum 
sedile. FacDis Musa. Faci- 
lior Musa. Facillima Mu- 
sa. Tener dominus. Te- 
nerior dominus Tener- 
rimus dominuif. Leniora 
Itinera. 



FIRST DECLENSION 

Musfi, a song, feminine«gender. 



Singular. 
Jiomtnaiivef Mus&, a song, 

Genitive, Musae, of a song, 
Dative, Mums, to,or for a song, 
Accusative, Mus&m, a song. 

Vocative^ Mus&i O spng, 

Abfaiive, Mus& ; tri/A^&c. a song; 



Plural, 
JVdminaiive, Muss. song 

Genitive, MusarQm, of song 
Dative, Musis, to, or for song 
Accusative, Mus&s, song 

Voeatiee, MAms, O song 

Abiatioef Mflsis; withikcsong 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



Pa«r, i 


% boy, masc 


LXbgr, 


a book, masc. , 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Singular, 


Plural, 


A*. PMr, 


JV. Pufiil, 


JV. LYb€r, 


JV LYbri, 


O. PuCri, 


G. PuerOrOm, 


G. Libri, 


G. Librdriim, 


D. Pu^rd, 


D. Puens, 


D. Libr6, 


D. Libris, 


A. PuSriliny 


A. PuSrOs, 


A. LibrOm, 


A. Librds, 


V. Pu€r, 


r. Pu«rt, 


V. Lib€r, 


V, Libri, 


A. Pu6r6; 


A, Pueris. 


A. Libro; 


A. Libris. 


DdmlndSy a master, masc. 


Ddntimi 


f 01 giflf ncut. 


JV. DOmlnils, 


JV. D6mYni, 


JV. D6ndm, 


JV DdnS, 


G. DominY, 


G. Domindram, 


G. Ddni, 


G. DOnOrtim, 


D. Domin6, 


D. Dominis, 


D. D6nd, 


D. Ddnis, 


A. DominOm) 


A. DominOs, 


A. DdntUn, 


A. Ddn&, 


V. I>6mrn<$9 


V. Domini, 


V. Dtattm, 


V. Ddna, 


A. Domin6; 


A, Dominis. 


A. DdnO; 


A. Ddnis. 




THIRD DECLENSION. 


\i 


Sirmo, a 


spueh, masc. 


C&pfit, i 


the headf neut. 


JV*. Sermoy 


JV. SermOn^, 


JV. CftpOt, 


JV. CftpYtfi, 


G. SermOnto, 


G. Sermdnam, 


G. CapYtb, 


G. CapItOm, 


D. ScrmOni, 


D. SermOnYbOs, 


D. Capiti, 


D. CapYtYbds, 


A. SermonSm, 


A» SermdnSs, 


A. Capat, 


A. CapYtft, 


V. Sermo, 


V. Serm6n€s, 


y. Capfit, 


V. CapYta, 


A. SernkynC; 


A. ScrmOnYbiis. 


A. Capit«j 


A. CapYtlbfis. 


RapSs, 


a rock, fem. 


S«dil£, 


a seat, neuf. 


JV. Rapes, 


JV. Rup^, 


.V. SCdil?, 


JV. S6dilY8, 


G. Rupls, 


G. Rupitlmi 


G. SedilYs, 


G. Sediliflm, 


D. Rupi, 


D. Rupibtts, 


D. Scdili, 


D. ScdlllbOs, 


A. Rup^m, 


A. Rup^, 


A. Sedan, 


A. SedilYS, 


V. RupSs, 


V. UupftB, 


V. SedlK*, 


V. Seddm. 


A. Rupg; 


A. RupibOs. 


A. Sedili; 


A. SedilYbfiff 


L&pYs, a 


stone, masc. 


Iter, a . 


journey, neut. 


A". LSpts, 


JV. L&pYd€s, 


JV. Itdr, 


JV. ItYnerS, 


G. LapTdlSy 


G. Lapidfim, 


G. ItYn^rYs, 


G. ItinSriim, 


D. Lapidi, 


D. LapkUbOs, 


D. ItYneri, 


D. ItinerlbOs, 


A. LapidSm, 


A. Lapid€s, 


A. Iter, 


A. Itin«rfi« 


V. LapYs, 


V. Lapid€8, 


V. It«r, 


V. lUn^rft, 


A. LapidS; 


A. LapidYbOs. 


A. ItYn^rej 


A, Itincrrbfis 




FOURTH DECLENSION. 




CurriSs, a 


chariot, masc. 


COrnu, 


a horn, neut 


JV. Currtls, 


JV. Currtls, 


JV. Cdrnu, 


JV. CorntUl, 


G. Currilis, 


G. Currdam, 


G. Cornu, 


G. Corafidm, 


D. Curriil, 


D. CurrYbtts, 


D. Cornu, 


D. CornYbds, 


A. Currara, 


A. CurrOs, 


A. Cornu, 


A. CorqOft, 


V. CurrOs, 


V. Currus, 


V. Cornu, 


V, CornOft, 


A. Curni; 


A. CurrlbOs. 


A. Corau; 


A. Corultnis. 




FIFTH DECLENSION. 




Res, a 


thing, fem. 


^, F&cYes, 


a face, fem. 


JV Res, 


JV Res, 


JV Jpidffis, 


JV. F8cies, 


G. R€i, 


G. Rerflm, 


G. FacieT, 


G. Faci€rum, 


D, Rei, 


D. RebiSs, 


D. Faciei, 


jQ. Facifibns, 


A. Rem, 


A. Res, ' 


A. Faciem, 


A. Facies, 


V. R68, 


V. Res, 


V. Facies, 


V. Facies, 


A. R<»; 


A. R€b(is 


A. Facie: 


A. Faci^bus. 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 



11 



3TIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSION. 



m, 



Singular, 
fern. 

bonae, 

bonae, 

bonftm, 

bon&y 

bon&y 



BdndSy bdnS, b5num, good. 



neut. 
bdnuni) 
boni, 
bond, 
bondiUy 
boaiUn, 
bond; 



Plural, 
fern. 



masc. jem. neut, 

JV*. B6iu, boDte, b6n&, 

G. BonOrum, bonariiixi) bonOrtlmy 



Z>. Bonis, bonis, 

A. Bonds, bonas, 

V. Boni, bons, 

A. Bonis, bonis, 



bonis, 
bonft, 
bon&, 
bonis. 



ri, 



T^n<$r, t^neiil, tgnSrOm, tender. 
tSnSiil, t£nSram, JV. TSnSri, tSn^rffi, 



rum, 
•6, 



tenerte, 

teneroe, 

tenerum, 

tenerft, 

tenerd, 



teneri, 

tenerd, 

teneriim, 

teneriUn, 

tcnert: 



t£n£r&, 
G. Tenerdrtim, — ariini, <— 6rtim, 



D. Tenerls, tenerls, teneils, 

Ji,Teaer6St tener&s, tenerft, 

V. Teneri, tenerae, tenerft, 

w9. Teneris, tenerls, tcneiis. 

FjilchSr,'pulchr&, pulchrOm, /air. 

^r, pulchril, pulchrdm, JV*. Pulchri, pulchrae, pulchrft, 
ri, pulchrae, pulchri, G. FulchrOrCim, — ariim, — drfim, 

ro, pulchrne, pulchrd, I>. Pulchris, pulchris, pukhris, 

rdm, pulchri, pnlchrQm, A. FuIchrOs, pulchr&s, pUlchril, 

er, pulchrS, pulchriiin, F. Pulchri, pulchrae, pulchri, 

ro, pulchra, puichrd; A Pulchris, pulchris, pulchris. 

UnQs, unS, uniim, one. 

finfim, JV. Uni, une, Qnfi, 

uniQs, G. Unordm, un&riUn, undrQm, 

uni, ' />. Unis, unis, unis, 

uniim, Ji. Unds, unas, uni, 

untim, F. Uni, luiae, unfi, 

unO ; A. Unis, unis, unis. 



una, 

unlQs, 

uni, 

unain, 

un!l, 

una, 



) 

^ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION, 
Felix, ieliz, icllx, happy. 



> 
m, 

, V. 



ielix, fellx, JV. F€llc€s, felices, fellciS, 

fellcls, fellcYs, G. F^licKiffl, fdlicliini, fgliciam, 

felici, felici, Z>. Fgllclbas, feliclbfis, fSliclbas, 

felicSm, fellx, A. Felices, lellcSs, fellcl&, 

ielix, fellx, F.Fgllces, felicds, fSlicm, 

felici, &c. j9. FeUcrbOs, iiSlIclbds, ielfclbOs. 

LSnYs, lenls, len^, mild. 

lenYs, l^nS, JV. LenSs, lenes, l€nl%, 

lenls, lenis, G. Lenlttm, lenlthn, lenlfim, 

leni, leni, I>. LenYbOs, lenlbiis, lenlbds, 

lengm, lenS, A. LcnSs, Icn^s, lenl%, 

lenTs, lenS, V. LenCs, lente, lenl%, 

lent, leni; A LenlbOs, lenYbfis, lenlbfis. 

LSnIdr, l^nYOr, lenlQs, milder. 

lenYdr; l^nliis, JV. LenYdrSs, lenTOr^s, lenTdrS, 

G. Lenidriim, leniOrdm, leniOrdni, 
D. Lenidrl[biis,lenidrlbfi8, leniOribvis, 

A. LenidrSs, leniOrSs, leoidrft, 

V. Lenidr^, lenidrSs, leniOrft, 
A. Lenidrlbii8,leni0rlbii8, lenidrlbQs. 



rTs, leniOrls, leniOrTs, 
•i, leniori, leniOrT, 
*Sni, leniOr^m, lenids, 
*, lenidr, lenius, 
C, V. leniOri, &c. 



Duo, two, ^ Tres, threes are thus declined. 



duae, 
m, duardm, 
Is, duabiis, 
V. ddo, duas, 

duae, 
s, duabus. 



duo, 

dudrQin, 

duobus, 

diid, 

du6, 

dudbtis. 



JV. Tres, 
G. TrWm, 
D. Tribiis, 

.^.TillMf, 



tr€s, 

tridm, 

trYbfis, 

tr€8, 

tr€s, 

trYbiis, 



trY&, 

trYam, 

trYbOs, 

trYSi, 

trYa, 

trYbOs. 



JPOMPARISON OF ADJfitTIVES. 



P08. 



Com. 



Com. Sup. 

^h, altior, altissimus. Bonus, epooci, 

trdf durior, durissimus. M alus, ooc?, 

ppy, felicior, felicissimns. Magnus,grea/, 

id, lenior, lenisslmus. Parvus, smallf 

nder, tenerior, tenerrimus. Multus, much, plus, n. plurimus. 

nsy. farilior. fa<*illimus. Dexter^right, dexterior, dex.tl«w\%. 



Sup. 

melior, opthnus. 
pejor, pessimus. 
major, maxinius. 
minor, minimus. 



EXERCISES. 
Benignus gcncr. Libe- 
ralis socer. Formosa filia. 
Fortis filius. AmabiUs pa- 
ella. Mitis vir. Una bora. 
Mitis aura. Atra cura. 
Magna Stella. Mite po- 
mum. Hilaris foemina. Bo- 
nnm exemplum. Difficile 
principium. Doctus vir. 
Cams sodut. Magna pni- 
dentia. Pretiosa gemma. 
Utilis poeta. Fidus ami- 
cus. Pauper homo, Diveit 
stultus. Pemiciosa lex. 
Medlcabilis amor. Bonui 
animus. Fulvus ager .Casta 
fosmina. Vafravulpes. As- 
sidua apis. Multus honor. 
Parvumagmen. Clamotof 
risus. Nigpra felis. Miser 
bufo. Miseraovis. Rubei 
draco. Prospera vitis. Ve- 
rus honor, Rigidus Aqullo. 
Pallidus timor. Falsum 
omen. Punim ebur. Ob 
tusiim telum. Acidum vi 
num. Horridabella. Tumi- 
dumflumen. Raucus duc- 
tus. Claudusmanus. Dulce 
)M>miun. Maturos fhictus. 
Fcrox latro. Grand.w aula 
Brevis vita. Fragile filum. 
Veloxcervus. Subtilisra* 
tio. Terrestris res. Perniz 
ala. Immanb lacus. Sa- 
gax vultus. Ignobile no- 
men. Terribilttlues. Tnrpe 
crimen. Triste negotiom. 
Viridis vitis. Exiauguis 
manus. Inanes spes. la- 
gens vera. Exllis cervui. 
Sagax equDs. Deforrait 
lupus. Vile regnum. Sa- 
piens homo. Amabilis mu- 
lier. Hilaris puella. Do- 
cilis puer. Canina rabies. 
Malum consilium. Mag- 
num concilium. Dulcis li- 
bertas. Candidus ursus 
Alta domus. Longus dies. 
Magna salus. Divinoi a- 
mor. Matuthmm canti* 
cum. Publicos vicna. Su 
prema dies. .Doldaoacnla 
Novi fluctus. Timidus na- 
vita. Inutile genus. * Ori- 
ens Sol. Sedens luna. Ju- 



12 



DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS. 



RULES. 

2. 
The verb agrees with 
its nominative case, in 
number and person. 

3. 

The relative,^!, 9«(s, 

quody agrees with its 

antecedent in gender, 

number, and person. 

4. 
If no nominative come 
between the relative 
and the verb, the relar 
tive is the nominative 
to the verb ; but when 
a nominative inter- 
venes, the relative is 
governed by the verb, 
or some other word in 
tne sentence. 

5. 
Any verb may have 
the same case afiery as 
before it, when both 
words refer to the same 
person or thing. 

6. 
Substantives signify- 
ing the same person or 
thmg, agree in case. 

EXERCISES. 

Ego sum. Ta es. Ule 
Mi. No8 sumus. Vos es- 
tis. l-Ui sunt — ^Ego eram. 
tu eras. Ille erat. Nog 
eramus. Vos eratis. Illi 
erant.— Ego fill. Tufuisti. 
Ule fuit. Nos foimus. Vos 
fuistis. Illi fnerunf . — ^Ego 
fueram. Tu fueras. Ille 
fuerat. Nosfueramus. Vos 
fueratis. Illi fuerant. Ego 
ero. Tueris. lUeerit. Nos 
erimus. Vos eritis. Illi 
erant. — ^Ego sim. Tu sU. 
Die sit. Nob simus. Vos 
sitis. lUisint. — Egoessem. 
Tu esses. Ille esset Nos 
essemus. Vos essetis. Illi 
essent.— -Ego fuerim. Tu 
ftieris.' ine fuerit Nios fu- 
erimns. Vosfueritis. Illi 
foerint.— Ego fuissem. Tu 
fuisses. lUe fuisset. Nos 
fuissemus. Y09 fulssetis. 
Jlli fuissent.— Ego fuero. 



Singular. 
JV. Ego, /, 
G. Mei, of me, 
D. Mlhiy to me, 
A. M6y mCf 

V, 

A. M€, loith me; 



JV. Tu, thou, or you, 
G. TOi, of thee, or you, 
D. Tibi, tq theef or yoih 
A. Tg, thee, or you, 
V. Tu, O thou, or you, 
A. Te, with thu^ or you; 



JV. 

G. Stti, of himsd/, &c. 
/>. Sibi, to himtdf, &c. 
A. S4, huruelf, &c. 



Ego, /. 

Phtnd, 

JV*. Nos, fee, 

G. Nostnlm, v. nostriy of us, 

D. Nobis, to us. 

A. NOs, us, 

V. 

A. Nobis, vnih us. 

Tu, ihou. 

JV*. Vds, ye, or you, 
G. VestrAm, v. vestri, of you, 
D. Vobis, to you, 
A. VOs, you, 
V. Vds, O ye, or you, 
* A. Vobis, with you. 

Sui, of himself, of herse^, of itself 

JV. 



G. Siki, of themselves, 
D. Sibi, to themselves, 
A. S€, themselves, 

V. 

A. S«, feith hmaelf, kc. A. S«, toith themselves.' 

Ule, ilia, illud, he, the, it, or that. 



JV. IU«, 
G. Ulius, 
D. lUl, 
A. Umra, 
V. 1116, 
A. IU6, 



iUft, 
UUus, 

mi, 

iUfim, 

iltt, 

ilia. 



iUOd, 
illius, 

mi, 

mdd, 

mod, 
mo; 



JV. IIU, iU«, 

G. UlOrum, ill&ruin, 

D. niis, illis, 

A. niOs, illas, 

F. UU, ' ill®, 

A. nils, illis, 



Jn the same manner decline iste, ista, istud, that 
Ipse, ipsa, ipsum, himself, herself, itself. 




JV. Ipse, 
G. Ipsius, 
D. Ipsi, 
A. Ipsum, 
V. Ipse, 
A. Ipso, 

JV.Hic, 

G. Hiyos, 

D. Hulc, 
A. Hnnc, 
V. HIc, 
A. Hoc, 



JV.Is, 
G. Ejus, 
D.Ei, 
A. Efim, 

V. 

A. !£,(}, 



JV. Quis, 
G. CAjus, 
D. Cur, 
A. Quem, 

V. 

A. Quo, 



JV. Qui, 
G. Cujus, 
I>.Cui, 
A. Qu£m, 

V. 

.-^. Quo, 



ipsft, 

ipsius, 

ipsi, 

ipsam, 

ipsa, 

ipsa, 

hsec, 

hujus, 

hulc, 

banc, 

hsBC, 

hac, 



ijtsdm, 

ipsius, 

ipsi, 

ipsum, 

ipsum, 

ipso ; 



JV. Ipse, ipsae, 

G. Ipsorum, ipsarum, 



D. Ipsis, 
A. Ipsos, 
V. Ipsi, 
A. Ipsis, 



ipsis, 
ipsas, 
ipse, 
ipsis, 



Hie, hsec, hoc, this. 



eft, 

«, 
e&m, 

cSi, 



hoc, JV. Hi, he, 

hQjus, G. HOrum, harum, 

huic, D. His, his, 

hoc, A. Hos, has, 

hoc, V. Hi, h», 

hoc ; A. His, his, 

Is, eS., Id, he, she, it, or that. 

Yd, JV. U, ese, 

€ju8, G. EOrum, earum, 

41, D. l\»,v. eis, &c. 

Id, A. £0s, cas, 

eO ; A. lis, V. eis, he. 



ipsa, 

ipsorum, 

ipsis, 

ipsa, 

ipsa, 

ipsis. 

haec, 

hOnun, 

his, 

hsec, 

hsec, 

his. 

eS, 
eOrum, 

ea, 



Quis, quse, quod, v. quid, who f which f what f 

JV. Qui, qus, 

G. Quorum, qu&rum, 
D. Quels, V. qidbus, &c. 
A. QuOs, qufts, 

A. Quels, V. quibus, &c 



qu«, quod, v. quid, 
cujus, cujus. 



cm, 



cui, 



quam, quod, v. quid. 



quK, 
^uOrumi 

quse, 



qua, qijp ; 

Qui, qusB, quod, who, which, that. *"' 



quse, 
cujus, 
cui, 
qu^, 

quft, 



quod, 

fcui, 
quOd, 

quo; 



JV. Qui, quae, quse, 

G. Quorum, qu&rum, quOmiD} 

D. Queis, V. quibus, &c. 

A. QuOs, qufts, quse, 

A. Quels, V. quIbuSj &c 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



18 



7My an irregular neuter verb, is thus CoiuneATSB. 

Part. Fui. 
futurusy To be. 



'tc. 



Perf, hiiie. Pres. Infia. 
fui, esse, 



m, 
art, 



wasj 
>u wmt, 
was; 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, am. 

Plural. 
Stfmw, we are, 
Estis, ye are. 
Sunt, (hey are. 

Imperfect, wat. 

Er&mus, we were, 
Erittb, ye were, 
Erftnt Uuiywere. 



Perfect, hmie been. 

tve been, Fufmiis, we have l^en^ 

lou hast been, Fuistis, ye have 6ee% -. 

has been ; Fudrunt t7. fuere, th^. ime bun. 

' I. 

Pluperfect, had beeni 
I had been, Fu^clbnus, we hai ten, 

'Mu hadst been, Fu^FAtTs, ye haaLktimt 

he had been; Ftimnt, they haS hem. 

Future, shall, or will te. , 

'tdl be, £rYmu8,'*iire shaU be, 

u Shalt be, Erltls, yt shaU be, 

shall be ; Erunt, th^ shall he. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense, may, or can oe. 

^y be, Simus, we may he, 

maytst he, Sitii, ye may bet 

^y be; Sint, they may be. 

Imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 

mig/it be, Essemus, we might be, 

ou mightest be, Essetis, ye might be, 

migh( he ; Essent, they might he. 

Perfect, may have been. 
I may have been, Fu&rlmus, we may have hem, 

ou maytst have been, Fuerftis, ye may haoe been, 
e might have been; Fuerint, they may Aotw been. 

perfect, might, could, would, or ^fould have been. 

I might have been, Fuissemus, we might have heen^ 
%ou mightest Iiave been, Fuissetis, ye might have bem» 
le might have been ; Fuissent, they might have been. 

Future, s/udl have been. 

shall have been, FuCrlmus, we shaU have been, 

wu Shalt have been, Fugritis, ye shall have been, 
e sliall have been ; Fudrint, they shall have been. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



:o, Be thou, 
him be ; 



EstS, V. estdte, Be ye, 
Sunto, Let thm he. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

te. Esse, To be. 

Fuisse, To liave been. 

Esse futurus, a, um. To be about to be. 

Fuisse futurus, a, um, To have been about to be. 

PARTICIPLE. 
Future. Futunis, a, um, .^bout to be. 



EXERCISES. 
TuAieris. Illefiiarit. Nos 
fuerimos. Vosfiieritis. II- 
li fnerintp— Es, v, esto tu.. 
Esto ille. Este, v. eatote 
vos. Sunto illi.— Esto ilia. 
Ilia sit Ego sum diici* 
pulus. Tu es bonus puer. 
lUeestvir. Paxestjucun- 
da. DiyitisB sunt pemicio* 
sae. Veritas est magna. 
Charitasestbenigna. Vir- 
tus est pretiosa gemma. 
Prindpium est difficile. 
Nos omnes essemus me- 
liores. Nulla potentia est 
longa. Senes sunt cauti. 
Cives sunt candidi. Boai 
homines erunt beatL Im- 
probi yiri essent iniseri. 
Puerisintcallidi. Estoper- 
petua. Hoc est pulcfarum 
facinna. Puer, qui est stu* 
diosusi arit ductus. Puella 
qusB est amidiiilis, erit ama- 
ta. Pueri, qai sunt studiosi 
erunt docti. PuellsB, qvm 
sunt amabiles, erunt ama- 
tsB. lUi sunt boni homines, 
qui sunt justi, probi, cle 
mentes, pii, benigni, sobrii . 
Hie est maaus, qui fuit 
victus. Hsec est domus, 
quae fuit deserta. Hoc est 
negotium, quod fuit per 
factum. Vir, cujus opus 
est . VIri, quorum opus est 
Isestvir honestus. Eaest 
mailer pukherrima. Hae 
puellas sunt formosae ; il- 
lae sint amabiles. Hie vir 
est amatot. Iste vir est 
exosus. Homo es. Homi- 
nes sumus. Vita est bre> 
vis. Mors est certa.' Quis 
musicus est hie ? Qus^ 
mulier est ea ? Quid ne 
gotium est illud? Cujns 
opus est id? Hoc est opus 
America est mea patria. 
Georgius est mens cams 
amicus. Petrusestdocilis. 
Johannes fuit juvenis. Ci- 
cero, orator, fuit consul. 
Horatlus, homo ingenio* 
sus, fuit poeta. Si Wash 
ington, dux, fuisset rex 
Virgilius, poetai fuit va 



14 EXERCISES* 

RULES* Jesus Christus, filius Dei, est Salvator mundi. Cicero^ ora- 

7- One substantive tor, fiiit consul Romae. Numa Pompilius erat rex secundus Ro- 

fSTdlTrenrp^I^' manorum. Die fuit vir magnae prudentiae. Ego sum publicus 

ortluns inthecrenitive. J^uncius populi Romani ; verbis meis fides sit. Ancus Marcius 

8. iftlie latter of two ^^^ nepos Numae Pompilii, similis avo aequitate et religiooe. 
substantives have an Augustus est puer probi indole. Petrus est vir minimi pretii. 
adjective of praise or ggt homo nullius stipendii. Est ager triuiu jugerum. Es bono 
dispraisejoinedwithit, ^^^ q -^^ ^ ^^ ^^ Cervice obvoluta est. Johannei 
k may be put either m j i • . -^ .• n i 
^genitive or ablative. ^^ adolescens eximia spe, summae vututis. Paulus est vu- pra- 

9. An adjective in stantis ingenii — praestanti iugenio'— praestans ingenio— pre- 
the neuter gender with- stans ingenii. Os humerosque deo similis sit. Esto forti ani- 
out a substantive, go^ mo. Vox populi est vox Dei. Haec est doraus Ca»sans. Fa» 
verns the gemtive. ^j^g ^^^ descensus Averni. Multum pecuniae est illi. Plus elo- 
si?nif\ *nff d *'^' quentiae est tibi. Est nobis minus sapientiae. Est vobis nihil 
quire the ablative. sinceri. Quid rei est iUis ? Quicquid ingenii sit mihi. Per hoc 

11. Verbal adjec- noctis. Ad hoc astatis. Circum id loci. Libri permulti sunt 

tives, and such as signi- mihi. Eadem mens est mihi, eadem tibi. JVobis est opus pe- 

fy an affection of the cuiiii. A'^obis est usus viribus. Dux nobis opus sit. Nobii 

mmd, govern the geni- gxempla opus sunt. Est regis. Pecus est Melibai. Haec sunt 

1*2. Partitives and h<^™"*>^' Temeritas est florentis aetatis, prudentia scnectotis. 

words placed partitive- Tuum est. JMeum fuisset Suum sit. Vestrura fuerit. Nos* 

]y, comparatives, su- trum erit. Est regium. Est humanum. Lex naturae est uni* 

perlatives, interroga- versalis. Illi est sum ma prudentia juris. Quorum magna pan 

tives, and some nume- ^^^j Liber raei est novus. Liber tui est novellus. Salus popnii 

rals. fiTOvem tne ccmtive 

nlunu ^^ supreraa lex. Hoc est tuum munus. Hoc est tui munerii. 

13. Adjectives signi- Liber deest mihi. Libri desunt mihi. Praefuit exercitui. Ad- 

fying profit or dispro" (vat precibus. Mali nee prosunt sibi, nee aliis. Est mihi vo> 

Jty likeness or unlike- luptati. Est tibi exemplo. Horatius fuit cupidus pacis. Cato 

yiew, &c. govern the fuit tenax propositi. Cicero fuit amans patriae. Caesar fuit p^ 

14 Th H* t' "*"^ literarum. Petrus est menior beneficionim. Petrus est 

dignus indignus proa- ^^idus gloriae. Paulus est ignarus fitiudis. INlenior esto brevis 

ditusj and conientus ; «vi. Catilina fuit audax ingenii. Est sapientis esse conteo- 

also, natus, satus, or^ tum sua sorte. Hie est assuetus labore in omnia. Nos suinis 

ffi«,ec/2fi£«, and the like, insueti moribus Romanis. Foeminae sunt desuetae bcllo, ettri- 

govern the ablative. uraphis. Una sororum fuit pulchra. Ille est uliquis philoso- 

15. Adjectives, signi- ' ,, r--i--rv . 

fying plenty or want P^o^um. Uterque nostrum fuit i!)i. Quis vestnim est senior 

govern die genitive or fratrum ? Cicero fuit optimiis coiisulum. Sunt lecti juvenum. 

ablative. O saiicte deorum. llle est vir pra'stantissimus nustr^e civitalis. 

16. Suniy when it Poeta est utilis urbi. Hie puer est similis suo patri. Lex foil 
sigmnes possession^ pcmiciosa Reipulilica;. Censnra est fdcilis cnivis. Hoc est 

?««?- *iw7 ^«-*- commune mihi tecum. Mens est mihi sibi conscia recti'. Red 
verns tne genitive. , ^^ 

17. Sum taken for ^^^^^ audiens erat. Superbia est aliena dignitatL Nemo est 
habeOy (to have^) go- immunis vitio, Omnes sunt proiii ad vitium. Ilic puer est 
verns tne dative of a dignus laudc. Sapiens est contentus sua sorte. Dux est praedi- 
P®*^®"' tus virtute. Stultus est captiis mente. Homo superbus sapien- 

Ajr ' ^\ ^^^^ 'or li^ est stultissimus, JCneas fuit ortus Anchise. Omnia plcns 
AferOj (to brings) go- tx.ii.t- . , ,. . - *^ , 

vmis two dativS • the ^"°^ ^^^' ^°" mopes tempons, sed prodigi sumus. LentuhH 

one of a person, and ^^^ '^^t verbis inops. Omnium consiliorum ejus, participes fin- « 

the other of a thing. raus. Quando erimns ^-acui molestii ? Nihil insidiis est vacuOi 



F 


ti 
n 
n 

jt 
••3 

L 

q" 

se 



\ 



EXERCISES. io 

lile est doctus graUunaticae. Hie est patiens algoris. Sa- RULES. 

)ientia est melior gemmis. Nihil est dulcius libertate. Nihil 19. The compounds 

uit facundius Cicerone. Tu es nihilo melior alio. Amor non of Sumy except Po^ 

?st medicabiljs herbis. Via lethi est calcand^ semel omnibus. *^^> govern the dative. 
Hie liber est mei fratris. Haec toga erat tua. Jacobus et Jo- ^^' ^^-^"^^^^cfi^ ^^^ 

lannes, qui sunt mortui, fuerunt fratres. Jupiter est omnibus yem the abie^^when 

dcm. Peripatctici quondam iidem erant qui Academici. Est quam is omitted in 

inimus erga te idem ae fuit. Res est sollciti plena timoris Latin, 
imor. Maxima quaeque domus servis est plena superbis. Amor 21. Adverbs qua^ifi^ 

?t melle et felle est fceeundissimus. Anna est amanda omnibus. Y^^^*' participles, a^ 

Vlors est terribilis malls* Pax est optabilis omnibus. Adhi- •J^ l . ^ 
)enda est nobis diligentia. Bella matribus detestata sunt. Deus 22. Some adverbs 

»tVenerandus et colenduft^jp'obis. Mors Crassi est sL multis of time, place, and 

iefleta. Pedibus longd melior fuit Lyeus. Dum anima est, spes quantity, gdv^m the 

jst. Donee eris felix, sunt tibi multi amici. Fuit olim quasi ego g<^i"^i^« 

mm.senex. Nihil abest quin sim misenimus. Enhostis. Ecce , ' le prepositions 

. r^ . /* . r J u- TA i_ • ad,apud,ante,&^.gf>' 

iignum. Ecce miserum hommem. Ecce duas aras tibi, Daphni. yem the accusative. 

5 vir bone ! O vir fortis atque amicus ! Heu me miserum ! Heu 24. The prepositions 

^ankas humana ! Hei mihi ! Yce vobis ! Proh hominum fidem ! a, ab, ahs^ &c. govern 

Proh\ Sancte Jupiter ! Et ego sum in culpa, et tu. Nihil hie ^^^ ablative. 

lisijfarmina desunt. Mens, ratio, et consilium in senibus sunt. . ^^' J^^ prepositions 

j,~T .^,., ,. ^ 4. r TVT u tn, sub, svpevy and sub" 

Ltsi sit hberalis, tamen non est profusus. Non bonus est som- ^^,^ govern the accusa- 

lus de prandio. Ah virgo infelix ! O crudelis Alexi ! Es penes tiye when motion to a 

;e ? Lentae adversus imperia aures fuerunt. Hie illiusBrma, place is signified ; but 

lie cumis fuit. Timor Domini est initium sapientiae. Faeies when motion or rest in 

*erum est mutata. Quantum nummi sit ubivis, tantum fidei est * place is signified, tu 

^am ibidem. Ubi plurimum est studii, ibi est mmimum stre- . , ,. , ^ , 

3itus. O, Fons Blandusise, splendidior vitro. Nil mortalibus g^i^t^ either the accw- 

irduum »est. Sine amore jocisque nil est jucundum. O cives, sative or ablative. 
)U8erenda pecunia est primum, Virtus post nummos. Sapien- 26. The interjec- 

issimus philosopjiorum est aliquando deceptus. Heliodorus fuit ^^"^ ^> "^ proh, and 

oiig^ doetissimus Graecorum. Stertinins, octavus sapientium, soi«e others, govern the 

° a - c .' . u 1 • .' -^ *• nominative, accusal 

iTBi Stoicus. Satis est verborum ubique gentium, ergo virtutis. ^^^ ^^ vocative 

dex, Solomon, fuit sapientior omnibus. Pax est melior bello. 27. The interjcc- 

Uicero fuit candidior Caesare. Dux est major miiite. Cortex tions hei and vob, go 

Peruvianus est efficax contra febrim. Fuit Ciceroni mentis ad vem the dative. 

3mnia eapacitas. Sunt ebrii onmes ad unum. In vino est veri- . "^' ^"® conjunc- 

ras. Tu es homo ad unguem factus. Hae sunt herbae ad lu- _ - ^ ' . ' „^j ' _ ' 

° , 1VT 1 ^^^j nequc, and some 

nam messse. Ira est brevis, et ad tempus. Nebula erat ad others connect like 

multum diei. Est mihi fides apud ilium. Adversus infimos cases and modes. 

justida est servanda. Sunt clamosi ab ovo usque ad mala. Est 29. Two, or more 

calor k sole. Fuissent omissiores de i^ Erat Caio Mario in- substantives ^singular, 

Eenuarum artium et liberalium studiorum eontemptor animus. . ".^ ^ ^ 1 ^° " 

? . ^ ,. o 11 . . i_ if X 1 . junction, may have a 

Luaus Cornelius Scylla, patricio genere natus, bello Jugurthino YQj.}y adiective or relar 

(luaestor Marii fuit; vir ingentis animi, cupidus voluptatum, tive plural to agree witli 

led gloriae eupidior ; literis Graecis atque Latinis eruditus, et them, 

nrorum literatorum multum amans. Est mihi nomen Alexan- . ^^' ^^ conjimc- 

iro. Ducitur honori tibi. Id vertitur mihi vitio. Petrus et ^ons ut, quo, kc€t,&c. 

. - . , . /. ,. . govern the subjunctive 

Johannes, qm sunt docti, fuerunt studiosi. wisA. 



IG 



EXERCISES. 



Accuso, to aecute. 

Adumbro, to shade. 

^.difico, to buUd. 

JEstimOf to value. 

Animo, to encourage, 

Appello, to call. 

AptO| to fit. 

Asseveroy to qffirm. 

BellO) to wear. 

Beoy to blett. 

Calco, to tread. 

Castigo, to duutise* 

^Hof to conceal, 

ClaiDo, to cry. 

CogHo, to think. 

Comparo, to compare, 

Considero, to consider 

Contamino, to pollute 

Creo, to create. 

Curo, to care. 

Damno, to condemn* 

Dedaroy to declare, 

Decoro, to adorn. 

Dedico, to dedicate, 

Desolo, to lay watle. 

Donoy to present. 

Educo, to bring up. 

Emendoy to asnend, 

Erro, to wander. 

Exploroy to search, 

Extrico, to disenlanf^ 

Fabrico, to frame. 

Fascino, to bewitch. 

Fatigo, to weary. 

Fegtino, to hasten. 

Flagito, to dun. 

Flo, to 6/011;. 

Frio, to crumble. 

Fugo, to put to flight, 

Guberno, togin>em. 

Gusto, to taste. 

Honoro, to honour. 

Jacto, to boast. 

Immolo, to sacrifice. 

Impero, to command, 

InchOo, to begin. 

Indico, to show. 

Instigo, topusfion. 

Intro, to enter. 

Invito, to invite. 

Jubilo, to shout for joy, 

Juro, to swear. 

Laboro, to labofir. 

Lacero, to /ear. 

Latro, /o 6arA;. 
Lego, /o iem/ on em6a«3f 
LiU>, /o /(u/e. 
Libero, to free. 
Ligo, /o birtd. 
MandO; to command. 
Meneoro, to teU, 
Migro, to remove. 
Muto, to change. 
Narro, to relate. 
Navigo, to sail, 
Nego, to deny. 
Nomino, to name. 
Nodo, to make bare. 
Numero, to count. 
Obsecro, to benech. 
(More, to perfume. 
Onero, to load. 
Opio, fo wish. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

FIRST CONJUGATION, ACTIVE VOICE. 

PRINCIPAL PAJtTS. 

Pres. indie. Pcrf Indie. Supine. Pres. Infin. 

Amo. &m&vi, ftmatum, &in&re. To low, 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, love, do tore, or am loving. 

SinguUtr. Plural. 

1. Amo, / lovCf Amfimns, we /ore, 

2, Amas, thou lovest, ' Amatis, ye love, 
8. Amat, he loves; Amant, t/^ey love. 

Imperfect, loved, did hvtt or was loving. 

1. Amftbam, / lovedf Amabamas, we loved, 

2. Amabat, thou hvedst, AmabatU, ye loved, 

3. Amabat, he loves ; ftnujnint, they loved. 

Perfect, laved, have [o^H or did love. 

1. Am&vi, / have loved, Am&Tlmus, we have loved, 

2. AmaTisti, thou hast loved, Amavistis, ye hare loved, 

8. Amavit, he has loved ; AmaT€runt, v. — §re, they have lam 

Pluperfect, had laved. 

1. Amkv^ram, I had loved, Amareramus, we had loved, 

2 Amaveras, thou hadst loved, . Amaveratis, ye had loved, 

8. Amavcrat, he had loved ; Amaverant, ttiey had loved. 

Future, shaU, or wUl love. 

1. Amftbo, I shall love, AraabYmus, we shall love, 

2. Amabif, thou shall love, Amabitis, ye shall love, 
8. Amabit, he thatl love ; Amabunt, they ^aU love. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

^ Present Tens^, may, or can love. 

1 Amem, / may iove, AmSmus, we may love, 

2. Ames, thou mayest love, Ametis, ye may love, 

8. Amet, he may love ; Ament, they may love. 

Imperfect, migld, would, could, or shotdd love. 

1. Amftrem, I might love, AmarSraus, we might love, 

2. Amares, thou mightest love, Amaretis, ye might tove, 

8. Amaret, he migM love ; Amarent, they might love. . 

Perfect, may have loved, 

1. Am&Terim, I may have loved, AmaverYmus, we may have loved, 

2. AMnBYtxiB,thoumayesthaveloved, Amaveritis, ye may have loved, 
8. AmaTcrit, he may have loved ; Amarerint, they may have foved. 
*^ * Pluperfect, might, would, could, or should have loved. 

1. Am&vissem, / might have loved, Amavissemus, we might have loH 

2. Amayi88e8,/Aoi(fiiigA/e«/Am)e/ore(/,Amavi8setis, ye mig/U have loved, 
8. Amavisset,^ might have loved ; Amavissent, they might have lovee 

Future, shall have loved. 

1. Am&vSro, IshalUwve loved, AmaverYmus, we shall have loved, 

2. Amaveris, thoushalthave loved, Amaveritis, ye shall have loved, 
8. Amaverit, he shaU have loved ; Amaverint, they dwll have loved, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

2. Ama, v. am&to, love thou, Amate v. amatote, love ye, 

8. Am&to, lei him love ; Amanto, let them love. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Pres. Am&re, to love. Pei^Amavisse, to have loved. 
Put. Esse amaturus, to be about to love, Fuisse amaturus, to have bet 
about to love. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Pres. Amans, loving. Put. Amaturus, aboiU to love, 

GERUNDS. 
Aman-dum-di-do-dum-do, loving, of loving, &€. 

SUPINES. 
Former* Am&turo, to /ore. Latter, Amata^ to love, or to be loved 



QVHSTIOBIS 



ON 



ADAM'S LATIN GRAMMAR; 

SIIVIPLJFIED BY ALLEN FISK. 



INTRODUCTION. (Pace 67.) 

is grammar? Latin erammar? 

ire the rudiments or grammar ? 

Lt does grammar treat ? 

it do sentences, words and syll^les conust? 

four things make up the whole subject of 

mar? 

LETTERS. 

s a letter ? What is orthography ? 

lany letters in Latin ? 

Elfish letter is wanting in Latin ? 

lat are letters divided? 

any vowels ? How many consonants? 

s a vowel ? What a conxmant ? 

s a simple sound? What is an articulate 

1? 

lat are consonants divided ? 

a mute so called ? Which are the mutes ? 

i semi-mutes ? What is a semi-vowel ? 

them ; and the Uquids. Why so called ? 

e the mutes and semi-vowels distinguished? 

are ihe double consonants ? 

t is a? made up ? What is said of z ? 

itters are found only in Greek words ? 

ih? 

DIPTHONGS. 

\ a dipthong ? a proper dipthong and an im- 

r? 

the proper; and the improper. 

nproper which vowel is heard ? 

d the ancients write these vowels.^ 

SYLLABLES. 

a syllable ? How many syllables in a word ? 

; the exQi^ption ? Why ? 

I amond|v2/a62e.? a dissyllable? a polysyU 

e y(<^tfected in dividing words ? 

e compound words divided ? 

El lor^ syllable marked ? how a short ? 

A circumflex accent marks a contraction. 
3 175 for the definition of penult^ and ante- 
find page 182 for the accents, and learn tlie 

g 

THREE RULES FOR ACCENTS. 

issyllables have the accents on the first. 

penultimates always have the accent on 
n. 

penulthnates throw the accent on the ante- 
ultiniate. 

WORDS. 

e words ? What is etjrmdlogy ? or analogy ? 

■e the divisions of words? 

ihs figure of words ? What the species ? 

a Simple word ? 

a comi)ound word ? 

a primitive word ? and a derirati^e ? 



The classes of words are called what ? 

FARTS OF SPEECH. 

How many and what are the parts of speech ? 

Which declined? and undeclmed ? 

When is a word said to be declined ? 

What is tennination ? What are accidents ? 

To what 18 declension applied ? and conjugatioo T 

Which part of speech has the English moie tbttl 

tne Latin r 
What is said of the want of the article ? 

NOUN. 

What is a noun ? Is the adjective properly called n 
noun ? or a diflferent part of speech? 

Why have the adjective and noun been complV' 
bended under the same general name ? 

SUBSTANTIVE. 

What is a substantive or noun ? 

The division of names ? Explain each ? 

What is a genus or kind ? 

May a proper name be used for a common ? 

What tnira class of nouns may be added ? 

What is number ? The singular ? plund ? 

Explain the masculine, feminine, neuter and conr" 

mon gender. 
How are relations expressed in English ? 
How in Latin ? 

How is a Latin noun declined ? 
How many genders ? Name them ? 

cases ? What are cases ? Why so caBed f 

numbers ? 

declensions ? How distinguished ? 
What is the termination of the genitive singular ut 
the first declension ? In the second ? In the third T 
The fourth ? And the fifth ? 

GENERAL RULES OF DECLENSION. 

Repeat the first general rule. 

What is the second ? The third ? The fourth ? 

What cases are alike ? In neuters ? In all nouns ? 

What is the remark on Greek nouns ? 

How are the cases of Latin nouns expressed in En^ 

glish? 
What is the sign of the nominative ? genitive ? da-* 

live? accusative? vocative? ablative? 
Of what case is of, the sign ? to ? for ? with ? in or 

by? O? 

GENDER. 

Explain what is meant by gender. 
How do erammarians distinguish genders? 
What is the first general rule for gander ? 
What is the second ? and the third ? 
Repeat the lifit of nouns of the common gender. 
Wokh of these change their termination r 
Whkh nouns that are applied to both sexes are aK 
ways masculine ? and^hx^ViTAvAftt"*. ^xvWwv^ 
' feminine? 



QU£6TI0Nd ON 



What is the first observation? Give'examples. 

What are these called ? 

What is the second observation ? 

What gender are the names of months, winds, rivers 

and mountains ? Why? The exception ? 
What gender are the names of countries, towns, 

trees and ships ? Why ? The first exception ? tlie 

second exception ? the third ? the fourth ? 
What is the third observation ? 
What is meant by doubtful gender? 
V^ iiat IS meant by common gender? 
Doeb common gender apply to any nouns except the 

names of males and females ? 

FIRST DECLENSION. (See page 10.) 

Ifow do nouns of this declension end? 

How many terminations ? What are tliey ? 

How do I.atin nouns end ? What are the tennina- 

tions of the different cases? 
Decline mv^ay without the English. 
Decline mi/5a, a son^, with the English. 
Decline bona, good, in the same manner. 
Decline bona musa, a good song, with the English, 

singular and plural. Write it on the slate. 
How do you say a good song in Latin ? nominative 
and accusative ? 

o/* a good song ? songs ? 

to or for a good song? sojigs / 
O good song ? songs '/ 

with a good song ? songs ? 

What case is of a good song? to a good song ? withy 

in, or 6y, a good song? 
Write on the slate the declension of the following 
words : 

air a curay black care. (Sec page 11.) 
magna siellay a great star. 
pretiosa gemmoy a precious jewel. 
Willi the English. 
1 1 ow do you say, with black cares ? O great stars ? 
of precious jewels ? 

EXCEPTIONS. 

1. What nouns are miisculine ? Which nrutei? 

2. What are tlie forms of the old genitive ? 

The obiioletc (icclenslon of these nouns was pro- 
bably in this form : 

Jlncicntform. JStodemformy contracted. 

Norn. Aula, Aula, 

(ten. Aulais, Aul&s, Aulai, Aulu*, 

Dat. Aului, Aulai or AuliP, 

Aulucni, Aulam, 

Aula, Aula, 

Aulac, Aula, 

Plural. 
Kom. Aulacs, Aulae, Aulir, 

Gen. Aulacum, for euphony, Aularum, 
Dat. Aulaibus, Aulabus or AuKus 

Ace. Aulaeri, contracted Aulas, &c. 

W^hat does a circumflex accent mark? (Tjine 11, 
page 191.) 

What illustration is here found ? Ans. Gen. Aulas, 
VikefamiliaSy and avlh. For what is aulA con- 
tracted. Ans. Vox avl&e. What other proof of 
tliis old form remains? Ans. The dative and 
ablative plural of the nouns mentioned in tlie 
third exception ? What are those nouns? How 
declined .' Why so declined ? How many nouns 
are mentioned in the third exception ? What 
others may be added ? ^ns. Socia and Do- 
mina. Write the declension o(filia, daughter, in 
full. 

Bechne ybrmosa, beautiful, like musa. Decline ^br- 
mosajiliay with the English. 

How do you say in Latin, a beautiful daughter ? of 
a beautiful daughter ? to a beautiful daughter ? 

How do you say, with or to beaviiful daughters? 
Which terminations of the first declension are 



Greek? What gender? Decline ^'/i£m. Has it 
any plural? "\^ynot? (4th (jreneral rule.) How 
does the accusative vary? Decline Ossa. Where 
is Ossa ? How is Anchises declined ? Why does 
it want the plural? Decline Penelope. How 
many syllables has Pe-nel'o-pe ? Why ? (Ans. 2d 
(jucstion under s>'llables.) 
IIow are Greek nouns in es and e changed ? Give 
examples. How is the genitive plural contracted? 
What marks a contraction ? 
N. B. A Geographical Exercise, on the names 
mentioned in tiie Grammar may be introduced 
with advantage. 

SECOND DECLENSION. (Page 10.) 

How do nouns of this declension end ? 

How many terminations ? Repeat them. 

How many of these are Latin terminations ? 

How many Greek ? Write an example of each. 

Wliat is the rule forgiender? 

What is the termination of the genitive ? dat and 
abl. ? ace. ? vocative ? How many simple nouns 
in ir? and vr? What nouns lose e in the geni- 
tive? W^hatisthe example? Distinguish ^er, bark, 
firom liber y firee, by tlie declension ; by the quan- 
tity. How is tthiery a book, pronounced ? Ans. 
short t. IIow is Zl6er, free, pronounced? Ans. 
long t. What examples in us and um are given ? 
How are tliey declined ? Write thon. Wnte 6o- 
7tU6 puer, with the Englisli in full. 

What is the nominative case ? the genitive ? and the 
oilier cases ? 

Wiiat is the English of bonus puer? 

What is the Latin of a good boy? and so on through, 
the cases in Latin and English. .' 

Decline and write bonum donum, pulcher Uber^ bd 
nigiius gencry doctus vir, a learned man. f • 

EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. 
What nouns Hre femhiine ? To those what is add( 
Why ? Other names of jewels and plants are wf 
gender ? What nouns are either masculine or 
niininc? What nouns arc neuter? Which one 
masculine or neuter ? I 

EXC EPTION S IN DECLENSION. 

What is the nilc for the vocative of proper names 
in iu.Sy w'hhfh'us and genius ? Decline JDeus. 

What is the vocative of Deu^? and of mens? 

I low do other nouns in ins make the vocative f 

I low (]n the poets make the vocative of noun's in us? 

Does this occur in prose ? Explain the contraction 
of nouns in the genitive singular ? and plural ? 

GREEK NOUNS. 

AVhat terminations of the second declension are 
CJrcek, and how are they changed? What terini- 
nations are contracted ? ^ ** 

How arc nouns in os declined ? u 

How do some neuters make the genitive plural? 

TinRD DECLENSION. 

IIow many final letters in the tennination of nouns 
of this declension.^ How many peculiar jo this 
(leclonsion ? Name thorn. Which are common to 
other declensions ? Which are Greek ? 1 

Wh.at are the terminations of the cases? 

How aro nouns of this declension known ? 

Decline the examples given on the 10th page. 

What case is sermonis? Why ? What case is ser- 
mani ? Can you write this declension with the 
English ? How do you say loith speeches in Latin ? 
of head^ ? to journeys ? in seats ? on rocks ? toiff^ 
stones? Why does iter make iiineris in the geni- 
tive ? Ans. Because contracted from itiner. 

Decline lenis sermo, a mild speech. Write it. 

Decline yc?i« ifcr, a happy journey. Write it. 



ADAM'S LATIN GKAMMAK. 



RULES FOB THE GENDER AND THE GENITIVE. 

What is the first rule for the gender ? for the geui- 
tive ? 

What is the second rule ? First exception of nouns 
in io / Without a body i With a body ? 

Second exception of nouns in do and go ? Which 
are feminine ? Which masculine ? \Vhat gender is 
cuyido? 

What is tbe third exception ? Decline the irregular 
nouni mentioned. What are the obsolete nonii- 
natives? Write the declension of turho^ a whirl- 
wind, and Turho^ the name of a man. 

What is the fourth exception .' Write the declension 
of DHo^ botli wavs. 

N. B. All nouns dnould be declined hackward as 
well ZA forward. 

What is the third rule ? Write the eight exceptions. 

What is said of D? 

The fourth rule ? Recite the four exceptions. 

The fifth rule "i How many nouns e.Kceuted .' 

The sixth rule I The first exception ? What gender 
is arbor ? What is the distinction between ivi' 
6er, a tree and a fruit } decline both. 

Wiuit is the second exception? 

What is said of nouns mUr? Decline Jupiter. 

What is the gander of linier^ a boat.' 

What is the seventh rule ? The first exception ? 

Recite the note. What is tlie second exception ? 

What is the eighth rule } The first exception ? The 
second exception ? The third exception .' 

Decline Darts and AchiUes, names of men. 

What is the ninth rule ? The first exception ? 

Explain the di£Eerence between Latin and Greek 
nouns inms7 

What is the second exception? 

IVhat gander is semis ? (?ee also note under rule 7.) 

How many doubtfuls under the ^ird exception ? 

What is the fourth exception? And the fifih? 

'What is the eleventh rule ? The first exception ? 
The second exception ? The third exception ? 

Decline glomuSf Fenus, velus, (Edijnu, TrupezuSf 
fripui. 

What is the twelfth rule ? 

Thirteenth rule ? Repeat all the nouns in aes and 
aus. 

What are nouns in aua? How declined ? 

What is the fourteenth rule ? and the five excep- 
tions? 

What is tbe fifteenth rule ? 

What is the sixteenth rule ? 

What gender are polysyllables in ex and ax ? 

What nouns are added ? What excepted ? 

What is the second exception ? The third ? 

Repeat the fourth exception, and decline and write 
uie words. 

DATIVE SINGULAR. 

How did the dative angular formerly end ? 
Examples. 

ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. 

What nouns have un 9 What proper names of c\r 
ties? of rivers? of Gods? How do these some- 
times rosdie Has accusative ? 

What nouns have em or im ? 

How do Greek nouns form the accusative ? 

Repeat and write the five specifications. 

ABLATIVE SINGULAB. 
What nouns have t ui the ablative ? What y or ye ? 

NOMINATIVB PLUBAL. 
When does the nominative plural end mes? in is ? 
in a/ 

GENITIVE PLUBAL. 
When do nouns make rum in the genitive plural, and 



wheni/m^ Monosyllables inujr rolysyllables t* 
Nouns in es and i«, not increasing the genitive T 
Nouns ending in two consonauts ? which five ex- 
cepted ? 

What is tlic third exception ? Write the declension 
of hosy and contract it. Greek nouns? Which 
liave the eenitive m on ? 

Nouns which want the singular? Names of feasts? 

How do tlie poets contract this case ? How lenj^ 
en? 

DATIVE PLURAL. 

How do Greek nouns in a form the dative plural ? 

from what nominative ? 
How do the poets form the dative plural ? 

ACCUSATIVE PLl'RAL. 

How do nouns which have turn in the genitive form 

the accusative plural ? 
If the accusative singular ends in a,hov/ is the plu 

ral? 
Decline and write Greek nouns through all cases. 

FOURTH DECLENSION* 

How do nouns of the fourth declension end ? 

Wliich are masculine ? Which neuter, and wbicb 
indeclinable ? What are the terminations of the 
dificrent cases ? 

How do you say of a chariot? to a cJiariot? ioil/» 
a horn? to horns? with chariots? of a horn? 

What is the English of cornmim? curribus? cur- 
rus? currus? cornua? comibus? comu? 

What nouns in us are feminine ? Which vary ii: 
sender ? and which in declension ? 

What declension is Capricomus? and the cora' 
pounds of manus ? 

Dcclhie domuSf a house, wiili the Kiiglisii. 

What gender? dccluie //uZc/tra, beautiful, witli do- 
mus. How do you say, a beavtiful house ?ofa 
beautiful house? to a beautiftil house ? with heau^ 
ii^ul houses? of beautiful houses? What is die 
Lnglish of puldiras domus ? pulchris domibus ? 

W^hat is the distinction between domus and domi? 

What nouns make ubus in the dative, and ablative 
plural ? and what tV'if.s ? 

How is Jestts declined ? write it. 

To which declcnsinii did tlic nuiins of tliis declen- 
sion anciently belong ? Write the old fonn. 

W'liat cases are contracted ? How is die genitive in 
some writers ? and the dative ? and the genitive 
plural ? 

FIFTH DECLENSION. 

How do nouns of the fifth declension end ." NVliui 
gender? Decline rM, a thing. And Ao/m, godd 
And bona res^ a good thing, llow do you say \i \i\- 
good things? 

What nouns arc excepted in the gender f How d 
the poets make the genitive ? and tlic dative ? 

How many nouns of the fifth declension ? 

To which declension did tliey formerly Ijclong ? 

What cases are often wanting ? How do llicse nrtun 
end ? How many in es ? Which are they ? How 
many in tM, not of this declension ? Name the(n< 

Write tbe declension of quies and requies. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS. 
How many classes of irregular nouns ? 

VARIABLE NOUNS. 

How do nouns vary? What ara heterogeneous 
nouns .^ 

Repeat those which are masculino in the singular, 
and neuter in the pluiaL What are these sup- 
posed to be ? What is understood ? 

What is the second division of the hen»ro;;cneoii> 
nouns? 



UUEBTiUAd ON 



What is the third? and the fourthf and the fifth ? 

and the sixth ? 
Repeat the nouns under each division. What are 

heteroclites ? Repeat theml 

DEFECTIVE NOUNS. 

How many ways are nouns defective ? 

Repeat the six waysi with exampfee^ of npuns de- 
Mctive in cases. 

Repeat the eight wajr^ with examples, of nouns de- 
lective in number. What means cculrwii? Of 
what noun is it the smgular f and literiB ? 

REDUNDANT NOUNS. 
Repeat the eight ways, with enunpleiv of redund- 
ant nouns. 

DIVISION OF NOUNS, fcc. 
What is a collective noun ? a patronymic \ 
How do names of men end ? and of women ? 
What is a patrial or gentile noun .' 
What are patrials to be considered ? 
What is an abstract noun ? What are concretes ? 
How do abstracts end ? What is said of theni ? 
What is a diminutive? Are more tlian one derived 

fipom the same primitive ? Examples. 
How do they end? Of whatjgender ? 
What is an amplificative ? How do they end ? 
What is a verbal noun ? What is said of them ? 
How do they end ? 

ADJECTIVES. 

What is an adjective ? Ans. A word which quali- 
fies or specifies a noun. 

Can an aojective make fiill sense by itself? 

How are adjectives varied ? 

Of what declension are they ? What exception ? 

What are the terminations of the genders? and 
cases ? and numbers ? Decline oontis and ieMT. 

What compounds have this form ? What letter is 
often dropped ? Give the example. What has 
dtxier? 

What adjectives have the genitive in tu5, and da- 
tire in t ? What are these adjectives, except to« 
fiM, called ? How anciently declined ? How is 
an adjective properly declined ? How do we say 
a rood fnan m Latin ? a good woman? a good 
thvitg? 

What words are here understood ? 

Of how many terminations arc adjectives of Uie 
third declension ? 

Decline an adjective of one termination ? of two 
terminations ? of three terminations? 

Repeat the two rules. 

Exception 1. Wliat adjectives have e in the abla- 
iative ? 

Exception 2. What others and what parts wanting? 

What is the third exception ? and the fourth ? 
Remarks. — What is the first? second? third? 
fourth ? fifth ? sixth ? seventh ? eighth ? ninth ? 

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

How many classes ? What are they called ? 

Repeat the cardinal ? Which want the singular ? 

Wnen is unus used in the plural ? 

Decline duo and ires. Decline ambo. 

Which cardinal numbers are indeclinable ? 

Which are declined ? How is miUe used ? 

When used as a substantive, how declined ? 

When used as an adjective how ? to express more 
than one thousand? 

What are the ordinal numbers ? Repeat them. 

The distributive ? and the numeral adverbs ? 

What are the multiplicative numbers ? 

What are the interrogative words? Which are in- 
declinable ? 

To tliese numerals what may be added ? 



COM?ARIfiO.>'. 

What does comparison of adjectives express . 

What adjectives are compared ? How many de- 
grees of comparison ? Explain each. 

How is the comparative fixmed ? The sopedativa ? 
If the positive ends in tr? Of whatdeelenflion is 
the comparative? and the supeitetive? 

IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE COMPARISON. 
Compare Aoium, moAa, magnus^ parouB^mdhn, 
For what is mi^ contracted ? An& .Va(gn)for. 

AndmommiM/ Ans. .Wwmtnmia. 
Repeat and compare those that have tbrnn. 
Compare those that liave the superiatiTe irrogidar. 
Compare tha compounds in diieKf, Ac 
Compare nc^uom. 
Are aU adjectives comytia d tint are eapaUa of 

Imving tneir signifiBation increased ? 
Which want the MMWfa ? Which the oaoBMrative ? 

Which the supailativa? 
Supply the superlative of /MMiM or flMnemc Of 



What other adjeetives want tlie superlative ? 

What are only comparative ? 

yfhax adiectivee not compared at all ? 

How is tne delect supplied ? 

Is this form used for regular adjectives? 

PRONOUN. 

V^at is a nnmoun ? 

WiuLt do they serve to point out ? Tliey serve what 
else? Simple pronouns imw many? Substantives 
how many? Adjectives liow many? 

What part of ero is wanting? How is mihi oon- 
tracted? Write it For what are noffnon and 
vestrum contracted ? 

What is the diffiuence in the use of nostrum vef- 
trum and nostrivestri? 

How are the Enalish pronouns hefShs, it, eiqprMsed 
in Latin ? Distmguish iUe, isU, and Ate, and is. 

What do ills and iMe unply ? 

To what is ipse joined, and what force has it ? De- 
cline it. 

What are the other pronouns? How declined? 

How are nostras, vestras, and cujas, declined ? 

Distinguish c^jus genitive, cujas, and cujus, nomi- 
native. 

What does metis make ui the vocative ? 

What has out in the ablative ? What is lemarlia- 
ble? 

Explain the six classes of pronouns. 

COBfPOUND PRONOUNS 

In how many ways are pronouns compounded ? 

Of what is idem compounded ? How declined ? 

What pronouns are most firequeutly compounded ? 

How is quis placed in composition r 

How is otit ? Decline the first class. Decline gvis- 
quis. What part of it is wanting ? What is said 
of quisqtumi? What is said of the compound of 
qtUs in which guis is pUuced last ? How do they 
make the feminine^ Which are read separately ? 
Decline the second class. 

What compounds have quis in the middle ? 

What axe tne compounds of qui ? Decline them. 

What have these compounds in the dative plural? 

What has quis in comic writers ? How is rnddam 
declined? Distinguii^ quod and quid, which 
are reckoned substantives, and why ? 

VERB. 

What is a verb ? Why called ihs word by way of 
eminence ? How may a verb be distinguished ? 

Do we find the same word used as different parts of 
speech ? How many classes of verbs with respect 
to their signification ? Why f 

What is an active verb? A paesivft ' A noiMcv'* 



ADAM'S LATL\ GRAMMAR 



What IS a tran^tive verb ? 

Are any verbs used in two senses ? 

What are substantive verbs f 

What is a participle ? What a gerund ? supine? 

How is a verb declined ? How many voices ? modes ? 

tenses? numbers? persons? Desine each. 
When is a verb said to be eonjugated ? 

CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 

How many conniptions ? How numbered ? How 
distingMiibedr Exception ? 

How are die different conJMgations likewise distin- 
guished ? 

Recite the terminations of each mode and tense, ac- 
tive and passive. 

What is the observation on the imperative mode ? 

Which tenses in the passive voice are compounded ? 

Are the personal pronouns in Latin usually underw 
stood? Why? 

What howevefi should the lanniar be accustomed 

to do? 
WliQt is the remark on the second person angular ? 

FORMATION OF VERBS. 
!Tow many piincipalparts? Name them. 
Repeat the verses. Exemplify. 
What other way of forming ? 
When is a verb commonly said to be coojusated ? 
AVhat is the theme ? What are the radical letters ? 
Wliat terminations? Exemplify. 

SIGNIFICATION OF THE TENSES. 

Which tenses express continuance of action ? 

Which express complete action? 

How is past tim9. expressed in the pasuve ? Exam- 
ples. 

How is the verb sum employed ? 

When do we chiefly us» this form ? 

What is the first observation ? the second ? third ? 
fourth? fifth? sucth? 

Exemplify the tenses of the infinitive mood.. 
'Of what 18 aeriptum iri made up ? 

How is the future infinitive sometimes expressed ? 

What is the seventh observation ? 

What is the note? 

FORMATION OF THE PRETERITE AND SUPINE. 

What is the first general rule ? 
First exception ? Second exception ? 
Second general rule ? 

SPECIAL RULES. 
First ConjtLgatum, 
What is the rule for the preterite and supine ? 
Repeat the five exceptions ? 

Stcond ConJttgaHon, 

What is the rule? 

How neuter verbs ? 

Which neuters regularly conjugated ? 

Which active want the supine ? 

Repeat the seven exceptions. 

TTUrd Conjugation. 

What is the rule for verbs in to ? 

When do the compounds of Jacio retain the a? 

When do they change it into i ? 

How are the former conjugated ? and how tne lat- 
ter? 

Which compounds of facto are of the first conjuga- 
tion? 

Repeat the other verbs mentioned under tliis termi- 
nation. 

How are verbs in uo conjugated ? 

Repeat the two exceptions. 

Repeat the rules for verbs in 60, with the two ex- 
reptjons. 



Repeat the rule for each termination, with the ex- 
ceptions. 
How are verbs of tlie fourth conjugation conjugated ? 
Repeat tiie six exceptions. 

DEPONENT AND COMMON VERBS. 

What is a deponent verb ? A common verb ? 
What were deponent verbs of old ? Why so called ? 
How do they form the perfect participle ? 
Conjugate IcBior. Dechue it with the English. 
Conjugate and decline mercor, amplecior and meri' 

Hot. 
Are there any exceptions in the first conjugation ? 
Conjugate tlie exceptions in the second coniug^tion. 

And in the tliird conjugation. And in the founii 

conjugation. 
What are irregular verbs ? 
How many ? Repeat them. 
Of what are nolo and mah compounds ? 

How do you conjugate the compounds of sum ? 

How is prosunif to do good, conjugated ? 

Repeat tlie whole, with the English. 

Of what is prosum compounded ? 

Decline it in fuU with the English, / can and / am 
able. 

Decline eo with the Enelish. 

How are the compounds of eo conjugated ? 

What is said of tne perfect? 

Conjugate veneo. Of what is it compounded ? 

What IS said of ambio ? How is eo often rcndcrc*' ? 

How is it used in the passive? How otherwibe 
used ? 

How are queo and nequeo conjugated ? 

What peuts of them are wantmg ? 

Coniugate, decline with the English, and write the 
following verbs : VolOj nolo^ nuUoyferOjferor^ and 
the compounds offero. 

How do most verbs become irregular ? (1st obs.) 

For what is noh contracted ? nudOyferSfferris? 

Repeat the second observation. 

Conju^te, decline, and write Jio. Is it active or 
passive ? Of what verb is it the passive ? Al- 
ways ? What is the distinction ? What do we 
find? 

What verbs are added to irregulars ? 

Repeat and coiyugate the neuter passive verbs with 
conJidOf diffiao, moereo. 

To these what may be referred ? Repeat the tliree. 

DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

What verbs are called defective ? Preteritive verbs ? 

Conjugate them. Instead ofodi we say what ? To 

these we add what ? Repeat the sentenceyuro, to 

be mad, &,c. 
What are the principal defective verbs ? Decline 

them. What is the note ? 
Explain the contractions of siSy suUiSfSodeSt capsis. 
To what is sodes equivalent ? 

IMPERSONAL VERBS, 

When is a verb cedled impersonal ? 

What have they before them in English. Repeat 

the four, in the active and passive. 
Are they used in the imperative ? 
What part is used instead ? 
Repeat the five observations. 

REDUNDANT VERBS. 

What verbs are called redundant ? 

Conjugate, decline, and write lavo. Of what conju- 
gation is it? 

Repeat the five which are of the second and tUrd. 
Repeat those which are of the third and fourth. 

What verb is of the second and fiwrth ? _. . 

Conjugate, decline, and write JEcfe. With what do 
several of its parts agree ? 



UUESTIuNS 0.N 



Wbat verbs agree in the present, but are differently 

coniugated ? 
Which have a different quantity ? 
Which verbs agree in the preterite ? 
Which verbs agree in the supine f 
Hepeat the seven particulars of the obsolete conju- 

tion. 

DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION OP VERBS. 

From what are verbs derived ? 

What are denominative verbs f What imitative ? 

Give examples. 

Name the tnree kinds of verbs derived from other 
verbs? 

What do frequentative verbs express ? Of what con- 
jugation are they f How formed ? 

Have deponent verbs frequentatives ? 

Crive the examples of irequentatives irregularly 
formed? 

Give examples of frequentatives formed from other 
frequentatives. 

What is the remark on frequentatives ? 

What are inceptive verbs ? How formed from verbs ? 
How from nouns ? Of what kind are they ? What 
conjugation ? What do they want ? 

What are desiderative verbs r How formed ? Of 
what conjugation ? What parts are wanting ? 

What arc aiminutive verbs ? What intensive ? 

Name the four thhigs with which verbs are com- 
pounded ? What changes are made ? 

PARTICIPLE. 

What is a participle ? "Why so called ? 

How are participles declined ? 

What do participles in dus import ? 

How many participles have Latin verbs ? 

What participles have not the Latins ? 

How is this defect supplied ? 

How many participles have neuter verbs ? 

^ave some neuter verbs paiticiples of the perfect 
tense ? 

What is the remark on neuter passive verbs ? 

What is said of atisus? 

How many participles have deponent and common 
verbs? Give examples. 

What is the remark on perfect participles of depo? 
nent verbs? 

What is the remark oiiparticiples compounded with 
in signifying not ? Explain the double sense and 
derivation of tncensiM, inJectuSf invisus, and in- 
dictus. 

When do participles become adjectives? Examples. 

May participles be used as nouns? What is under- 
stood ? 

What is said of many words in aljis^ ituSf uius ? 

Explain verbal adjectives m bundus. How formed ? 

)Vhat dp they denote ? 

GERUNDS AND SUPINES. 

What are gerunds ? How declined ? What case 
wantmg? What is the remark on the gerunds? 
Give examples. What change of letters ? 

Supines have what signification ? How may they 
be applied ? What are their terminations ? 

^n what sense are the supines used ? 

ADVERBS. 

What is an adverb? How many classes? 

How is the first class divided ? How many fold are 
adverbs of place ? Explain each, with examples. 

Pow many fold are advprbs of time ? Explain each, 
with examples ? 

How is the second class of adverbs divided ? 

Wiiat do those called absolute denote ? 

E^lain the eleven kinds with examples. 

What do those adverbs which are called compara- 
tive denote ? 



Explain tlie seven kinds will: cxuu^.plcs. 

DERIVATION, COMPARISON AND COMrOtfJTIO.V 
OP ADVERBS. 

From what are adverbs derived first ? 

How do they end ? 

From what second ? What is said of these ? 

What is the termination of those derived ftom the 

first and second declensions ? and firom the tfaitd ? 
How is the neuter of adjectives taken ? What is 

often understood ? From what third ? Examples. 

From what fourth ? Examples. W^at are £m6 

last? From what fifth ? 
What adverbs are compared ? 
How does the positive end ? and the coropaFBtive f 

and the superlative? What is the maaxk ? 
How are adverbs compounded? 
Repeat the four observations. 

PREPOSITION. 

What is a preposition ? 

How many govern the accusative ? How many the 

ablative ? Repeat them, with the English. Write 

them in order. 
How many govern either case? Why are prepo* 

sitions so called ? Which are put after ? 
How arc prepositions compounoed ? What signifi- 

cation do they retain ? What four exceptions? 
WHiat are the inseparable prepositions ? 
What do they signify? Exemplify. 

INTERJECTION. 

What is an interjection ? What sounds ? 
What do ihcy express ? 
Exemplify the tlurtcen different kinds? 
What are the remarks ? 

CONJUNCTION. 

What is a conjunction ? What is its use? 

How many classes ? Repeat them, with the exam* 
aiuples given. 

Are tne sau)e words ever used as both adverbs and 
conjunctions ? Give examples. 

What conjunctions stand first in a sentence ? What 
second ? 

Whicii may be used indifferently? 

Wliat was the division ? 

Wliich are the enclitics ? Why so called ; 

Repeat the example from Horace. 

When the enclitics are placed after a short sylla- 
ble, do tliey affect pronunciation ? 

Repeat the example Irom Ovid. 

SENTENCES. 

What is a sentence ? 

What is syntax ? What is tlie division of syntax? 

Define concord. Define government. 
Repeat the nine general principles of syntax. 
What is the first, second ? &,c. 
What is the division of sentences? Define each. 
What is tliere in a simple sentence ? 
What is the subject ? What is the attribute ? Give 

the examples. 

COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

Of what K a compound sentence made up ? 

What is it called ? What is a period ? 

What are members and clauses ? 

Repeat the first observation. 

Repeat the second observation. 

By what means are sentences compounded r Give 

the example. 
How many are the concords? What is the first? 

What is the second ? The third ? The fourth i 
Repeat the first concord. 

What is the first rule ? Repeat all the examples. 
To what else does this rule apnlv? 



ADAMS L AI' I \ (J U A M M A U. 



J the first observation ? The second ? The 
? The fourth? 

jbstantiTe ever understood ? What then is 
ijective? Always? 

1 adjective ever supply the place of a sub- 
ive ? 

substantive ever supply the place of an ad- 
e? 

iibstantive is usually understood after the ad- 
es primus J meditis? &c. 
he adjective or substantive to be placed first 
tin ? 

s the substantive elegantly put first ? 
s the second concord ? 
the second rule, with all the examples, 
t person are ego and tu>s? tu and vos? ilUy 
Jl other words ? 

s the nominative of the first and second per- 
mitted ? When ezpresaed ? 
jppUes the place of the nominative ? 
5 sometimes added ? Why ? 
oes the infinitive often supply ? 
hat may a collective noun be joined ? 
I collective noun is joined with a singular 
what does it express ? And when joined 
1 plural ? 

t gender will be the plural adjectives when 
1 to collective nouns r 
) the third concord ? 
the third rule cum omnibus exemphs. 
the fourth rule. 

the ten observations cum omnibiu exempUs. 
e relative always have an antecedent ? 
len may it be considered ? 
he relative is placed between two substan- 
of different genders? 

he relative comes after two words of diffcr- 
3rsons ? 

the antecedent implied ? 
jlativc ever omitted ? 

e case of the relative ever depend on the an- 
ent? 

5 said of the adjective pronouns ? 
i said of interrogative and indefinite adjcc- 

} remarked of the translation of the relative ? 

it construed ? 

5 subjoined to the construction of the rela- 

. case is the answer ? Examples. 

5 the meaning of the contraction sc? Ans. 

't for scire licet, you may know or under- 

• 

the fifth rule, with all the examples, 
oes this imply ? 

erbs most frequently have the same case af- 
ein as before them r First ? Second ? 
ases only are placed after these verbs ? 
hese verbs are placed between two nomina- 
with which do they agree ? 
J the remark concerning the infinitive mood 
he verb h'cet ? 

the poetic licences which are not to be used 
)se. 

; the fourth concord \ 
oes the sixth rule regard ? 
the sixth rule, with the examples. 
5 the seventh rule, and what does it regard ? 
2latior> is expressed by the genitive ? 
it elegantly turned ? 

nay the substantive be taken in an active 
passive sense ? 
; the third observation ? 
ative ever used for the genitive ? 
( the fifth observation ? 
the genitive often rendered in English ? 



How are substantive pronouns governed ? 

And how adjective pronouns ? 

When a passive sense is expressed what do we ua« .^ 

What have the jjossessives m«iw, fuiw, &c. after 
them in the genitive ? 

When are the reciprocals wt and sums used? 

The eighth rule ? The examples ? 

How is the ablative here epvern^ ? 

Repeat the phrases in wnich the genitive only is 
used ; and those in which the ablative oiJy is 
used ; and those in which both are used. 

Which occurs more fireouentl}^ in prose ? 

Repeat the fi)ur ways or phrasii^ the same sense of 
the words vir prcestans internum. 

Describe the Greek construction. What is its name ? 
What is understood? Give examples. 

What does the ninth rule regard ? 

Repeat the ninth rule, with the examples. 

Is this manner of expression elegant ? 

What do adjectives which thus govern the genitive 
generally signify ? 

What are plus and quid thought to be ? 

What do nihil and the neuter pronouns govern? 
and what not ? 

What do plural adjectives of the neuter gender gov- 
ern ? 

What is the general remark ? 

Wliat is the tenth rule ? Examples? 

What are opus and usus ? 

What is understood to govern the ablative ? 

Do they ever govern the genitive ? 

Is opusnistt used as an eCdjective ? 

How is it elegantly used ? 

With what is opus joined, and how is it often 
placed ? 

GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

What does the ninth rule regard ? 

What is the ninth rule ? Examples. 

Repeat the five classes of adjectives which govern 

the genitive ? Wiiat other adjectives are added ? 
How are verbals in ns used ? 
What is the difference between pattens algoris and 

ajgorem ? 
Do any of these vary their construction ? 
How is the genitive governed ? Do these adjectives 

contain the force of substantives? 
Twelfth rule ? Examples ? 
What is the meaning of partitives ? 
To these add what ? 
Partitives agree in gender with what ? 
How is the genitive here governed ? 
How are partitives otherwise construed? 
What case in the singular do partitives govern ? 
Wlien are comparitives used ? When superlatives ? 
What words are applied to two ? What to three or 

more ? 
What is the second case governed by adjectives ? 
What does the thirteenth rule regard ? 
What is the thirteenth rule ? Examples. 
How otherwise may this rule be expressed ? 
Repeat the nine classes of adjectives which belong 

to this rule. What is added ? 
What do verbals in hxlis and dus govern ? 
Do any passive participles govern the dative ? 
How are verbals in dus often construed ? How per- 
fect participles ; 
Ts the dative properly governed by adjectives ? 
Have substantives ever a dative after them ? 
What adjectives govern the dative or the genitive ? 
What adjectives govern both cases ? 
wiiat do adjectives of usefulness or fitness govern ? 
Have any or them a double construction ? 
Repeat the three ways in which adjectives signiQr- 

ing affections of the mind are construed ? 
How is audiens construed ? 



8 



(ii i:.-:tic;.\.^ «.\ 



TIow arc ii'ijcclivcs, si^nifyiug motion or tendency 

to a thiiigf construe! i? 
AVhat do proprior and proximus govern ? 
What does idem govern ? What in prose ? What 
would be improper? What do we likewise say? 
What is the third case governed by adjectives ? 
Tlie fourteenth rule ? Examples. 
How is this ablative governed ? 
What other case do dignus^ ineUgmu, &c. govern ? 
What is said oimacU? 
What does the fifteenth rule regard ? 
What is the fifteenth rule ? Examples. 
Which are construed with the genitive only? 
Which with the dative only ? 
Which with the genitive more frequently ? 
Which with the dative more frequently ? 
Which with both promiscuously ? 
Wliich with a preposition ? 

Government of the Verb Sum. 
Wiiat is the sixteenth rule? Examples. 
Wiiat words arc excepted? Repeat the three obser- 
vations. 
I'he seventeenth rule ? Examples. 
This is more frequently used than what other con- 
struction ? 
Tlic oightcenth rule. Example. 
What other verbs have two datives after them ? 
What arc the three observations ? 
The nineteenth rule ? Examples. 
Tlie twentieth rule ? Examples. 
What is the sign of the ablative in English ? 
What docs the positive with mcigia govern ? 
How is the ablative here governed ? 
How otherwise may the comparative be cgnstrucd ? 
Wiien is the conjunction quam elegantly sup- 
pressed ? 
flow is it elegantly placed ? 
For what is nihil elegantly used? 
Is the comparative ever repeated? 
Uow is the relation of sameness or equality ex- 
pressed ? 
fn wliatcasc is the defect or excess of measure put? 
Wliat does the twenty-first rule regard ? 
Tiie twenty-first rule ? Examples. 
What do adverbs qualify ? Are they also joined to 

nouns ? 
What is remarked of the position of the adverb ? 
To what are two negatives equivalent ? 
What chiefly deserves attention m adverbs ? 
Which are joined to the positive ? Which to the 

.comparative ? 
To what is quam joined ? To what isyaci^ joined ? 
To what is longe joined ? With what mood is cum 
joined? than? DumaoddoneCffotusquedum? 
Quoad for quamdiu^ and quoad until ? 
Postquam ot 2*osi€aquam ? Antequam ? 
Quasi, ecu? &c. 
Utinamy o 5i» ui ? 
Quin for cur non ? 

WTiat does the twenty- second rule regard ? 
Repeat the twenty-second rule ? Examples. 
Repeat the adverbs of timie that govern the geni- 
tive. 
Repeat the adverbs of place that govern the geni- 
tive, and of quAtntity. 
What is said of instar and ergo? 
Wh^are these adjectives thought to govern the gen- 
itive ? 
What is remarked of pridie ? And what of en and 

ecct ? 
In all these examples what is understood ? 
What do derivative adverbs gpvem ? Give the ex- 
amples. 
What does the twenty-third rule regard ? 
Eepeat the rule, including all the prepo9itions which 
HOyem this case. 



Repeat the examples under each pre])osition, with 

tne English. 
What is Uie Engli^ of od asira? 
How do you say in Latin, to the gtars ? d&c. &c. 
Write the examples. 
Is ad ever used ftdverfoially ? 
What is the English of ajntd 7 ante? Slc. 
What are added to piepoations govemiog tbe aceiH 

sative ? 
What is the twenty-fourth rule ? 
Repeat all the prepositions, with the Eogliih ; and 

the examples ? 
What is the English of a poire? 
How do you say in Latin, yrom a /other 7 
What is the Ei^ish of absque? £c 
Which preposition is placeo after Uie noun ? Ana 
Tenus. Any other? Ans. Sooietiraet Gian, and 
then it is joined to the word which it governs? 
Does iemu ever govern any other can ? 
What is added to preposttioDS goveming the abla> 

tive? 
What is the twenty-fifth rule ? 
Distinguish m governing the accusative and the ab» 

lative ? Examples. 
What is the English of sub ? super ? 
When are prepositions reckoned adverbs? Exam- 
ples. 
In these cases, what is Implied^ 
What other adverbs are coostmed with the accusa 

tive? 
Distinguish a and e, ab and ex. Examples. 
Are prepositions ever understood ? Is the wordgor* 

frnea ever understood ? Examples of both. 
When is the latter more frequendy the case ? 
The twenty-sixth rule ? Esuunples. 
How do you say, O good man ? j&c. 
The twenty-seventh rule ? Examptei. 
How do you say ah mi? Slc 
Which interjections are joined with the vocative? 
Which with the accusative? 
What is the remark on interjections ? 
What is understood in heumemiserum? 
The twenty-eighth rule ? Examples, with the En 

glish. 
What is the first observation ? The second ? Tbi 

tliird ? 
The twenty-ninth rule? Examples. 
If the substantives are of different persons ? genders? 
To what is this applicable ? 
If the substantives signify things without life ? 
What is the renua ? 

What is the fourth observation ? and the fifth ? 
What is remarked after the fifth observation ? 
What is the figure eyllepsia? See page 166. 
The thirtieth rule ? Examples with Enelish. 
What is the remark on interrogative!? And qui? 
What is the note ? 
When have etsi, tamdsi, &c. the indicative, wA 

when the subjunctive mood ? £ 

What is said of'^correspondent conjunctions^' 
When is ut elegantly omitted ? 
How are vi and quod distinguished ? 
When is ut taken in a negative sense ? 
When is ne taken in a positive sense ? 
What does the thirty-first rule r^ard ? 
Repeat the thirty-first rule, with the examples. 
When do neuter verbs govern the accusative? 
And when have they an ablative? 
What is the secopd observation ? The thud ? and 

the fourth ? 
What does the thirty-second rule regard ? 
Repeat it, with examples. 
What other verbs govern the genitive? Are tbef 

construed differentfy ? 
How is the eenitive after verbs really governed ? 
Repeat the thirty-third rule, with examples. 



^«i 



^^M 



ADAM*S LATIN GRAMMAK. ^ 

e thirty-fourth rule? What the thirty- Fifdetb rule. Supine in u7 

What is the flrst observation ? The second? 'I'l.a 

most verbs compounded with M^per gov- thurd? 

Repeat the four circumstances. 

he tfiurty-azth rule? Repeat the five Fifty-first nile. Price, m what case? "What ex- 

ceptions? 

3 added ? What eie^ted ? When the substantive is added ? 

e first observation ? .What the second ? How is the ablative governed ? 

Fifty-second rule. Manner and cause? How is tliis 
ablative governed ? 



hat may be added? 
i fourth observation f and the fifth ? 
) thirtjr-seventh rule ? Elxamples. 
) first observation ? and the second ? 

thirty-eighth rule? Examples. 
eo wai indigeo govern ? 
ablative here governed ? 

thirty-ninth rule ? Examples, 
dded to these ? What does poHor gov- 

sometimes what other case ? 

fortieth rule ? Examples. 

sition ever repeated? Which do not 

trued only with the preposition ? 

it other prepositions ? Do any govern 



this rule take place f 
subject of the forty-first rule? 



Re- 



!r manner is the infinitive governed ? 

ling word ever understood ? 

ive itself ever omitted ? 

he infinitive called by the ancients ? 

IS does it supply the place of a noun ? 

iples. 

nt construction is used ? 

Inglhh verbs may to be omitted ? 

be rendered in Latin ? Give examples. 

ter English, a house to let, or to be let .'' 

subject of the forty-second rule ? Re^ 

1 the example. 

English sign f 

le accusative depend upon ? 

ird observation. The fourth, the fifth. 

brty-third rule ? Examples. 

sive participles often govern ? 

itM, and pertaaus ? verbals in hvn- 

form a periphrasis ? 

Bgantiy construed with a participle in 

nds construed ? Examples. 

rty-fourth rule with the examples. 

this gerund import t What is often 

? What is the forty-fifth rule? How 

d in di eovemed ? 

1 with the genitive plural ? 

lie. The gerund in do of the dative? 

re ever understood ? Examples. 

ever governed by verbs ? 

1 rule. '"* 



• 

What is the ablative of concomitancy? What is 

the adjunct.^ 
When we express the matter of which a thing is 

made? 
Fifty-third rule. Measure or distance ? 
After what words is the accusative or ablative put? 

How governed ? 
Wiien we express the measure of more tiihigs 

than one ? 
When is the genitive used ? The accusative ? The 

ablative ? 
The excess or difiisrence ? 
Fifty-fourth rule. Time? Time when? How 

long? 
Precise time ? Continuance ? Circumstances how 

expressed ? 
The abverb oblwnA ? 

Fifty-fifth rule. Verbs gpveming two cases ? Ex- 
amples. 
Which are the verbs of accusing? What other 
case have they after them ? What is said of crt- 
vMn and caput ? Many verbs of accusing are 
how construed ? 
What do they sometimes govern ? 
Fifty-sixth rue. Examples. Which are the verbs 

of valuing ? 
Aestimo governs? Eqvi and honi? How is tiiis 

genitive governed ? 
Fil^-seventh rule. Repeat the examples. 
How is this rule otherwise expressed ? Examples. 
How else are these verbs construed ? 
What is the second observation ? 
Verbs, signifying motion or tendency to a thing. 
Is the accusative ever understood ? What is said 

of to in English ? 
Fift^-eighth rule. Examples. 
Which are the verbs of asking? of teaching? 
Cdo} How otherwise are these verbs construed? 
How is the accusative of the thing governed ? 
Fi%-ninth rule. Example. 
Which are the verbs of loading of binding? of un- 
loading? loosing? depriving? dotiimg? un- 
clothing ? 
How is the ablative gpvemed ? Expressed ? or un- 
derstood ? 
Do any of these verbs govern other cases ? 
Sixtieth rule. Examples. 
Has the active ever three cases ? 
Passive verbs how construed ? 



Preposition when understood? How \sper nsrri ? 
The gerund in dum of the What cases do passive verbs govern ? Videor / 

Iiiduor^ amidar ? &c. Neuter verbs ? Passive im i^er- 

sonals, how applied ? 
What cases do they govern ? 
Sixty-first rule. -Examples. 
What verbs are used impersonally in the passive, 

and what case do ifaey govern ? Examples. 
When are poUit^ ecepitt &c. used impersonally ? 



governed by other prepositions? 

depend upon and govern ? 

Tile. The gerund in rfo of the ab 



is gerund resemble ? 

Is may be turned into participles? 



erunds, what case is used.? Examples What verbs are used both personally and imper- 
sonally ? 
What is said of the pronoun it, and of the Latin 

infinitive ? Is the dative understood ? 
Sixty-second rule. Examples. The paragraph .' 
In what case do some think mea, iva^ sim, &.c. to be ? 
With what nominatives are interest and re/eri 



itive, dative, and accusative. What 
changed ? What exception ? 
le. Supine in «m.^ How elegantly 

with iri ? 

put after any other verbs ? 

y the meaning of this supme be ex- 



joined ? . 

With what adverbs are they construed ? 



10 



UUESnOXS ON 



What other case do they take ? Are they ever put 

absolutely ? 
How is the genitive after the verbs interest and re- 

Jert governed ? 
Sixt>'-third rule. Elxamples ? How is the genitive 

here governed ? 
What may supply the place of the genitive ? 
What is frequently unoerstood ? 
How are miscrei^ paenUetj Sue. used ? 
With what is miserei joined f 
What i& remarked of the preterites of these verbs? 
Sixty-fourth rule. Examples? 
Are these verbs ever used personally ? 
With wliat case is decet construed ? 
With what is oportei joined ? 
What is the fourth observation ? 
What is the note? 
Repeat the four circumstances of place. At or in ? 

To'f From ot by? 
Sixty-fifth rule. Ebcamples ? 
What is the first observation? The second ? 



Sixty-sixth rule. Examples ? 
^Repeat the first observation. What is the seoood 

observation ? 
Sixty-seventh rule. Examples? Remaik? 
Sixty-eighth rule. Examples ? Repeat the wbi eb- 

servations and the remark on peio 7 
Sixty-ninth rule. Examples? 
Why is the case called abaotuU? What is the re* 

mark? 
The participles of deponent and common veriM? 
What is frequently understood ? 
What must sometmies be supplied ? 
What may be considered the substantive ? 
Does the verb supply the place of a substantive? 
What is said of a substantive plural ^ 
How is the ablative absolute governed? 
Is the preposition ever exprened ? 
How may the ablative alMolute be rendered ? 
How does the present participle end ? 
What case in English is usea independently ? 



APPBNDXZ TO SmTAJL 9 

It is recommended to the stadent, to read over carefully, the phrases from the 156th ts 
the 166th pag'e; a few at a time, until he can give, without nesitation, the English or 
the Latin of any one which may be required. 

When a learner first begins to translate, what riioald 
he do ? What afterwards ? What will be neeei- 

sary? 

DIFFERENT KINDS OP STYLE. 

How many different kinds of style ? Repeat them. 

What otlier characters of style ? 

Explain the adaptation of style, and the style of 

different authors. 
What deserves particular attention ? 
What is the first virtue of style ? {virhu oraHamM.) 

What does this require ? To what is each op* 

posed ? What things are to be attended to ? Re* 

peat and explain the three ? 
Wi)at are the most common defects of style? (vdb 

oraiionis.) 
N. B. Ijet the learner repeat the Latin phrases of ^• 

ten as they occur. 
What is a barbarism ? Examples. 
Solecism? Idiotism? Tautology/ Bombast? Am- 

phibology ? 

FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 
What are they ? Their division ? Tropes ? 

TROPES, OR FIGURES OP WORDS. 

Wliat is a trope ? The origin of tropes? Their fomi' 
dation ? What are the Uiree principal ? 

What is a metaphor ? An allegory ? An migmt 
or riddle ? proverbs or adages ? 

When 20*6 metaphors improper ? 

Caiachresis? Syllepsis? Jnetonymy? Explunthi 
six kinds. 

Meialepsis ? Synecdoche ? Explain the three kindi. 

Antonomasia? Periphrasis? Irony? Sarcasm? 
Litotes? Antiphrasis? Eupliemutmus ? Parsr 
phrase? Onomuiopccia ? 

Wliat is diHicult ^ needless? sufficient? 

Can all tropes be literally translated ? How ex* 
plained ? 

REPETITION OP WORDS.. 

What are figures of words? 

Kxnlain the figures following, namely, Anapbon, 
Epistrophe, Symploce, Epanalepsisr Anada^o^ 
Epanodos, Epizeuxis, Climax, Polyptoton,^DO- 
nyma, Expolitio, Antanaclasis, Paronomosii, 
Ilomoiontoton. Homoioteleuton. 



FIGURES OP SYNTAX. 

What is a figure ? For what is it used ? 
To how many may the figures of syntax be re- 
duced ' Repeat them. What do they respect ? 

1 . What is eUipsis ? Give the examples ? 

What is tlie meaning of scU? Ans. scilicet, for 
scire licet, you may know ; understand ; supplv. 

N. B. The ellipsis should always be suppled by tJie 
stvdent. 

What is Asyndeton ? EnaUage ? Antiptosis ? 
Hellenism ? Synesis ? 

When is a style said to be elliptical or concise ? 

2. What is Pleonasm ? Polysyndeton ? Hendiadys ? 
Periphrasis. 

3. What is IJyperbaton ? Explain the six sorts of 
this figure and give the Latin phrases. What is 
Anastroplie? Hysteron proteron? Hypallage? 
Synchesis? Tmesis? Parenthesis? 

ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. 

From what arises the difficulty of translating? 

Wiiat advantage has the Latm over the English ? 

Are inversions used in EInglish ? By whom chiefly ? 
For what purpose ? 

What rule is given for the order of words in trans- 
lating ? 

Wliat is simple or natural order? Artificial or ora- 
torial ? 

What is said of Latin writers? 

Wiiat direction is given for rendering? 

In translating, what words are to \m taken first ? 
what next ? then ? lastly ? 

What is to be supplied through the whole ' 

If tlie sentence is compound ? Example ? 

I^esolve it into its component parts. 

What is analogical analysis ? 

Parse the sentence given in the words of the author. 
What is first? Ans. The Latin word What 
second ? Ans. The English. What third ? Ans. 
Name the psurt of speech. If it is a noun, how 
is it parsed ? Ans. Repeat the declension, gen- 
der, noni. and gen. cases, tell the case and agree- 
ment or government, and give the rule. If it is 
a verb, how is it parsed ? Ans. What kind, the 

>arts; 
rule. 




ADAM'S LATIN GRAMMAR. 



H 



FIGURES OF THOUGHT, 
are the principal ? 

n with examples, Hypevbole, Prosopopoeia, 
strophe, SimUe, Antithesis, Iiitenogatioii,Ex- 
lation. Description, Emphasis, Epanarthosis, 
depsis, Apanthmesis, Synathroismus, Cli- 
, Transition, Suspensio, Concessio, F^Iep- 
A.nacoinosis, Licentia, Aposiopesis, Senten- 
T Maxim. 

are the parts of a regular oration ? 
is the use of the introduction ? 

aUANTITY OP SYLLABLES. 

s quantity? Prosody? Long and short? The 
of each ? Common ? Long or short by na- 
' Penult? Antepenult? Authority? 
s the remark on Latm pronunciation ? 

GENERAL RULES. 

s the first rule ? 

s h in verse ? 

St exception ? Example from Ovid ? 

:ond exception ? Pompei ? 

ird exception ? What is said of Illius ? Uni- 

Alius ? Alterius ? In Greek words ? 

vex the catalogue of short, long and common, 

itedly until the words are familiar. 

s said of nouns in eus ? 

bject of prosody being of very great impor- 

!, it is recommended to commit to memory, 

e rvies and exceptions with the mosipartic- 

carCf and also to — 

the rules by numbers promiscuoudy — 

the examples in the same manner — 

the exceptions to the rules by number. 

3 accent r What is its use ? Emphasis ? 

the rules for accent on page 191. 

any are the accents ? 

3 the effect of the acute? The grave ? The 

m^x? 

oes the circumflex mark? Ans. A contrac- 



VERSE. 

;erse. Why so called ? 

iYhat is the use of this division ? 

FEET. 

any kinds? Repeat them ? 

bot is omnes? Deus? Amans? Serous? 

ere ? &c. &c. 

\ the quantity of o in omnes 9 What rule ? 

s the quantity of c in omnts ? What rule ? 

se questions be asked on every syllable of 

:amples under fttt. 

SCANNING. 

( scanning? What is a perfect verse called ? 
L syllable is wanting, what is it called ? 
here is a syllable too much ? 
( DepositiOf or clausula ? 

HEXAMETER. 

t does a Hexameter consist ? 

ther name has it ? 

J the feet ? 

the example ? 

nd mark it? Ans. 

I qux vel I lem cala | m5 per 1 misit a ] gresti. 

he feet ? Ans. iJudere, dactyl : auoR vely 

ee ; lem cala, dactyl ; mo per, sponciee ; mt- 

dactyl : ffresHy spondee. 

ule for each syllable ? Ans. Lm, u is long 

thority ; <fe, e is short before r. Rule 25 of 

n's Prosody, page 30 of Prof Anihon's 

iy ; re, e is short. Rule 12 of this book ; 

; IS long, being a dipthong, Rule 4 : F<?/, e is 



long by position. Rule 2; lent, e is loiig by posi- 
tion ; col, a is short by authority ; a, a is short by 
authority ; mo, o is long» Rule 14, Exception 1 ; 
jwr, e is long by position, Rule 2 ; mi, i is long. 
Rules 21 and 5; sit, i is short. Rule 16; a, a is 
short. Rule 2, paragraph ; gres, e is long by posi- 
tion ; ft, i is long. Rule 13. 

Remark 1. When a student begins any poetic au- 
thor, the first exercise should be scanning, in the 
full form above written \ always repeating tlie 
ruleei, at first in foil, and afterwards mr number. 
This exercise should be continued until he is per- 
fect ; which will be in a short time, provided he is 
industrious, and depends on his own exertions, 
rather than bis teacher. He should write out 
fairly, in a book, 100 lines or more, and at eveiy 
recitation produce a hexameter verse or two, in 
which he is to regard quantity only, not sense. 
This is commonly called nonsense verse. This 
practice will lead him to compose in verse, and 
sense will soon succeed to nar^ense. 

Remark 2. It is best alwa^^s to i^ve a rule for the 
syllable under consideration, without regard to its 
position in the line ; for instance, the final t of the 
above line, is long by the rule given, rather than 
by the paragraph under the 19th Rule, which 
should bis ^iven when a syllable otherwise short 
ends the hne. 

Remark 3. Many syllables may and ought to be 
traced to the Greek for their quantity, but when 
a student has no knowledge of Greek, he may 
say by autlwrity, unless his teacher should spe- 
cially direct him otherwise. 

Scan tlie second line in the same manner, and all 
the lines given as examples. 

How many syllables has a hexameter ? 

What is a spondaic line? When is this used ? 

What has it in the fourth place ? What in the end ? 

When there is a syllable in the end superfluous ? 

What hexameters sound best ? 

What is esteemed a preat beauty in hexameter ? 

Point out the Ecthlipses in the third and fourth 
lines. See page 185. 

What deserves particular attenldon ? 

What is Caesura? Repeat the various names of the 
Caesura. Repeat the line which includes all the 
difierent species of Caesura. What is the most 
common and beautiful Caesura? And the Caesu- 
ral phrase ? When the Ceesura falls on a syllable 
naturally short? 

On what depends the chief melody of a hexameter 
verse ? Without this what will the line be ? 

What is said of the Roman method of reading 
verse ? What in modem times ? By what are we 
directed ? How should we read ? 

PENTAMETER. 

What is Pentameter verse ? Give examples? Scan 
these lines. How is this verse divided ? Write 
tlie examples. How does it end ? 

ASCLEPIADEAN. 

Describe it and give tlie example. 

Describe and scan the other kinds, to No. 10. 

The student should be able to name and scan any 

kind of verse without hesitation; othenoise fie 

ioill be unable to read Horace. 
From what are the names derived ? 
Name the other kinds of verse. 
Give a particular account of Iambic verse. Name 

the duSerent kinds ? 

FIGURES IN SCANNING. 

What are figures of scanning? Repeat them. 
Define Synalcepha. Give an example. Is it ever 

neglected ? In what rlors it seldom tak*» plao*^ 

Kxamnlc ? 



IS 



aUESTIONS o^ 



W/A 'tf said of long vowels and dipthongs? See 
Prqf, Anthonys Prosody. 

What is EcthUpsis ? Example. What is the re- 
mark ? Repeat the examples. What are these 
verses called ? Why? 

What is Syrueresis? What is it likewise called? 
Examples. What may be referred to this figure ? 

DuBresis? What is its form? Give examples. 

Systole? Dituiole^ What may be subjoined? 

IJefine and give examples of 1. Prosthesis, EpeiUh/^ 
sis, ParcLgo^. 2. MphsresiSf Syncope, Apocope, 
3. Metathesis, Antithesis, 

DIFFERENT KINDS OF POEMS. 

Wliat is a poem ? Explain the diffiarent kinds of 

jpoems. 
what is an Epithalamium? &c. &c. 

COMBINATION OF VERSES. 

What authors use Hexameters? lambie or Tro- 
chaic ? 

What authors combine difibrent verses ? 

When is an ode called Monocdlos, or M6nocolon ? 
Dicdlon ? Tricdlon ? Dicolon distrdphon? 

What is elegiac verse ? By whom used ? 

When is a poem called Dicolon tristrdnhon ? Dico- 
lon tetrastrdphon ? Tricobn tristrdpnon ? Tricd- 
lon tetrastrophon ? Carmen Horatianum? Stro- 
phe, stanza, or staff? 

What are the different kinds of verse used by Hor- 
ace and Buchanan ? 

APPENDIX. 

What is punctuation? What are points? Name 
and write them. Explain the use of each. 

W^hat is the semi-period ? Explain the other points 
and marks. 

flow are capitals used ? 

Explain the abbreviations mentioned. 

Should we write LL. D. or L. L. D. ? Ans. LL. D. 
without a point between the tv/o ells, because it is 
the abridged form of the plural number uniformly 
made by repeating the letter, as Me. sing. Mss. 
plural. Lee. law ; Legg. laws. Cos, consul ; 
Coss, consuls. P. page ; pp. pages. M. Mon- 
sieur ; MM. Messieurs, and many others. LL. D. 
Legum Doctor, formerly was Doctor of both 
Laws ; viz. the canon and the ctvt'i Law. 

Explain the Roman method of notation. What 
says Pliny ? Explain the modem manner Which 
is superior? 

Explain the division of the Roman months, and 
write out tho table ii' iiill. 

Are the names of the months substantives or adjec- 
tives. 

F.KD or THE grammah. 



PARSWCk 



What is parsing? Ans. Eteanf is tba anaJ^us of 
the words of a languan. " 

What? Wb^ f wSyT ozplavML The praps 
answer to these three words contaiiiB the wbofe 
sub^t of parsing, a practise which should com- 
mence with the first dedeDsioo, and continue to 
the end of the classic couiae. 

What ? A—^oun, declension, gender, nominsthn 
and genitive. 

W^ere ? Dative singular (the case.) 

Why ? Grovemed by— (the governing word.) 

What ? An adjioctive of three terminatloDB. 

<7»—a^--ufn, where? In the dative sing. fan. agm* 
ing with (the noun.) 

Why ? The adjective agrees, Slc 

What ? A verb active (or other) Ist conjug^tkn o^ 
are, avi, atum. 

Where? Indicative mode, tense, person, number, 
agreeing with its nominative (name it.) 

Why ? R^eat the rule. 

Example. Schbopukhrasliteras. 

Scribo (I write.) What ? A verb active of the diiid 
conj lotion, scribo, scribere, scripsi, scrotum. 

Where ? Indicative mode, present tense, first persooi 
singular number, agreemg with its nommativ« 
E^ understood. 

(Why?) The verb agrees with its nominative case 
in number and person. 

Pulchras (beautifuL) What? An adjective of thrM 
terminations, pulcher, pulchra,pulchrum. 

(Where ?) In the accusative plural, feminine g^dei^ 
agreeing with Uteras. 

(Why ?) The adjective agrees with its substantire 
in number, case, andgpnder. 

Literas (letters.) See Gmunmai, page 87. ' 

(What ?) A noun, first declension, feminine gsndei 
Uterm, literartan, in this sen8e,wants the singolir. 

(Where?) In the accusative case, plural, governed 
by the active verb scribo. 

(\Vhyf) B^ Rule 81. Repeat it 

The participle should be parsed as a part of the 
verb. Say a participle, tense, voice, nom the ac- 
tive verb scriBo of the third conju^tion ; (the 
same form as before) and say participles becooie 
adjectives when they have no reigard to time. 

A similar form may be observed throughout 

Dr. Adams* form is different, and by some may be 
preferred. They both, however, contain the same 
specifications, and it is important that popils 
stiould be taught to adhere to a particular fenn. 
Otherwise they will never know bow to pane 
without being asked all the minute specificatioiiif 
a practice which should be avoided as much ai 
possible. 



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W/A if Mid of long voweU and dipcboogs? Sec 

Prqf. An(lum*$ Prosody. 
What is EcthUpsit ? Examijle. What is the le- 

marfc ? Repeat the examples. What an these 

versescalled? Why? 
What is HynoTtsis? What is it likewise called? 

Examples. What mav be lefened to this figuxe ? 
Dwtrtsu'/ What is its iorm .' Give examples. 
Syttole/ Diastole? What may be subjoined ? 
IJefioe and give examples of 1. ProsUiesss, JE^MiAe- 

Af, Paragoge. 2. Apheeresis, Synecft^ Apoeepe. 

a Metathesis, Antithetu, 

DIFFERENT KINIM9 OF POEMS. 

Wliat is a poem ? Explain the different kinds of 

Doems. 
\VDat is an Epithalaraium? &c. Sec 

COMBU4ATION OF VERSES. 

What authors use Hexameters? iambic or Tro- 
chaic? 

What authors combine different verses ? 

When is an ode called Monocolos, at Monocolon ? 
Dicolon ? Tricdlon ? Dic^n distr^hon ? 

What is elegiac verse ? Bj whom used ? 

When is a poem called Dicolon tristrophon ? I>ic4>- 
lon tetrastruphon ? Tricolon tristrophon? Trico- 
lon tetrastrdphon ? Carmen Hoiatianum? Stro- 
phe, stanza, or staff? 

\^ nat are the different kinds of verse used by Hor- 
ace and Buchanan ? 

APPENDIX. 

What is punctuation? W'hat are points? Name 
and write them. Explain the use of each. 

What is the semi-perioa ? Explain the other points 
and marks. 

flow are capitals used ? 

Explain the abbreviations mentioned. 

Should we write LL. D. or L. L. D. ? Ans. LL. D. 
without a point between the two ells, because it is 
the abridged form of the plural number uniformly 
made by repeating the letter, as Me. sing. Mu. 
plural. Leg. law ; Legg. laws. CoSj consul ; 
Cass, consiils. P. page ; pp. pages. M. Mon- 
sieur ; MM. Messieurs, and many others. LL D. 
Legum Doctor, fonneily was Doctor of both 
Laws ; viz. the canon and the civil Law. 

Explain the Roman method of notation. What 
says Pliny ? Explain the modem manner Which 
is superior? 

Explain the division of the Roman months, and 
write out the table h iiill. 

Are the names of the months substantives or ad|ec- 
tives. 

KXD or THE GRAMMAH. 



WhaiispaEBDg? Ani. Bunf h the analjiii of 
the words of a ^^^r^y 

What? When? Wfayf apUnid. Tlie pnper 
answer id tfaeK thne woras mntiini die wools 
■ubject of paEBOu^ a nactiv which. dMMdd cooi- 
■tenoe with the mm. nmlfiminn, ind ooatiniiBto 
the end of the disskoHnB. 

What ? .4— JVbioi, deckonoo, gBBder, flB mi m i hi 
and genitive. 

Where ? Dative my*^' (the case.) 

W^faj ? Governed by— (the goveoung woid.) 

Wlmt ? Ad adjective of three fminatirms. 

C/a^a--Mn, where? In the dative sing. fai. afree* 
ing with (the noun.) 

Wliy ? The adjective agrees, Jbc 

What? A verb active (or otiber) Ist cotgugUks o^ 
are, avi, itum. 

Where ? Indicative mode, lenn^ V^pa^ nunte^ 
a^eeing with its nominative (name it.) 

Why ? R^eat the rule. 

Example. Scribopulchraf literal. 

Scribo (I write.) What ? A veifo activeof tbetlud 
ccmjug^tion, scribo, seribert, seripsi, aariptim, 

Wliere ? Indicative mode, prexnt tense, fintpenosi 
Bngular number, agreemg vntfa its Dommatnt 
Ego understood. 

(Why ?) The veih agrees with its nominative cui 
in number and person. 

Puldiras (beautifuL) What? An adjective of thM 
terminations, pvluier, pulchra,puidtrum. 

(When ?) In the accusative plural, femhune gendcif 
agreeingwith Kieras. 

C^Vby ?) The adjective agrees with its substantift 
in number, case, and gender. 

Literas (letters.) See Giammax, pue 87. ' 

(Wliat i) A noun, first declension, mnminegBBder 
litent, lUerarvm, in this 8ense,wants the singolB 

(Where?) In the accusative case, phiral, govov 
by the active verb scribo. 

(W'hy.>) By Rule 81. Repeat it 

The participle should be parsed as a jpart of w 
verb. Say a participle, tense, voice, nom ihesfr 
tive verb scribo of the third conjuptionjjw 
same form as before) and say participles becoM 
adjectives when they have no reigara to tin* 

A similar form may be observed thnx^out ' 

Dr. Adams' form is different, and by some majl* 
preferred. They both, however, contain th e wM 
specifications, and it is important that M">- 
snould be taught to adhere to a particular via 
Otherwise they will never know bow to {UN 
without being asked all the minute mecificanflo^ 
• practice which should be avoided as imdiH 
possible. 






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15 



SYNOPSIS OP THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 



^\ 



Am 
Doc 
Leg 

Aud 



to, 



(Am a ^ 
g,jDoc e f 

Am 
V.JDOC 

Aud 



rAm kY\ 
^ (And IT > 



bam, bas. 



isti, 



Am 
jiDoc 






TAud 



" VSram, 



^ (aA i i~"' 



2 



em, 
>ara. 



eras, 

bis, 
eg, 

es, 

as. 



rem, res, 



">Srim, 

\ 



ens, 



ftT 

ft 

iv 



Mem uses, 



n aT 
c ft 

Aud iv 



>eio, 



em, 



^nloMiL Am 

I AmUtuMf Doc 

I Amrtadf Leg 

f Jbnheardf Aud 



t WW, 



■ 



AOM MOly 



Afl4{6eci», 



Am 
Doe 

Aul 

Am 
Doc 
Lee 
Aud 

Am 

Doo 

Lee 

Aud 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



as. 


at. 


amus, 


atis, 


^ ■ 


et. 


emus, 


etis. 


«» 


it, 


imus, 


Ws, 


IS, 


it, 


Imus, 


iUs, 



bat, 



bamus, 



it. 



unus. 



erat, 

bit, 
e^ 



eramus, 



bimus. 



emus. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 
et, emus, 

at, amus. 



ret, 



remus, 



rit. 



eri(mus, 



isset. 



issemus. 



erit. 



enmus, 




:i 



tus eram vel 
fueram, 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
thou, As, 

ris vd re, tur, 
i 



bans vd batur, 
bare, 



es vd fu' est v«. 
isti, fuit. 



eras vel erat vd 
fueras, fuerat, 



batis. 



ant. 
ent, 
unt 
lunL 



bant 



istis, 



eniiit, vd ere. 



eratis, 

bitis, 
etis, 

etis, 
atis, 

retis, 



erant. 

bunt 
ent 

ent. 
ant 

rent 



eritis, 



erint 



issetis. 



issent 



eritis, 



erint 



toe, 

mur, 
i 



mini. 



ntur. 



u 



bamur. 



bamini, bantur. 



ti sumus vd ti estis vd ti sunt fuo- 
fuimus, fiiistis, nint vd 

fuere. 



ti eramus vel eratis vd emnt vel 
fueramus, Aieratis, fuerant 



Iti 



ahaabe. 



may be, 



mighi be. 



may have 
been 



might have 
been. 



shall have 
been. 



Am 
Doc 
Leg 

Aud 

Am 
Doc 

Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Leg 
Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Lee 
Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Lcc 
Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Lee 

Aud 



11 



bor, 



cur. 



cr. 



ar, 



-> 

?>rer. 

f tus sim V( 
r fuerim, 



ere. 



etis, vei 
ere, 

axis, vel 
axe, 



reris, vel 
rere, 



ns 



tus essem vel esses vel 
fuissem, fuisses, 



tus fiieio, fueris, 



etur, 

etur, 
atur, 

retur, 



bimur, 
&nur, 

emor, 
amur, 

remur, 



sisofZfue- sitvdfue- tisimusv^Z 



rit, 



fuerimus, 



csset vel ti essemus vel 
fuisset, fuissemus 



fuerit, 



bimini, buutur. 

emini, entur. 

emifii, entur, 

amini, antur. 



remmi, rentur. 



sitis vel sint vel 
fueritis fuerint 



essetis vel egsent i 
fuissetis, fuissen 



ti fuerimus, fueritis, fuerioL 



do, 



thou, 
^ Am 

.*i Doc ef vel to, 
5 Leg e 



Aud 



thou, 

h^j ^ Am a 
•| Doc e 
i Leg « 

fti Aud 



ef re vd tor, 

1^ ' 



PretenL 




to be, ^ Am a 
•| Doc e 
§ Leg 

0^ Aud 



'i 



Active. 
Am a 
Doc el 
Leg e| 
Aud ie 



^ Am 

i Doc 

is Lee 

^ Aud 



:i 



GERUNDS. 




re. 



1 

ri 



ns, ns, 
ntis, ntJB, 



turns 



IMPERATIVE. 
he, 

to, 

he, 
tor, 

INFINITIVE. 

Perfect. 
Am av^ 



to 
have, Doc 



to 
have 
been. 



Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Lee 
Aud 



PARTICIPLES. 



ns, 
ntis, &c. 



um. 



■^> 



ndumi di| da 



te vel tate, 
mini. 



tuB esse vel 
fiiine. 



.^ Am 
^ Doc 
X* Lee 
»i Aud 

^ Am 

§ Doc 

J Leg e 

^ Aud Ie 



they. 



nto. 



ntox. 
a 
la 




tiirus esse i 
iiiissa. 



Cum iri. 



I 



Pastivg. 



tus 



um. 



ndus, a, um. 



SUPINES. 



Am 
Doc 
Lee 
Aud 



:i 



tODi lU. 



FINIS. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

FIRST CONJUGATION, PASSIVE VOICE. 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 

PrM, Indie. Perf. Part. Pre8. Infin. 



Amor, 



Amatus, 



Amari, to be loved. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 

1. Amor, 

2. Amfiris, v. Amare, 

3. Amatur; 



Present Tense, aw loved. 

Plural 

Amamur, 
Amaraini, 
Amantor. 

Imperfect, was loved. ^ 

1. Am&bar, Amabamur, 

2. Amabftris, V. Amabare, Amabamloi, 

3. Amabatur; Amabantur 

Perfect, have been loved. 

1. Amatus sum, r. fui, Amati 8iuiiii8,v. fuunus, 

2. Amatat es, v. fuisti, Amati estig, v. fiiistis, 

3. Amatus est, v. fuit ; Amati sunt, v. fu^runt, v. fuerc. 

Pluperfect, had been loved. 

1. Araatus eram, v. fueram, Amati eramui , v. fueramus, 

2. Amatiu eras, v. fueras, Amati eratis, v. fueratis, 

3. Amatus erat, v. fuerat ; Amati erant, v. fuerant. 

Future, thall, or vfilt be loved. 

1. Am&bor, AmfibTmur, 

2. Am&beris,t). AmdbSre, Amabimini, 

3. Am&bltur; Amabuntur. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, may, or can be loved. 

1. Amer, Amgmur, 

2. Ameris, v, Arn^re, Amcmini, 

3. Ametur; Amentur. 

Imperfect, mighi, cotdd^ would, or ^uld be loved 

1. Am&rer, Am&r€mur, 

2. Amarfois, v. Amardre, Amaremini, 

3. Amaretur} Amarentur. 

Perfect, mojf have been loved. 

1. Amatus sim, v. fuerim, Amati simus, v. fuerimus, 

2. Amatus sis, o. foeiiSi Amati sitis, r. fueritis, 

3. Amatus sit, v. fnerit; Amati siut, v. fuerint. 

Pluperftct, M^g/U, tMuZci, etvH, oit thouidkave been loved. 

1. Amaini essem, 9. fbissom, ' Amati cssemus, v. fiiissemus, 

2. Amatus esscs^ v. ftiiises, Amati essetis, v. fuissetis, 

3. Amatus esset, v. fuisset; Amati essent, v. fuissent. 

Future, shall have been loved. 

1. Amatus fu£ro, Amati fuMmus, 

2. Amatus fueris, Amati fueritis, 

3. Amatus fuerit; Amati fuerint. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

2. Amare, v. ator, be thou laved, Amamini, be ye loved, 

3. Am&tor, let him be loved; Amantor, let them be loved. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. AnuUri, to be loved. 

Perf, EsiBe, v. fuisse amatus-«pum, to kmve been Uved. 

Fui. Amfttum iif , ft 6e tAoui to bo loivtd, 

PARTICIPLES. 

Petf. Amatus-a-um, Unvtd. 
Fat. Amandos-aruniy to Jbo loved* 

B 



EXERQSES. 

Omo, to deck, 
Oro, to beg. 
Paco, to subdue. 
Paro, to prepare 
Pecco, to sin. 
Pio, to expiate 
Placo, to appease 
Porto, to carty, 
Privo, to deprive, 
Probo, to anprove, 
Pugno, tojfght' 
Puto, to thiA, 
Rogo, to atk. 
Saluto, to salute, 
Sano, to heal. 
Scdo, to aUay, 
Sibilo, to hiss. 
Simulo, to mretend, 
Specto, to oehold, 
Spero, to hope, 
Susurro, to wMsper, 
Tolero, to bear. 
Turbo, to diitwif. 
Velo, to cover. 
Vigilo, to watch, 
Violo, to violate. 
Voco, to call, 
Vulgo, to spread abro4uL 
Vulnero, to wound. 

EXGEPTIOHS 

Do, to give. 
Sto, to stand, 
Lavo, to wadi. 
Poto, to drink, 
Juvo, to help. 
Cubo, to lie. 
Domo, to subdue. 
Sono, to sound, 
Tono, to thunder. 
Veto, to forbid. 
Crepo, to make a notie. 
Frico, to rub. 
Seco, to cut. 
Ncco, to km. 
Mico, to glitter. 

DEPOHBirr 

AMD COMMON TBRSf 

Abominor, to abhor* 
Adulor, toftattor. 
Arbitror, to think, 
Bacchor, to revel, 
Conor, to endeavour, 
Criminor^ to blame, 
Cnnctor, to delay, 
Dominor, to rule. 
Epulor, to feast. 
Frustror, to ditt^ppoM. 
Glorior, to boatt. 
Hortor, to encourage 
Imitor, to imitaio, 
Luctor, to wreetle, 
Machinor, to contrive. 
Minor, to threaten, 
Opinor, to think. 
Osculor, to kiss, 
Frecor, to pray 
Becordor, to remember* 
Snspicor, to suspect, 
Testor, to witnus. 
Vcoeror, to worakif 
YmsTtto kmdm 



auEsnoxs o.n 



Wbat verbs agree in the present, but are differenily 

coniugated ? 
Which have a dififerent quantity ? 
Which verbs agree in the preterite ? 
Which verbs agree in the supine ? 
Kepeat the seven particulars of the obsolete conju- 

tion. 

DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION OP VERBS. 

From what are verbs derived ? 

What are denominative verbs f What imitative ? 

Give examples. 

Name the tnree kinds of verbs derived from other 
verbs? 

What do frequentative verbs express ? Of what con- 
jugation are they f How formed f 

Have deponent verbs frequentatives ? 

Give tiie examples of trequentatives irregularly 
formed? 

Give examples of frequentatives formed from other 
frequentatives. 

What is the remark on frequentatives ? 

Wliat are inceptive verbs ? How formed from verbs ? 
How from nouns? Of what kind are they? What 
conjugation ? What do they want ? 

Wluit are desiderative verbs? How formed ? Of 
what conjugation ? What parts are wanting ? 

Wlial are diminutivo verbs ? What intensive r 

Name the four things with which verbs are com- 
pounded ? What changes are made ? 

PARTICIPLE. 

What is a participle ? Why so called ? 

How are participles declined ? 

What do participles in dus import ? 

How many participles have Latin verbs ? 

What participles have not the Latins ? 

How is this defect supplied ? 

How many participles have neuter verbs ? 

^ave some neuter verbs participles of the perfect 
tense ? 

What is the remark on neuter passive verbs ? 

What is said of misus ? 

|Iow many participles have deponent and common 
verbs? Give examples. 

What is the remark on perfect participles of depor 
nent verbs ? 

What is the remark onparticiples compounded with 
in signifying Tvoi ? Explain the double sense and 
derivation of incenaus, iT{fectu8, invisus, and in- 
diciiLS. 

When do participles become adjectives? Elxamples. 

May participles be used as nouns ? What is under- 
stood? 

What is said of many words in alus, Hus, uius ? 

Explain verbal adjectives in bundus. How formed ? 

^Yhat dp they denote ? 

GERUNDS AND SUPINES. 

What are gerunds ? How declined ? What case 
wanting? What is the remark on the gerunds? 
Give examples. Wliat change of letters ? 

Supines have what signification ? How may they 
be applied ? Wliat are their terminations ? 

|n what sense are the supines used ? 

ADVERBS. 

What is an adverb ? How many classes ? 

How is the first class divided ? How many fold are 
adverbs of place ? Ejcplain each, with examples. 

flow many fold are advprbs of time ? Explain each, 
with examples ? 

How is the second class of adverbs divided ? 

What do those called absolute denote ? 

JE^lain the eleven kinds with examples. 

What do those adverbs which are called compara- 
tive denote ? 



Explain the seven kinds wit'u c.\ui):p](->. 

DERIVATION, COMPARISON ANDCOMroSi TIOX 
OP ADVERBS. 

From what are adverbs derived first? 

How do they end ? 

From what second ? What is said of these ? 

VS^at is the termination of those derived from the 

first and second declensions ? and finom the third ? 
How is the neuter of adjectives taken ? What is 

often understood ? From what third ? Examples, 

From what fourth ? Examples. What are these 

last? From what fifth ? 
What adverbs are compared ? 
How does the positive end ? and the comparative ? 

and the superlative? What is the remark ? 
How are adverbs compounded ? 
Repeat the four observations. 

PREPOSITION. 

What is a preposition ? 

How many govern the accusative ? How many the 
ablative ? Repeat them, with the English. Write 
them in order. 

How many gpvem either case ? Why are prepo- 
sitions so called ? Which are put after ? 

How arc prepositions compounded ? What signifi- 
cation do they retain ? What four exceptions ? 

What are the inseparable prepositions ? 

What do they signify ? Exemplify. 

INTERJECTION. 

What is an interjection ? What sounds ? 
What do they express ? 
Exemplify the thirteen different kinds ? 
What are the remarks ? 

CONJUNCTION. 

What is a conjunction ? What is its use ? 

How many classes ? Repeat them, with the exam- 

amples given. 
Are the same words ever used as both adverbs and 

conjunctions ? Give examples. 
Wliat conjunctions stand first in a sentence ? What 

second .' 
Which may be used indifferonUy ? 
What was the division ? 
Which are the enclitics? Why so called ? 
Repeat the example from Horace. 
When the enclitics are placed after a short sylla* 

ble, do tiiey affect pronunciation ? 
Repeat the example from Ovid. 

SENTENCES. 

What is a sentence ? 

What is syntax? Wliat is tlie division of syntax? 

Define concord. Define government. 
Repeat the nine general principles of syntax. 
What is the first, second r &,c. 
What is tlie division of sentences ? Define each. 
What is there in a simple sentence ? 
What is the subject ? What is the attribute ? Gii-e 

the examples. 

COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

Of what ie a compound sentence made up ? 

What is it called r What is a period ? 

What are members and clauses ? 

Repeat the first observation. 

Repeat the second observation. 

By what means are sentences compounded r Ghe 

the example. 
How many are the concords? What is the first? 

What is the second ? The third ? The fourth ? 
Repeat the first concord. 
What is the first rule ? Repeat all the examples. 
To what else does this rule annlv? 



ADAMS LATIN iillAMMAi:. 



AVhat is the firrt observation ? The second ? The 
third? The fourth? 

Is the substantire ever understood ? What then is 
the adjective ? Always ? 

Does an adjective ever supply the place of a sub- 
stautive ? 

Does a substantive ever supply the place of an ad- 
jective ? 

Wliat substantive is usually understood after the Ad- 
JQCtiwes primus, mediusjf &c. 

Ouglit the adjective or substantive to be placed first 
in Latin ? 

\yhen is the substantive elegantly put first? 

What is the second concord ? 

Re|)eat the Kcond rule, witli all the examples. 

Of wliat person are ego and tu>s7 tu and vos? tile, 
and all other words ? 

vVhcn is the nominative of the first and second per- 
son omitted ? When expressed ? 

What supplies tlie place of the nominative ? 

What is sometimes added ? Why ? 

What does the infinitive often supply ? 

With what may a collective noun be joined ? 

When a collective noun is joined with a singular 
verb, what does it express ? And when joined 
with a plural ? 

Of what gender will be the plural adjectives when 
ioined to collective nouns ? 

What is the third conccnrd ? 

Repeat the third rule cum omnibus exemplis. 

Repeat the fourth rule. 

Repeat the ten observations cum omnibva exemplis. 

Must the relative always have an antecedent ? 

What then may it be considered ? 

When the relative is placed between two substan- 
tives of different genders ? 

AVhen the relative comes after two words of dificr- 
ent persons ? 

How is the antecedent implied ? 

J s the relative ever omitted ? 

Does the case of the relative ever depend on the an- 
tecedent ? 

What is said of the adjective pronouns ? 

\V]int is said of interrogative and indefinite adjec- 
tives? 

A* hat is remarked of the translation (rf* the relative ? 

? low is it construed ? 

Wl'.at is subjoined to the construction of the rela- 
tive ? 

In what case is the answer ? Examples. 

^^'hat is the meaning of the contraction sc? Ans. 
scilicet for scire licet^ yo\i may know or under- 
stand. 

Po])eat the fifth rule, with all the examples. 

What does this iniply ? 

What verbs most frequently have the same case af- 
ter them as before tbem .'' First ? Second ? 

What cases only are placed after these verbs ? 

When these verbs are placed between two nomina- 
tives, wiUi which do they agree ? 

What is the remark concerning the infinitive mood 
and the verb licet ? 

Explain the poetic licences which arc not to be used 
in prose. 

What is the fourth concord \ 

AMiat docs the sixth rule regard ? 

Ilo[>cat the sixth rule, with the examples. 

What is the seventh rule, and what docs it regard ? 

What relation is expressed by the genitive ? 

How is it elegantly turned ? 

When may the substantive be taken in an active 
and a passive sense ? 

^Tjat is the third observation ? 

Is the dative ever used for the genitive? 

What is the fifth observation ? 

How is the genitive often rendered in English ? 



How are substantive pronouns governed ? 

And how adjective pronouns ? 

When a passive sense is expressed what do we use r 

What have the posscssives mow, fuu5, &c. after 
them in the genitive ? 

When are the rccimocals sui and suus used? 

The eighth rule ? The examples ? 

How is the ablative here spverned ? 

Repeat the phrases in which the genitive only is 
used ; and those in which the ablative only is 
used ; and those in which both are used. 

Which occurs more freouently in prose ? 

Repeat the fi>ur ways or phrasing the same sense of 
the words vir prtBstans ingemum. 

Describe the (>reek construction. What is its name ? 
What is understood? Give examples. 

What does the ninth rule regard ? 

Repeat the ninth rule, with the examples. 

Is this manner of expression elegant .'* 

What do adjectives which thus govern the genitive 
generally signify ? 

What are plus and quid thought to be ? 

What do nihil and the neuter pronouns govern? 
and what not ? 

What do plural adjectives of the neuter gender gov- 
ern? 

What is the general remark ? 

What is the tenth rule ? Examples ? 

What arc opus and usus ? 

What is understood to govern the ablative ? 

Do they ever govern the genitive ? 

Is o/Jitscver used as an adjective ? 

How is it elegantly used ? 

With what is opus joined, and how \< \\ open 
placed ? 

CoVERNMEXT OF ADJECTIVES. 

What docs the ninth rule regard ? 

What is the nintli rule ? Examplns. 

Repeat the five classes of adjectives which govern 
the genitive ? What other adjectives arc added ? 

How arc verbals in ns used ? 

What is the difference between pattens dlgoris and 
algorem / 

Do any of these vary tlieir construction ? 

How is the genitive governed ? Do these adjectives 
contain the force of substantives ? 

Twelfth rule ? Examples ? 

Wliat is the meaning of partitives ? 

To these add what ? 

Partitives agree in gender with what ? 

How is the genitive here governed ? 

How are partitives otherwise construed? 

What case in the singular do partitives govern ? 

Wlien are comparitives used ? When superlatives ? 

What words are applied to two ? What to three or 
more ? 

What is the second case governed by adjectives? 

What does the thirteenth rule regard? 

What is the thirteenth rule ? Examples. 

How otherwi<;e may this rule be expressed ? 

Repeat the nine classes of adjectives which belong 
to this rule. What is added ? 

What do verbals in hilis and drts govern ? 

Do any passive participles govern the dative? 

How are verbals in dus often construed ? How per- 
fect participles ; 

Is the dative properly governed by adjectives ? 

I lave substajitives ever a dative after them ? 

What adjectives govern the dative or the genitive ? 

What adjectives govern both cases ? 

What do adjectives of usefulness or fitness govern ? 

Have any or them a double construction ? 

Repeat the three ways in which adjectives signify- 
ing affections of tlie mind are construed? 

How is ctudiens construed ? 



.8 



ui y:<TK):s^ ox 



llow arc a<ijcctiv€s, signifying aiotion or tendency 

to a tiling, constriieilf 
"What do proprior and proximus govern ? 
\Vhat does idem govern ? What m prose ? What 
would be improper ? What do we likewise say ? 
What is the third case governed by adjectives ? 
Tlie fourteenth rule ? Examples. 
How is this ablative governed ? 
What other case do d&gnus, inoUgmu, &c. govern ? 
What is said ofmacte? 
What does the fifteenth rule regard ? 
What is the fifteenth rule ? Elxamples. 
Which are construed with t|ie genitive only? 
Which with the dative only ? 
Wliich with the genitive more firequently ? 
Which with the dative more frequently ? 
Which with both promiscuously i 
Which with a preposition ? 

Government qf the Verb Sum. 
What is the sixteenth rule? Examples. 
\yhat words are excepted? Repeat the three obser- 

vations. 
The seventeenth rule ? Examples. 
This is more frequently used than what other con- 
struction ? 
The eighteenth rule. Example. 
What other verbs have two natives after them ? 
Wiiat are the three observations ? 
The nineteenth rule ? Examples. 
The twentieth rule ? Examples. 
W^hat is the sign of the ablative in English ? 
What does the positive with magis govern ? 
How is the ablative here governed ? 
How otherwise may the comparative be CQOStrued ? 
When is the conjunction quam elegantly sup- 
pressed ? 
How is it elegantly placed ? 
For what is nihil elegantly used ? 
Is the comparative ever repeated ? 
How is the relation of sameness or equality ex- 
pressed ? 
fn what case is the defect or excess of measure put? 
What does tiie twenty-first rule regard ? 
Tlie twenty-first rule ? Examples. 
Wiiat do adverbs qualify ? Are they also joined to 

nouns ? 
What is remarked of the position of the adverb ? 
To what are two negatives equivalent ? 
What chiefly deserves attention in adverbs ? 
Which are joined to the positive ? Which to the 

.comparative ? 
To what is quam joined ? To what isyoci^ Joined ? 
To what is longe joined ? With what mooa is cum 
joined? than? Dum and donee, for usquedum? 
Quoad for quamdiu, and quoad until ? 
Postquam otposteaquam ? Aniequam ? 
Quasi, ceu ? &.C. 
Uiinam, o si,, ut ? 
Quin for cur non ? 

What does the twenty-second rule regard ? 
Repeat the twenty-second rule ? Examples. 
Repeat the adverbs of iimz that govern the geni- 
tive. 
Repeat the adverbs of place that govern the geni- 
tive, and of ^teanftfy. 
What is said of tnstor and erg-o.? 
Why are these adjectives thought to govern the gen- 
itive ? 
What is remarked of pridie ? And what of en and 

tcce? 
In all these examples what is understood ? 
>Vhat do derivative adverbs gpvem ? Give the ex- 
amples. 
What does the twenty-third rule regard ? 
Repeat the rule, including all the prepositions which 
iprem this case. 



Repeat the examples under each pre})ositiou, witli 

the English. 
What is Sie English of adastra? 
How do you say in Latin, to the stars? d&c. &a 
Write the examples. 
Is ad ever used adverbially ? 
What is the Enelish of apud? ante? Slc. 
What are added to prepositions governing the acco* 

sative ? 
What is the twenty-fourth rule ? 
Repeat all the prepositions, with the EngUah ; and 

the examples ? 
What is the English of a poire? 
How do you say in Latin, yrom a father ? 
What is the English of absmu ? &>c. 
Which preposition is placea after the notra ? Am. 
Tenu^. Any other? Ans. Sometimes cum, and 
then it is joined to the word which it governs ? 
Does tenus ever gpvem any other case ? 
What is added to prepositions govemii^ the aUa- 

tive? 
What is the twenty-fifth rule ? 
Distinguish m governing the aceusative and the ab* 

lative ? Examples. 
What is the English of sub ? super ? 
When are prepositions reckoned adverbs? Exam- 
ples. 
In these cases, what is implied^ 
What other adverbs are construed with the accusa 

tive? 
Distinguish a and e, ab and ex. Examples. 
Are prepositions ever understood ? Is the word^*- 

erneaevet understood ? Examples of both. 
When is the latter more frequency the case ? 
The twenty-sixth rule ? Examples. 
How do you say, O good man ? &c. 
The twenty-seventh rule ? Examples. 
How do you say ah me? &c. 
Which interjections are joined with the vocative ? 
Which with the accusative? 
What is the remark on interjections ? 
What is understood in heumemiserum? 
The twenty-eighth rule ? Examples, with the En 

elish. 
What is the first observation ? The second ? Tbt 

third ? 
The twenty-ninth rule? Examples. 
If the substantives are of different persons ? ganders? 
To what is this applicable ? 
If the substantives signify things without life ? 
What is the renus ? 

What is the fourth observation ? and the fifth ? 
What is remarked after the fifth observation ? 
What is the figure syllepsis ? See page 166. 
The thirtieth rule ? Examples with English. 
What is the remark on interrogatives ? And quit 
What is the note ? 
When have etsi, tametsi, &c. the indicative, tpA 

when the subjunctive mood ? # 

What is said of'^correspondent conjunctions l^' 
When is wf elegantly omitted ? 
How are ut ana quod distinguished ? 
When is ui taken in a negative sense ? 
When is ne taken in a positive sense? 
What does the thirty-first rule re^urd ? 
Repeat the thirty-first rule, with the examples. 
Wnen do neuter verbs govern the accusative? 
And when have they an ablative? 
What is the secopd observation ? The third ? and 

the fourth ? 
What does the thirty-second rule regard ? 
Repeat it, with examples. 
What other verbs govern the genitive? Are tbef 

construed different^ ? 
How is the genitive after verbs really governed ? 
Repeat the tnirty-third rule, with examples. 



AOAM*S LATIN G&AMMAB. t 

le thirty-fourth role? What the thirty- Fiftieth rule. Supine mu? 

_ ^ j3 .. What is the first observation ? Thesecomi? lie 

most verbs compoonded with fi^er gov- third? 

, ^ ^ Repeat the four circumstances. 

JM thirty-suEth nik? Repeat the five Fiftr-first rule. Price, in what case? What ex- 
ceptions? 

s added ? What excited ? When the substantive is added ? 

le 4rst observation ? .What the second ? How is the ablative go vemjBd ? 

Fifnr-second rule. Manner and cause? How Is tliis 
ablative governed ? 



hat may be added? 

e fourth observation ? and the fifth ? 

B thirty-seventh rule ? Examples. 

9 first observation ? and ttie second ? 

i thirty-eighth rule? Examples. 

fvo ana indigeo govern ? 

ablative here governed ? 

s thirty-ninth rule ? Examples. 

dded to these f What does potior gov- 

sometimes what other case? 

fortieth rule? Elxamples. 
isition ever repeated? Which do not 

itrued only with the preposition ? 

lit other prepositions ? Do any govern 

? m 

this rule take place f 

) subject of the forty-first rule? Re- 

er manner is the infinitive governed ? 

aing word ever understood ? 

live itself ever omitted ? 

the infinitive called by the ancients ? 

es does it supply the place of a noun ? 
aples. 

3nt construction is used ? 
£nglt^ verbs may to be omitted ? 
be rendered in Latin ? Give examples, 
tter English, a house to let, or to 6e let ? 



9 

What is the ablative of concomitancy? What is 

the adjunct.? 
When we express the matter of which a thing is 

made.^ 
Fifty-third rule. Measure or distance ? 
After what words is the accusative or ablative put ? 

How governed ? 
When we express the measure of more thhigs 

than one ? 
When is the genitive used ? The accusative ? The 

ablative ? 
The excess or difference ? 
Fifty-fourth rule. Time? Time w:hen? How 

long? 
Precise time ? Continuance ? Circumstances how 

expressed ? 
The abverb abhinc ? 

Fifty-fifth rule. Verbs governing two cases ? Ex- 
amples. 
Which are the verbs of accusing? What other 
case have they after them ? What is said of cri- 
men and caput ? Many verbs of accusing are 
how construed ? 
What do they sometimes govern ? 
Fifw-sixth rule. Examples. Which are the verbs 

of valuing ^ 
Aestimo governs? Eqvi and boni? How is this 

eenitive governed ? 
Fifty-seventh rule. Repeat the examples, 
subjecfof the forty-second rule ? Re- How is this rule otherwise expressed ? Examples. 



th the example 

English sign ? 

he accusanve depend upon ? 

lird observation. The fourth, the fiflh. 

forty-third rule ? Examples. 

ssive participles often spvem ? 

MiM, B.nd pertcutis ? Verbals in 6«n- 

I form a periphrasis ? 



said 



How else are these verbs construed ? 

What is the second observation ? 

Verbs, signifying motion or tendency to a thing. 

Is the accusative ever understood ? What is sai 

of to in English ? 
Fifty-eighth rule. Examples. 
Which are the verbs of asking? of teaching? 
Cdo ? How o^rwise are these verbs construed ? 
How is the accusative of the thing governed ? 
legantly construed with a participle in Fifty-ninth rule. Example. 

Which are the verbs of loadm^ of binding? of un- 
loading ? loosing ? depriving ? clothmg ? un- 
clothing ? 
How is the ablative governed ? Expressed ? or un- 
derstood ? 
Do any of these verbs govern other cases ? 
Sixtieth rule. Examples. 
Has the active ever three cases ? 
Passive verbs how construed ? 
Preposition when understood? How \sper iiscrl ? 
The gerund in dum of the What cases do passive verbs govern ? Videor / 

Ifiduor,amicior ? &c. Neuter verbs? Passive injjier- 



iinds construed ? Examples. 
)rty-fourth rule with the examples, 
this gerund import ? What is often 
I? What is the forty-fifth rule? How 
id in di governed ? 
d with the genitive plural? 
ale. The gerund in do of the dative? 
ve ever understood ? Examples, 
ever governed by verbs ? 
h rule. 
? 

1 governed by other prepositions ? sonals, how applied ? 

depend upon and govern ? What cases do they govern ? 

rule. The gerund in <to of the ab- Sixty-first rule. 'Examples. 

What verbs are used impersonally in the passi'vo* 
lis gerund resemble ? - and what case do ihey govern ? Examples, 

ds may be turned into participles? When arepotest^ ecepit, &c. used impersonally? 
gerunds, what case is used ? Examples What verbs are used both personally and iinprr- 
itive, dative, and accusative. What sonally ? 

What is said of the pronoun it, and of the Latin 
infinitive ? Is the dative understood ? 

Sixty-second rule. Examples. The paragraph ? 

In what case do some think meoy tvay sva^ &,c. to bfi ? 

With what nominatives are interest and refer I 



t changed ? What exception ? 

lie. Supine in wm? How elegantly 



with iri ? 

put after any other verbs ? 
ly the meaning of this supint be ex- 



joined ? 
With what adverbs are they construed? 



10 



UUESTIONS OX 



What other case do they take ? Are they ever put 

absolutely ? 
How is the genitive after the verbs interest and re» 

fert governed ? 
Sixty-third rule. Examples ? How is the genitive 

here governed ? 
What may supply the place of the genitive ? 
What is frequently understood ? 
How aire miscret^ poenitet, &c. used ? 
With what is rrUseret joined ? 
What is remarked of the preterites of these verbs ? 
Sixty-fourth rule. Examples? 
Are these verbs ever used personally ? 
With wliat case is decet construed i 
With what is oporiet joined f 
What is the fourth observation ? 
What is the note? 
Repeat the four circumstances of place. At or in ? 

To'f From ox by? 
Sixty-fifth rule. Examples ? 
What is the first observation? The second ? 



Sixty-sixth rule. Examples? 
.Repeat the first observation. What is the Mcond 
observation ? 

Sixty-seventh rule. Examples? Remaik? 

Sixty-eighth rule. Examples ? Repeat tbe six ob- 
servations and the remark on peto ? 

Sixty-ninth rule. Examples? 

Why is the case called oAMAxfe ? What is ths re- 
mark? 

The participles of deponent and common vats? 

What is frequently understood ? 

What must sometmies be supplied ? 

What may be considered the substantive ? 

Does the verb supply the place of a substantive? 

What is said of a substantive plural ^ 

How is the ablative absolute gpvemed ? 

Is the preposition ever expressed ? 

How may the ablative absolute be rendered ? 

How does the present participle end ? 

What case in English is usea independently ? 



APPSNDXZ TO STUTAZ. 9 

It is recommended to tbe student, to read orer carefull^r, the phrases from the 156fh to 
the 166th pa^e; a few at a time, until he can give, without nesitatioD, the English or 
the Latin of any one which may be required. 



FIGURES OP SYNTAX. 

What is a figure ? For what is it used ? 
To how many may the figures of syntax be re- 
duced ^ Repeat them. What do they respect ? 

1 . What is ellipsis? Give the examples ? 

What is the meaning of scil? Ans. scilicet, for 
scire licet, you may know ; understand ; supplv. 

N. B. The ellipsis slunUd always be supplied by the 
student. 

What is Asyndeton ? EnaUage ? Antiptosis ? 
Hellenism ? Synesis ? 

When is a style said to be elliptical or concise ? 

2. What is Pleonasm? Polysyndeton? Hendiadys? 
Periphrasis. 

3. What is IJyperbaton ? Explain the six sorts of 
this figure and give the Latin phrases. What is 
Anastrophe? Hysteron proteron? Hypallage? 
Synchcsts? Tmesis? Parenthesis? 

ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. 

From what arises the difficulty of translating ? 

\Vhat advantage has the Latin over the En^ish ? 

Are inversions used in English ? By whom chiefly ? 
For what purpose ? 

What rule is given for the order of words in trans- 
lating ? 

What is simple or natural order? Artificial or ora- 
torial ? 

What is said of Latin writers ? 

\V\mt direction is given for rendering? 

In translating, what words are to be taken first? 
what next ? then ? lastiy ? 

\yhat is to be supplied through the whole * 

ir tlie sentence is compound ? Example ? 

Resolve it into its component parts. 

Wliat is analogical analysis ? 

Parse the sentence given in the words of the autiior. 
What is first? Ans. The Latin word What 
second? Ans. The English. What third? Ans. 
Name the part of speech. If it is a noun, how 
is it parsed ? Ans.. Repeat the declension, gen- 
der, noni. and gen. cases, tell the case and agree- 
ment or government, and give the rule. If it is 
a verb, how is it parsed ? Ans. What kind, the 
conjugation by number, repeat the principal parts; 
mood, tense, person, number, agreement and rule. 
What mny be Fubjoined to this? 



When a learner first begins to translate, what should 
he do ? What afterwards ? What will be neces- 
sary? 

DIFFERENT KINDS OF STYLE. 

How many difiierent kinds of style ? Repeat then. 

What other characters of style r 

Explain the adaptation of style, and the s^le of 

dififercnt authors. 
What deserves particular attention ? 
What is the first virtue of style ? (virtus oratioms.) 

What does this require ? To what is each op* 

posed ? What things are to be attended to ? Re< 

peat and explain the three ? 
Wliat are the most common defects of style? (vtfui 

oraiionis.) 
N. B. Ijet the learner repeat tJie LaUn phrcaes as tf- 

ten as they occur. 
Wliat is a barbarism ? Examples. 
Solecism ? Idiotism ? Tautology ? Bombast ? Am- 

phibology ? 

FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 
What are they ? Their division ? Tropes ? 

TROPES, OR FIGURES OF WORDS. 

What is a trope ? The origin of tropes? Their foun- 
dation ? What are the three principal ? 

What is a metaphor ? An allegory ? An enigma 
or riddle ? proverbs or adages ? 

When are metaphors improper ? 

Caiachresis? Syllepsis? Metonymy? Explain the 
six kinds. 

Metnlepsis ? Synecdoche ? Escplain the three kinds. 

Anionomasia? Periphrasis? Irony? Sarcasm? 
Litotes? Antiphrasis? Euphemismus ? Para^ 
phrase? Ononwiopccia? 

What is difficult'* needless? sufficient? 

Can all tropes be literally translated ? How ex- 
plained ? 

REPETITION OP WORDS. 

What are figures of words? 

Kxnlain the figures following, namely, Anaphora, 
Epistrophe, Symploce, Epanalepsisr Anadaplosis, 
Epanodos, Epizeuxis, Cumax, Polyptoton, Syno- 
njrma, Expolitio, Antanaclasis, Faronomosia, 
nomoiontoton, Homoioteleuton. 



ADAM'S LATIN GRAMMAR. 



H 



FIGURES OF THOUGHT, 
eure the principal ? 

n witk examples, Hyporbole, Prosopopoeia, 
strophe, Simile, Antitbesis, InteiTogatioii,£x- 
lation. Description, Emphasis, Epanartlrosis, 
Iq>si8, Apanthmesis, Sjmatbroismus, Cli- 
, Transition, Suspensio, Concessio, IVotep- 
^nacoinosis, Licentia, Aposiopesis, Senten- 
r Maxim. 

ire the parts of a regular oration ? 
is the use of the introduction ? 

aUANTTTY OP SYLLABLES. 

s quantity? Prosody? Long and short ? The 
of each ? Common ? Long or shurt by na- 
* Penult? Antepenult? \uthoriiy? 
s the remark on Latm pronunciation ? 

GENERAL RULES. 

5 the first rule ? 

s fi in verse ? 

3t exception ? Example from Ovid ? 

:ond exception ? Pompei ? 

ird exception ? What is said of lllius ? Uni- 

Alius ? Alterius ? In Greek words ? 

7er the catalogue of short, long and common, 

itedly until the words are familiar. 

s said of nouns in eus ? 

tjjoct of prosody being of very great impor- 

!, it is recommended to commit to memory, 

e rules and exceptions with the mostpartic' 

care, and also to — 

the rules by numbers promiscuously — 

the examples in the same mamier — 

the exceptions to the rules by number. 

3 accent r What is its use ? Emphasis ? 

the rules for accent on page 191. 

any are the accents? 

3 the effect of the acute? The grave ? The 

m^x? 

oes the circumflex mark? Ans. Acontrac- 



VERSE. 

/erse. Why so called ? 

iYhat is the use of this division ? 

FEET. 

any kinds? Repeat them ? 

bot is omnes? Deus? Amans? Servus? 

ere ? &c. &^. 

\ the quantity of o in amnes ? What rule ? 

s tibe quantity of c in onmts ? What rule ? 

96 questions be asked on every syllabie of 

samples under feti. 

SCANNING. 

( scaxmin^? What is a perfect verse called ? 
. pliable is wanting, what is it called ? 
here is a syllable too much ? 
i DepositiOf or clausula ? 

HEXAMETER. 

L does a Hexameter consist ? 
Lher name has it ? 
5 the feet ? 
Jie example ? 
nd mark it? Ans. 

quae vel 1 1cm cala | m5 per 1 mlslt a ] grestT. 
le feet ? Ans. Ijudcre^ dactyl : ouce vel, 
ee ; lem cala, dactyl ; mo per, sponclee ; mi- 
iactyl : gresH^ spondee. 
ule for each syllable ? Ans. Lai, u is long 
thorinr ; de, e is short before r. Rule 25 of 
n's Prosody, page 30 of Prof Anthon's 
\y ; re, e is short. Rule 12 of this book ; 
J IS long, being a diplhong, Rule 4 : Vel, e is 



long by position, Rule 2; lem, e is loiig by posi- 
tion ; cal, a is short by authority ; a, a is short by 
authority ; nw, o is long. Rule 14, Exception 1 ; 
jwr, e is long by position, Rule 2 ; mi, > is long, 
Rules 21 and 5 ; sit, i is short. Rule 16 ; a, a is 
short. Rule 2, paragraph ; gres, e is long by posi- 
tion ; ft, i is long. Rule 13. 

Remark 1. When a student begins any poetic au- 
thor, the first exercise should be scanning, in the 
full fonn above written ; always repeating tlie 
ruleti, at first in full, and afterwards by number. 
This exercise should be continued until he is per- 
fect ; which will be in a short time, provided he is 
industrious, and depends on his own exertions, 
rather tlian his teacher. He idiould write out 
fairly, in a book, 100 lines or more, and at every 
recitation produce a hexameter verse or two, in 
which he is to regard quantity only, not sense. 
This is commonly called nonsense verse. This 
practice will lead him to compose in verse, and 
sense will soon succeed to nonsense. 

Remark 2. It is best always to ^ive a rule for tlie 
syllable under consideration, without regard to its 
position in the line ; for instance, the final i of the 
above line, is long by the rule given, rather than 
by the paragraph under the 19th Rule, whicii 
should be ^iven when a syllable otherwise short 
ends the Ime. 

Remark 3. Many syllables may and ought to be 
traced to the Ureek for their quantity, but when 
a student has no knowledge of Greek, he ma}* 
say by autJioriiy, unless his teacher should spe- 
cially direct him otherwise. 

Scan the second line in the same manner, and all 
the lines given as examples. 

How many syllables has a hexameter ? 

What is a spondaic line? When is this used ? 

What has it in the fourth place ? What in the end ? 

When there is a syllable in the end superfluous ? 

What hexameters sound best ? 

WHiat is esteemed a ^reat beauty in hexameter ? 

Point out the Ecthlipses in the third and fourth 
lines. See page 185. 

What deserves particular attention ? 

What isCxsura? Repeat the various names of the 
Caesura. Repeat the line which includes all the 
difierent sp^ies of CsBsura. What is the most 
common and beautiful (/oesura ? And the Caesu- 
ral phrase ? When the Ceesura falls on a s}'llablc 
naturally short? 

On what depends the chief melody of a hexameter 
verse ? Without this what will the line be ? 

What is said of the Roman method of reading 
verse? What in modem times ? By what are wc 
directed ? How should we read ? 

PENTAMETER. 

"What is Pentameter verse ? Give examples ? Scan 
these lines. How is this verse divided ? Write 
the examples. How does it end ? 

ASCLEPIADEAN. 

Describe it and give the example. 

Describe and scan the other kinds, to No. 10. 

The student fihould be able to name and scan any 

kind of verse without hesitaiion; othenoise he 

toill be unable to read Horace. 
From what are the names derived ? 
Name the other kinds of verse. 
Give a particular account of Iambic verse. Name 

the different kmds ? 

FIGURES IN SCANNING. 

What are figures of scanning? Repeat them. 
Define Synalccpha. Give an example. Is it over 

neglected ? In what rtorp it soMotn tak« plfir*» 

i-xample ? 



12 



QUESTIONS 02i 



WrA -IE S8xl of loDg vowels and dipthongs? See 
Prof. Anthonys Prosody. 

What is Ecthiipsis ? Example. What is the re- 
mark ? Repeat the examples. What are these 
verses called ? Why? 

What is Si/noiresis^ What is it likewise called? 
Examples. What may be referred to this figure ? 

DuEresis'/ What is its K>rm? Give examples. 

Systole? Diastole? What may be subjoined ? 

Efefine and give examples of 1. Prosthesis, Epenihe- 
sis, Parago^. 2. Aphtaresis, Syncope, Apocope. 
3. Metathesis, Antithesis. 

DIFFERENT KINDS OF POE3AS. 

Wliat is a poem ? Explain the different kinds of 

Doems. 
Wnat is an Epithalamium? &>c. &c. 

COMBINATION OF VERSES. 

What authors use Hexameters? Iambic or Tro- 
chaic ? 

What authors combine different verses ? 

When is an ode called Monocdlos, or Monoc^on ? 
Dicdlon? Tricolon? Dicolon distrophon? 

What is elegiac verse ? By whom used ? 

When is a poem called Dicolon tristrdphon ? Dico- 
lon tetrastrophon ? Tricolon tristrdpnon ? Trico- 
lon tetrastrdphon ? Carmen Horatianum? Stro- 
phe, stanza, or staff? 

What are the different kinds of verse used by Hor- 
ace and Buchanan ? 

APPENDIX. 

What is punctuation? What are points? Name 
and write them. Explain the use of each. 

What is the semi-period ? Expla'm the other points 
and marks. 

How are capitals used ? 

Explain tlie abbreviations mentioned. 

Should we write LL. D. or L. L. D. ? Ans. LL. D. 
without a point between the two eUs, because it is 
the abridged form of the plural number uniformly 
made by repeating the letter, as Ms. sing. J\hs. 
plural. Ler. law ; Le^. laws. CoSy consul ; 
Coss, consuls. P. page ; pp. pages. M. Mon- 
sieur ; JIIM. Messieurs, and many others. LL. D. 
Legum Doctor, fonneriy was Doctor of both 
Laws ; viz. the canon and the dvU Law. 

Explain the Roman method of notation. What 
says Pliny ? Explain the modem manner Which 
is superior? 

Explain the division of the Roman months, and 
write out th« table b fuU. 

Are the names of the months substantives or adjec- 
tives. 

END 07 Tin GRAMMAB. 



FARSIMGw 

What is parsing? Ans. BaraQ| is Um aiialjiis of 
the words of a language 

What? When f Why? cspluntd. Tbe prapcr 
answer to these thrae words obotains tbe wbok 
subject of parsiiu, a practise which should com- 
mence with the &st decteisicm, mod cootiiifieto 
tbe end of the classic couiae. 

What ? A—uNoun, declenmon, gender, ooiniiistifi 
and genitive. 

Where ? Dative singular (tbe case.) 

Why ? Governed by— ^the govemiog word.) 

What ? An adjective of three terminations. 

Ua—a^-ftm, where ? In the dative sing. fsm. nffm- 
ing with (the noun.) 

Why ? The adjective agrees, iLC 

What ? A verb active (or oUber) Ist conjugatkn o, 
are, avi, atum. 

Where? Indicative mode, tense, person, numbo^ 
agreeing with its nominative (name it.) 

Why ? Rq)eat tbe rule. 

Example. Scribo pulchras literas. 

Scribo (I write.) What? A verb active of thethiid 
conjugation, scribo, scribere, seripsi, s er ip t m n. 

Where ? Indicative mode, present tense, first penooi 
singular number, agreemg with its nonunatirf 
Ego understood. 

(Why?) The verb agrees with its nominative case 
in number and person. 

Pulchras (beautiful.) What? An adjective of three 
terminations, ptUcher, puldira,pulchrum. 

(Where ?) In the accusative plursd, feminine gender, 
agreeing with literas. 

(Why ?) The adjective agrees with its substantive 
in number, case, and gender. 

Literas (letters.) See Grammar, page 87. ' 

(What ?) A noun, first declension, feminine gender 
litercR, Uteranan, in this sense,want8 the singubii^ 

(Where ?) In the accusative case, plural, goveioed 
by the active verb scribo. 

(Why?) By Rule 81. Repeat it. 

The participle should be parsed as a part of tbe 
verb. Say a participle, tense, voice, from tbe ac- 
tive verb «cnoo of the third conju^tion ; (tiie 
same form as before) and say partksiples become 
adjectives when they have no regard to time. 

A similar form may be observed throughout 

Dr. Adams* form is different, and by some may be 
preferred. They both, however, contain tbe esoie 
specifications, and it is important that popib 
should be taught to adhere to a particular fcro. 
Otherwise they will never know how to jgsne 
without beixu; asked all tbe minute qpecificatiooi» 
a practice wSich should be avoided as n*uch ai 
possible. 



IS 



^ 



r 



t 



?ir 



B 

Es- fi- 
rs' 



3. ^ 5- 









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(% 



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S 33 3 3 

M n (B C 

3 
Br- 






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■| llli 



pDi 0)i pei £i a 



& 



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SI- 
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g! S! s e* &* 

0> 0: c 9, 3 




f< £! &' E£i K' ^ v pi pi »i ft* 
B* (tag's l^i'i'i'B 



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J* g J«» 






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9 



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3 g. CD 5 9 

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at «D> pi a, ffi El e>* S' fi! &!^ 






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If 



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ffl pi pi 

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B* PI p> e> E< 3: 



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SYHOFBIS OP THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



I "i '• * 

Ud IT J 

S IK »•. 

00 e 1 ' 

s l> 

sg VSnm, erU, 

m iTl 



8UBJUKCTIVE MOOD 



SABBIVE VOICE. 
lAou, At, tet. 



bamiQ], bantm. 



ve^ Am oi £,) 

«fU, Doe «» e,f 

B^ L«g or *,f 

■ari, Aud ior 1,) 

Am i\ 

Doc ^ f ba't 

Aua i«) 

Doe /nitiumiitl eiHffu- ntw. itnimuiml tlMiiwI ti 

Lee r liii, ieti, fuit, fliimui, iiitSt, i 

Aud t ) 

W, Am l\ 

Dm f 

Aud i ) 



Iti 



ihaUbe, 



maybe. 



might be. 



may have 
been 



might have 
been. 



shall haw 
been. 



Am 
Doc 
Leg 
Aud 

Am 
Doc 

Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Leg 
Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Lcc 
Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Lcc 
Aud 

Am 
Doc 
Lee 

Aud 






cur. 



cr. 



ar. 



^'I'J'^ etur, 
ere, 



rer. 



tus sim vel 
fuerim, 



tus essem vd 
fuissem. 



eris, vd 
ere, 

aris, vd 
axe, 



reris, vel 
rere. 



etur, 
atur, 

retur, 



bimur, 
emur, 

emur, 

amur, 

remur, 



sis vel fue- sit vel fue- ti simus vd 
ris rit, fuerimus, 



esses vel csset vel ti essemus vel 
fuisses, fuisset, fuissemus 



bjfflini» buutur. 
emini, entur. 



emmi. 



entur. 



tus fuero, fueris, 



fuerit, 



ammi, antur. 



remmi, rentur. 



sitis vd aiiit vd 
fueritis fuerint 



essetisvel essentvel 
fuissetis, iuisgeDL 



ti fuerimus, fueritis, AiMrioL 






thou, 
do, ^ Am 
M Doc e\ 

I Leg ii 
'i Alia r 



tJuju, 

he, ^ Am 
•| Doc 
I Leg 

fti Aud 



vd to, 



ef re vd tor, 

1$ ' 



Present. 

lOf ^ Am a] 

.» Doo ef 

^ Aud 

to bSf ^ Am 

.g Doc 

3 Leg 

O, Aud 



Active. 
^ Am a' 

C Doc el 
¥ Leg e| 
(44 Aud ie 



qj Am 

i Doc 

!a Lee 

^ Aud 



:i 



GERUNDS. 




re. 



n, 

i 

n 



ns, ns, 
ntis, ntjs. 



turns a 



ndum, di, 



IMPERATIVE. 
he, 

to, 

he, 
tor, 

IISFINITIVE. 



to 
have. 



Perfect. 
Am av 
Doc 
Leg 
Aud 



to Am 

have Doc 

6em, Lee 

Aud 



f. 



PARTICIPLES. 



ns, 
ntis, &c. 



urn. 



da 



FINIS. 



te vd tate, 
mini. 



isae, 



tus esse vd 
fbine. 



^ Am 
^ Doc 
fe* Lee 

»i Aud 

^ Am 

^ Doc 

I Leg 

fei Aud 



fhty, 
nto. 



u 
u 



ntoc 
a 
la 



Futwrt. 
Am fi^ 

Doe f tiiruB esse vd 
Leo t ftiissai 
Aud I> 



Am 
Doe 
Lee 
Aud 



Pastivi. 

tus a 



Cum ill, 



am. 



ndus, a, lan. 



SUPINES. 



Am 
Doe 
Lee 

Aud 



;i 



tOD, tik 



't 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

FIRST CONJUGATION, PASSIVE VOICE. 



17 



PRINCIPAL PARTS. 



Pre*. Indie, 
Amor, 



Perf. Part. 
Am&tuS) 



Pres. Infin. 
Araari, to be lored. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Singular, 

nor, 

naris, V. Amare, 

natur; 



Present Tense, am loved. 

Plural 

Amamur, 
Amamfni, 
Amantar. 

Imperfect, utas loved. , 

nabar, Amabamur, 

nabaris, r. AmAbare, Amabamlni, 

nabatur ; Amabantur 

Perfect, have been loved, 

natus sum, r. fiii, Amati 8iuiiiu,v. fuimui, 

nattiB OS, V. fuifti, Amati estis, v. fiustii, 

aatus est, v. fuit ; Amati sunt, v, fu^runt, v. fuerc. 

Pluperfect, had been loved. 

natuB eram, v. fueram, Amati eramut, r. fueramus, 

aatiu ems, v. fueras, Amati enitis, v. fueratis, 

natus erat, v. fuerat ; Amati eront, v. fuerant. 

Future, tkeUlf or vnll be loved. 

n&bor, Am&blTmur, 

a&beri8,t;. Am&b&re, Amabimini, 

nabltur; Amabuntur. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, may, or can be loved. 

iier, Am^mnr, 

neris, v. Aro^re, Amcmini, 

netur ; Amentur. 

Imperfect, might, could, tDOuld, or Aotdd be lared 

aarer, Am&r£mur, 

narSris, v. Amardre, Amaremini, 

naretur; Amarentur. 

Perfect, maty have been loved. ' 

aatus sim, v. fuerim, Amati sinms, v. fuerirous, 

natus sis, «. fueris, Amati sitis, v. fueritis, 

natus sSt, v. fuerit ; Amati siut, v. fuerint. 

Pluperfect, mi^, would, could, or ahould have been loved. 

natus essem, «. fliissem, Amati essemus, r. fiiissemus, 

natus esses, v. ftnsses, Amati essetis, v. fuissetis, 

natus esset, v. fuisseC; Amati essent, v. fuissent. 

Future, tfiall have been loved. 

natus fuj^ro, Amati fufirtmus, 

natus fueris, Amati fueritis, 

natus fuerit} Amati fuerint. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

nare, v. ator, be thou loved, Amamjtni, be ye loved, 
n&tor, let him be loved; Amantor, let them be loved. 

INFINrriVE MOOD. 

Amari, to be loved. 

Esse, V. fuisse amatus-aHtti, to hme been loved. 

Amfitum ixifiobe tdwuttobt loved. 

PARTiaPl£S. 

AmaAos-a-um, loved , 

Amandus-arumi to.ic loved* 
B 



EXERQdES. 

Omo, to deck. 
Oro, to beg. 
Paco, to subdue. 
Paro, to prepare 
Pecco, to tin, 
Pio, to expiate 
Placo, to appean 
Porto, to carry. 
Privo, to deprive, 
Probo, to tunprove, 
Pugno, tojfght 
Puto, to think. 
Rogo, to ask. 
Saluto, to salute. 
Sano, to heal. 
Sedo, to aUay. 
Sibilo, to hiss. 
Simulo, to mretend. 
Specto, to behold, 
Spero, to hope. 
Susurro, to wkieper. 
Tolero, to bear. 
Turbo, to didurb. 
Velo, to cover. 
Vigilo, to uwto/k. 
Violo, to violate. 
Voco, to call, 
Vulgo, to spread abroad 
Vulnero, to vwund, 

EZCSPTlOMfl 

Do, to give. 
Sto, to stand. 
Lavo, to toiii^. 
Poto, to Aink, 
Ju?Oy to help. 
Cube, to lie, 
Domo, to subdue. 
Sono, to sound, 
Tono, to thunder. 
Veto, to forbid. 
Crepo, to make a noiH* 
Frico, to rub, 
Seco, to cut. 
Ncco, to kill. 
Mico, to glitter. 

DEPOVBVT 
AHD COVHOir TEBMU 

Abominor, to abhor, 
Adulor, to flatter. 
Arbitror, to think. 
Bacchor, to revel. 
Conor, to endeavour. 
Criminor^ to blame* 
Cnnctor, to delay, 
Dominor, to rule. 
Epulor, to feast. 
Frustror, to dtte^ppokU, 
Glorior, to boast. 
Hortor, to encourage 
Imitor, to imitate. 
Luctor, to wresUe. 
Machinor, to eonirive. 
Minor, to threaten. 
Opinor, to think. 
Osculor, to kiss. 
Anecor, to pray 
Becordor, to remember. 
Saq|>icor, to su^jieet. 
To§tmt,lowiinoss. 
Vcneror, to ufortk^ 
yaoatTitokmd. 



IS 

Censeoi to judge. 
Misceo, to mix. 
Sorb«o, to sup. 
Teneo, to hold. 
Torreo, to roast. 

Ui asid Itum . 
Habeo, to have. 
Adhibeo, to admU. 
Cohibeo, to restrain. 
Exhibeo, to exkibii. 
Periiibeo, to gioe oui. 
' Frdiibeo, to nisider. 
Posthabeoi to value lets. 
BedhibeOyV* returnathing, 
DebeO| to owe. 
Mereoi to deserve. 
Moneo, to admonish. 
Pk«beo, to affwd. 
Caleo, to he warm. 
Careo, to want. 
Jaceo, fo lie. 
Doleo, to be grieved. 
Liceo, to he lawful. 
Noceo, to hurt. 
Pareo, to appear. 
Placeo, tooieate. 
Taceoi to oe tUenf. 

uii sup. caret. 
Albeo, to he white. 
Calleo, to be hard. 
Ouaeof to he heary. 
Egeoj to want, 
Emineoi to be emfnenf. 
Floreo, to flourish. 
Frendeoi to gnaA the teeth. 
Frondeoi to bear leaves. 
Horreo, to be r&ugh. 
Humeo, to he wet. 
Immineoi to hang over. 
LangueO) to languish. 
Liquco^ to melt. 
Maceo, to be lean. 
Niteo, to Aine. 
Palico, to be pale. 
Pateoi to be open. 
PutreOy to rot. 
Rigeo, to he stiff. 
Rubeo, to he red. 
Studeo, to favour. 
StupeO) to he amaatd, 
Splendeo, to thiae^ 
Tepeoy to he u>arm. 
Torpeo, to be benumJfed, 
^'Tiimeoi to swell. 
Aroeo, fo drive away. 
SUeoj to conceal. 
Tuneo, to fear. 

Beo emd Ceo. 
Jubeo, to order. 
Miilceo, to soothe. 
Luceo, to shine. 
Deo. 
Prandeo, to dine. 
Video, to see. 
Sedeo, to sit. 
Strideo, to make a noise. 
Mordeoi to bite. 
Pendeoy to hang. 
Sp^pudeoy t^promise. 
'fo^deo, fo efy. 
RemordeO) to bite again. 



CX)NJUGATION OF VERBS. 



SECOND CONJUGATION, ACTIVE VOICE 



PRUICIPAL PABTS. 



Pres. Indie. 
Dficeo, 



Pcrf. Indie. 
Ddcui, 



Supine. 
D5€tiiiii, 



Pres. Infin. 
Ddcerc, to teach. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 

1. Doceo, IteaiA, 

2. Doces, thou teachest, 

3. Docet, he teaches ; 



Present Tense, teadh or am teaching. 

Ftitral. 
Docemus, we iecu:h, 
Docetis, ye feachj 
Docent, they teacl^ 

Imperfect, taught. 

1. Doc^bam, I taught, Docebamus, we taught j 

2. Docebas, thou taughtefilt Docebatis, ye taugfU, 

3. Docebat, he taught ; Docebant, they taught. 

Perfect, haaoe taught. 

1. Docui, Ihax)e taught, Docufmus, we have taught , 

2. Docuisti, thou hast taught, Docuistis, ye have taught, 

3. Docuit, he has taught ; Docuerunt, v. ere, they have taught. 

Pluperfect, had taught. 

1. DocuSram, / had taught, Docueramus, we ftad taught, 

2. Docuerafl, thou hadst taught, Docueratis, ye had taught, 

3. Docuerat, he had taught ; Docuerant, they had tetug^ 

Future, ^uUl, or tnll teach. 

1. Doc£bo, / thail teach, Doceblmus, we shall teach, 

2. Docebis, thou shall teach, Docebitis, ye shall teach, 

3. Docebit, he s/tall teach ; Docebunt, they dioll teach. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, may, or can tcacJi. 

1. Doccam, / may leach, Doce&mus, we may teach, 

2. Doceas, thou mayest teach, Doceatis, we may teach, 

3. Doceat, he may teach ; Doceant, they may teadt. 

Imperfect, might, could, woiUd, or should teach. 

1. Doc^rem, I might teach, Docerfyaava,we might tecuJi, 

2. Doceres, thou mightest teach, Doceretis, ye migS teae/i, 

3. Doceret, he might teach ; Docerent, they might teadi. 

Perfect, may have taught. 

1. DocuSrim, Tmay4iave taught, DocuerYmui, we may have taught, 

2. I>ocueris,thoumayestfutvetavi^, Docueritis, ye may have taughi, 

3. Docuerit,. he may have taught ; Docuerint, thty may have taug^. 

Pluperfect, mtgU, wmM, eoMld, or should have taug/U. 

1. Docuisson, / mif^ht have taugfU, Docuisstoius, we mitht have tauAi^ 

2. Docuissefl, <Aou miff AtojfAave/augA4,Docui88etis, ye miffu have tauffit, 

3. Docuisset, he might have taught ; Docuttsent, they might have taughi 

Future, ^uUl have /ougJU. 

1 . DocuSro, / shaU have taught, Docuerlmus, we shall have ttmghi, 

2. Docueris, thou shall have tau^, Docueritig, ye shall have taught, 

3. Docuerit, he shall have tau^ ; Docuerint, they shall have taught. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



2, Doce, V. doceto, tecuh thou, 

3. Doceto, Ut him teach; 



Doc<te,v. docetote, teach ye, 
Docento, let them teacfi. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. Doc&e, to teach. Perf. Docuisse, to have taught. 
Put. Esse docturus, to frt Jbaut to teach. Tuhae docturus, to hm>e been 
about to teach. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. Doceni, teaching. Put. Dodurus, about to teach. 

GERUNDS. 
Docendum-di-do-dum-do, teaching, of teaching, &c. 

SUPINES. '- 
Former Doctiun, to teach. Utter. Iht^ ta tew^, or to be taug^ 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

SECOND CONJUGATION, PASSIVE VOICE. 



19 



PRINCIPAL PARTS. 



Pres. Indie. 



Per/. Part. 
DGctOs, 



Pres, Infin. 
Ddceri, to be taught. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



1. 
2. 

3. 



1. 
2. 
3. 



2. 
3. 

1. 
2. 
3. 



Singular. 
Doceor, 

Doc^is, V. docerey 
I>ocetur ; 



V 
ii^ 1. 

Vv 2. 



^ 



1. 

s. 
a 

1. 

2. 

3. 



1. 

- 2. 

3. 



► 



Flresent Tense, am taught. 

Plural. 
Docemur, 
Docemlni, 
Doceutur. 

Imperfect, was taught. 

Docebar, Docebamur, 

Doc^b&iift, V. docebare, Docebaminiy 

Pocebatur , Docebantur. 

Perfect, have been taught. 

Doctus sum, V. fui, Docti snmiu, v. fuimus, 

Doctus C8, V. fuisti, Docti estis, v. fuistis, 

Doctus est, V. fuit; Docti sunt, v. fu€runt v. fuere. 

Pluperfect^ had been taught. 
Doctus cram^v. fueram, Docti eramus, v. fueramus, 

Doctus eras, V. fueras, Docti eratis,r. fueratis, 

,_Doctus erat, v. fuerat ', Docti erant, v. fuerant. 

Future, ^uUl, or will be taught, 

. Dooebor, Docebimur, 

iberiSyV. docebere, Docebimini, 

bitur ; Docebuntur. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

- Present Tense, mayj or can be taught. 

tear, Doceamur, 

Doce&ris, v. doceare, Doceamini, 

Doceatur; Doceantur. 

Imperfect, might, &c. be taught. 

Docerer, Doceremur,- 

Docer€ris, v. docerfire, Docereuum, 

Doceretur ; Docerentur. 

Perfect, may have been taught, 

Doetui nm, v. fuerim, Docti simui, v. fuerimus, 

Doctus sifly V. fberis, Docti sitis, v. fueritis, 

Doctus sit^ V, fuerit ; Docti sint, v. fuerint. 

niq>erfect, mighty &c. have been iaughi, 

Doctus esteni, v. fuissem, Docti essemus, v. fuissemus^ 

Doctus ess«s, v. fuisses, Docti essetis, v. fuissetis, 

Doctus esset, v. fuisset ; Docti essent, v. fuissent. 

Future, dudl hone been taught. 

Doctus fu«vo, Docti fuerimus, 

Doctus fueris, Docti fueritis, 

Doctus fuerit; Docti fuerint. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 




2. DocSre, v. etor, bt thou taught, Docemini, be ye taughi, 

3. Docetor, lei hUn be taught; Docentor, let them be taught. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Prei, Ddc^H, to be taught. ^ 

Per/, Esse, v. fuisse doctus-a-um, to have been taughi. 
Fui, Doctum iri, to be about to be taught. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Paf, Doctus-a-um, tauffii, 

#V#. pQcebdus-a-um, to be taught. 



EXERCISES. 



Obo. 
Augeo, to increate. 
Algeo, to be eold, 
FtHgeo, to Mm. 
Frigeo, to be cold, 
Indulgeo, to tiidli^e. 
Lugeo, to mourn. 
MiUgeo, to miik^ 
Tergeo, to wipe, 
Turgeo, to fiMtf . 
Urgeo^ to preet. ' 

hmo4 
Compieo, to Jili, 
Deleo, to blot out. 
Fleo, to weep, 
Adoleo, togrwo up. 
AholeOyto oMi^ 
Absoleo, togrwlB ouiofuM 
Insoleo, to grow into «!•• 
Exoleo, to fade. 

NbO ^UEO BECr 

Maneo, to tiay, 
NcO| to tpm* 
Hasreo, to jfidfc.^ 
Adhsreo, to adhere. 
Detorqueo, to wrett. 

Vbo. 
Foveo, to cherith. 
Moveo, to mave^ 
Voveo, to vow. ' 
Devoveo, to devote. 
Faveo, to favour. 
Caveo, to beware of. 
Ferveo, to be hoi. 
Conniveo, to wink, 

DEPONENTS. 

Mereor, to deserve. 
Polliceor, to promise. 
Tueor, to defend. 
Reor, to thvnk. 
Mi8ereor,to|itiEy. 
Fateor, to eonfim, 
Profiteor, to profees. 
Confiteor, to confess^ 

Egodoceo. Egodoceor^ 
Docti sumus. Doeeat illc 
Doceremur. Tu doctus e^, 
lUi docebantur. Nos do' 
cuimus. Docendaest Pe- 
trus docebitur. lUe doctus 
fuerit. Doceamurnoi. lib 
docebat Illadocebit. Doc- 
ti fuerint. Docetor. Docen- 
tor. Doctus. Docebarit 
Tu docebare. Doce. Eg< 
docerer. Vos doceremini 
Docerere. Tuamas. To 
docendus es. Docebitis 
Amabitis. Nos amennir 
Vos docemiai. AmafOr 
Docemini. lUa est ama» 
da. Amer. Ego anabor 
Tuameris. BKanwUdirt. 
Dooe^.^ Amantor^ Hof 
ainaMnrar. 



N. 



so 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



EXERdSSS/ 

la. 

Facio, t^do, fpmake. 
Jacio, to t^fvw. 
Allicio, to aiiure. 
£liciO| to drmf &vU. 
Fodio, to dig, 
Fugioi toflif. 
Capio, to tMte, 
Bapioy to tnakh, 
Cnpip, to daHin, 
Park), to brine forth* 
Quatio, to tkm%. 

Vo. 
Arguoi to argue. 
BatuO) to htS, 
Induo, to p\jd on ^Mut. 
Ezuo, to put qff clothes. 
Minuo, to Xenen. 
Spnoy to ipit. 
Statuo, to ordain. 
Stemnoy to «neese. 
Suo, to ttich, 

Tritnio, to gioet ^ divide. 
Flno, toflm». 

Bo. 
Bibo» to drmib. 
BGiiba, to tori/e. 
Nubo, to 6e morrud 
Accambo^o recline at table, 

Co. 
Dico, tosaif. 
DucOfto feocf. 
VinGo, to conquer. 
Parco, to oore. 
IcO| to mre. 

Sco. 
Nosco, to know. 
Dignosco, to distinguish. 
Ipiosco, to pardon. 
Cre8€0) to groir. 
Quiescoy to reif . 
Scisco, to orctotn. 
SnescO) to be accustomed. 
Agnotcoy to oum. 
Cognoscoi to know. 
RecognoscO} to review, 
Pasco, to feed. 
Diico, to team. 

Do. 
Scando^ to dimb. 
£do» to ecrf. 
Ascendo, to moun/. 
Accendoi to kindle. 
DeioflBdoi to gv ctou^n. 
Defendoy to &fend* 
Offimdo, to strike against. 
MandOy to diew. 
DMdo^to divide. 
BadOy to lAave. 
daudOf to dose. [joy. 
FUndoy to eZop hands for 
ImdOy to play. 
IVod*, to lArtMf . 
L«do, to i^tiff . 
Bodoytognov. 

Go. 
Eego, to rvlCi to govern. 
Porrigo, to i^e(^ out. 
OBfOytoMmT. 
FligO) to «faM% vp§ih 



THIRD CONJUGATION, ACTIVE VOICE. 



PRUfCIPAl. PARTS. 



Pres. Indie. 
L€go, 



Perf. Indie. 
L€gi, 



LectJiiD, 



Pres. Infin, 
LSg^rey to read 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense, read, or am reading. 

Singular. Pharal. 

1. Lego, I read f Legimus, we read, 

2. Legis, thou readesif Legltis, ye read, 

3. Legit, he reads; Legnnt, they read. 

Imperfect, read, or did read. 

1. Leg£bam, / read, or did read, Legebamus, we did read, 

2. Legebas, /^u </i^ read, Legebatis, ^e dMi recul, 
8. Legebat, he read, or did read ; Legebant, they did read. 

Perfect, have read. 

1. h^^ I have read, Legtmns, we have read, 

2. Legist!, thou hast read, Legistis, ye fiave read, 

3. Legit, he has read ; Legenmt, v. ere, they heme read 

Pluperfect, had read. 

1 Leg^ram, I had read, Legeranus, we had read, 

2. Legeras, fAou Aods^ ready Legeratis,yeAadread, 

3. Legerat, Ae had read ; Legerant, they had read. 

Fatare, shaB, or will read. 

1. L^gam, / shall read, Legimus, we shall read, 

2. Leges, thou dialt read, Legetis, ye shall read, 

3. Leget, Ae shall read ; Legent, they shaU read, 

SUBJUNCltVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, may, or can read. 

1. LegBin, I may read, Legamuu, wemay read, \ 

2. Legas, thou mayst read, Legetis, ye may read, V^ 

3. Leg^t, he may read ; Legant, they may read 

Imperfect, might, &c. read. 

1. L^g^rera, I might read, Leg^rSmus, we might read, 

2. Lcgeres, thou mightesiread, Legeretis, ye migfU read, 
a Legeret^ he might read; Legerent, they mighl read. 

Perftct, may have read^ 

1. L^gerYm, / may hone read, Legerimus, we may have readf 

2. Legeris, thou mayd'haoe read, Lcgeritis, ye may haoe read, 

3. Legerit, he may have read; Legerint, they may have read. 

Pluperfect, might, &c. liave read. 

1. Legissem, ImigfU have read, Legissemus, we might have readi 

2. Legisses, thounUf^Uest have read, Legissetis, ye migM have read, 

3. Legisset, he wight have read ; Legissent, they might have read. 

Future, shall have read, 

1 . Legero, I shall have read, Legerimus, we shall have read 

2. Legeris, thou shaU have read. Legeritis, ye shall have read, 

3. L^erit, he shall have read ; Legerint, they shall have read . 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

2. Lege, v. legito, read thou, Legite v. legitote, read ye, 

3. Legito, let him read; Legunto, let them read, 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pres. Legere, to read. Perf. Legisse, to have read. 
Fut. Esse lecturus, to be about to read. Fuisse lecturus, to hav$ been 
about to read. ' * 

PARTICIPLES. 
Pres. Legens, reading. Fut. Lecturui , about to read. 

GERUNDS. 
Legendum-di-do-dum-do, reodif^, ofnadmg, fee 

SUPINES. 
Fonim. Uefmn, to fvoci Latter. hoikt^UreaiimlohewHa. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

THIRD CONJUGATION, PASSIVE VOICE. 

PRUrCIPAL PABTS. 



21 



Prtt, IniUc. 



Perf. Part. 
LectaSi 



Pres. IfjfirL 

L^gi, to be read. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense, am read. 
Singular. Plwal. 

1. JjegOTf I am ready Legimur, 

2. liegeris, p. legere, thou art read, Legimini, 

3. L^tur, he is read; Leguntur. 

Imperfect, was read. 

1. Legebar, . Legebanmr, 

2. Legebarig, V. legebare, Legebamini, 
8. Legebatur; Legebantur. 

Perfect, have been read. 

1. Lectus gum, v. fui, Lecti sumus, v. fuimus, 

2. Lectus fls, V. fnisti, Lecti estis, v. fuistis, 

3. Lectus est, v. fuit ; Lecti sunt, v. fuerunt, v. fu£re. 

Pluperfect, had been read. 

1. Lectus eram, v. fueram, Lecti eramus, v. fueramus, 

2. Lectus eras, v. fueras, Lecti eratis, v. fneratis, 

3. Lectus erat v ^uerat , Lecti erant, v. fuerant. 

Future, shall be read. 

1 Legar, Legemur, 
iL Legeris, t. legere, Legemini, 
3. Legetur; Legentur. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense, may, or can be read. 

1. Legar, Legamur, 

2. Legaris, v, legare, LegaminI, 

3. Legatur; Legantur. 

Imperfect, migktf &c. be read. 

1. Legerer, Legeremur, 

2. Legereris,*. legeiere, Legeremini, 

3. Legeretur, Legerentur. 

Perfect, may have been read, 

1. Lectus aim, v. fuerim, Leoti simus^ v. fuerimus, 

2. Lectus sis, v. fueris, Lecti sitis, v. fueritis, 
8. Lectus sit, v. fuerit -, Lecti sint, v. fuerint 

Pluperfect, migftt, kc, luaoe been read. 

1. Lectiis essem, v. fuissem, Lecti essemns, v. fuissemus, 

2 Lectus esses, v. fuisseg, Lecti essetis, v. fuissetis, 

3. Lectus essct, v. fuisset; Lecti essent, v. fuissent. 

Future, ^all !iave been read. 

1. Lectus fuero, Lecti fuerimus, 

2. Lectus foeris, Lecti fueritis, 

3. Lectus fuerit; Lecti (Vierint. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



2. Legere, v. itor, be thou read, 

3. L^itor, let him be read; 



Legimini, be ye read, 
Leguntor, let them be read. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

JfVei. Legi, to be read, 

Pmf. Ease, v. fuisse lectus-a-um, to have been read. 

Fui, Lectum \n,tohe ahouH to be read. 



PARTICIPLES. 



EXERCISES. 



Pert, Lectot-AHim, reaii. 




Mungo, to wipe the nose 
Tego, to cover. 
Ungo, to anoint. 
Surgo, to rise. 
Pergo, to m forward. 
Fingo, tofet^. 
Pingo, to poml. 
Stnngo, to bind. 
Frango, to break. 
Ago, to do, 
Diligo, to tore. 
Tango, to touch. 
Pungo, topridt, or <ftfig. 
Pango, tofz, to eompoee. 
Spargo, to spread. 
Merge, to dw, or plunge. 

Traho, to dktno. 
Veho, to carry. 

Lo. 
Colo, to adorn, to inhabit. 
Alo, to nourish. 
Mo\o, to grind. 
Pello, to Uirust. 
Fallo, to deceive. 
ToUo, to take away. 

Mo. 
Gemo, to groan. 
Fremo, to rage, or roar. 
Vomo, to vomit. 
Demo, to take away. 
Promo, to bring out. 
Sumo, to take. 
Como, to deekf to drete, 
Emo, to buy. 

No. 
Pono, topui, topHaee. 
Gigno, to hegtt, 
Cano, to sin^. 
Spemo, to dudamfitdii^ 
Sino, topermii, 
Stemo, to U^flat 

Carpoytop/ufil. 
Clepo, to tiedl. 
Repo, to creep, 
Riunpo, to mtak. 

Ro. 
Qusro, to seek. 
Tero, to wear, to bruiie* 
Verro, to sweep, 
Uro, to bum. 
Gero, to carry. 
Curro, to run. 
Sero, to sow. 

So. 
Arcesso, to call, or eendj^ 
Capesso, to take. 
Facesso, to do, to go 
Lacesso, toprovo&, 

Flecto, to bow, 
Piedo, to plait, 
Necto, to knU, 
Meto, to rem, or mow, 
Peto, to seek, fwnue- 
Mitto, to tenia. 
To. 
ViTOytofipe' 
So|yo,totoMIU 
Voho^lltfvll. 



2S 

EXERCISES. 

^^butif. to slevmcr. 
Caaodio,loieei>. 

Brudio, la iiufrwf 
Ghnumio, to pmil. 
Hinnia, to neigA. 
Jmpedio, lo hijider^ 
Lippio, lo bt dim lighttd. 
Mugio, la AelloiK. 
Munio, to/anify. 
MuEria, lo TunirUh. 
Obedio, to oi^. 
Fnnio, lo punuA, 
Ragia, lo roar Hit a lion 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS 

FODBTH CONJUGATION, ACTIVE VOICE. 



>, fo eewh. 
>, lo clolSt. 



Veatio, 

Singultio, lo aob, 

Veneo, to bt K/td. 
3«Uo, (0 leap. 

Amlcio, lo cocer. 



Cambiv, lo ehangt monty. 
Sepio, (0 kcdge. 
Haurio, fa draitaul. 
SeiUia. lo jiercciec 
tUiado,iobeJioar>c. 
Bania, la muwI. 
Fucio, (0 erwi. 
Fakio, Id prep. 

Caeutio, lo In Urn tighttd. 
GoMiii, to Imp for joy. 
Oloclo, lo ctaix at a hen. 
Dementia, Iff Ae mad. 
Ineptio, loplay Ihefool. 



of the4lh. ConjugKliOD. 
h]mAioT,/oftaeUr. 
lauglnr, lo glee libtrally. 



Pailtor, lo dtridi. 
Potior, fo enjoy. 
Bortior, lo aal lali. 

HMiDT.tOIIMlUUlT. 

OrdioT, to btgin. 
K^ptBiiatilo try. 
Dpperior, lo urailfor ont. 



INDICATIVE HOOD 
Pmem Tenie, htar, or am htaring. 
Singular. Pbmd. 

1. Audio,/ Acar, Audbniu ue &ecr, 
8. Audia, Iftou Aeortrf, Audilis.jK Aeor, 

3. Audit, A< Aeon; Audiuut, Ibe^ ft«ar. 

Imperfect, Htard, or wm hcrrring. 
1 kadi&iam, I heard, Audiebamus, Wfl A«onfj 

2. Audiebai, Iftou diAl Kear, ' Audiebalii, ye /koti/, 

3. Audiebat.Ae Aeanf; Andiebuit, fAcT) keirtf. 

Perfect, how Atonf. 

1. Audlvi, /Aane Aennl, AudiTlmus, loe Anne Aearrf, 

2. Andiviili, fAati Aoit heard, Audivietis, yt bare heard, 

3. AniUTit,Ae hatfitard; AudiveiuBtji.'ntrtj Iheyfiare heard. 

Pluperfect, had heard. 
1. A'aMttrani, I had heard, Audimamiu, tee Aod heimf, 

S. AudiTCru, tAouAoilif Aeiml, AudiTeratig,yeAad Aeorrf, 

3. AudiTeral, As had heard ; Audivcnut, lAey Ami heard. 

Future, tAoK, or laid htor. 
1. Audiam, /MoUAeor, AudieniuB,uie lAall Aeor, 

Q. Audtei, tAou (Anil Aeor, Audieti9,ye >AiiU Aeor, 

3. Audiet,Ae AM hear; Audieot, Ihty thall hear. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
FraieDt Tenie, nutg, or con Aeor. 

1 . Audiam, f tnay hear, Andianius, ue nuiy Acar, 

2. Audiu. fAou moyuf Aeor, Audiatii, ye may hear, 

3. Audiat, he may hear ; Audiant, Ihey man hear. 

Imperfect, m^Al, be. hear. 

1. Audfrem, f m^AI Aur, AndlremuB, tse nitgAI Aeor, 

2. Audirei, tAmt in^Aied Aenr, Audiretii, j/e mtgAIAear, 

3. Andiret, A< mifAl Aeor; Audirent, lAey tnigAt A«ar. 

Perfect, m^, or tan have heard. 
1 . Audiveriro, / may hare heard, Audiveriraus, roe may have heard, 
a. Auii^eria,lhoumayeil hare heard, AudJTeritii, ye nuy Aore Aea)^d, 
3. Audiverit, he may bare heard : Audivcrinl, lAeymny have heard. 

Pluperfect, mighl, be, have heard. 

I. AudiviaSGDi, / vdgbl hare heard, AudivisBcmun, roe mighl have ktord, 

% AudirisscB, fAou mwAletfAoueAeant, Audi vis^Flii, ye mighl have heard, 

3. Audiviaset, AemigAlAoveAeard.' Audii-issrnt, lAe3/ iMgAl Aore AeorA 

Future, thaiX hate heard. 

1 , Audirero, I thalt han heard, Audiverimus, tee ihaU lutve heard, 

2. Audiveria, thouslitill hart heard, AudiTeritis, ye ihalihoM Aeonf, 
8. AudiTevit, AeiAaffAovcAeanl; AudiTerial,lAey lAoli hrnte heard. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 






INFINITIVE MOOD. 

la Amie heard. 

. Fuisse aodituruf, le bare 



, lo rameniSer. 
Iraacor, to be angry. 
Bingor, la grin. 
Divetwr, lo lurn ande, 
PrsTertor, to gel before. 
Diffitcor, fo ileny. 
DsfelilCor, fo be meary. 



PARTICIPLES. 

iVct. Audieni, Aeurittg. Ril. Auditumai-obaul foAtor. 

GERUNDS. 
AudteiKlnia-di-4o^iiiii-dn, hearing, of hearing, lie. 

SUPINES. 
Former, Auditan to hear. Latter. Ai^dita, lo hear, or lo k heard 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION, PASSIVE VOICE. 



Pra. Indie 
Aodior, 




INWCATIVE MOOD. 
rreMDl Tenie, am hatrd. 


1. Aodior, 

S. Andlrii, c, audire, 

& Aadltur; 


Plural. 








1. Aadiebar, 
1. AudielHri>,ti 


ADdi«bainDr, 
uidkbare, AudiebamiDi, 






Pcrfecl, haci bttn luard. 






Auditi 



a. AmllbuH. 

3. Aoditiu eil, d. fuit ; Auditi luul, r. fu^runt, e. r 

Fluperlocl, had been hcaril. 
I. Andltui enun, o, fuenm, Auditi eromua, t>. rueramui 

a. Audhut eru, n. fueraa. Audit! emtia,v. ruerBlia, 

3. Anditiu crat, V. fuerat; Auditi eraut, r. lucrani. 

Future, AaU be htazd. 
]. Audiw, Audieuuir, 

3. Andieiif I r. audierc, Audiriniai, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Freient Tenie, may, or can be heard. 



Amplector, lo emirate. 
Fungvr, (o diiehartfe on 
Revertor, Iprcfurn. Jfifflet. 






•peak. 



Kiiur, fu m/fOBour 
Faciicor, fo frargaiit. 
Gradior, (a |^. 
FroGciicor, to go ajiittrne^. 



ralioi 



ft gC- 



Ega Ipgo, icgebain, lagi, 
igam legetam. No« logi- 
lUi, Icgebamui, IcguDiiJ, 
'gcramua, legemui. Egti 
rgani, iegerein, legeriio, 
;gerea, regisBcm, legem. 
JS'os legHinua, legciemui^ 
Jfgerimui, iegieiemus, le- 
gluetii. Ego audki, an- 







3, Audiatn; Audiantiir. 


Imperfcd, Nii£/i:, £u:. be Aeord. 


ram, »udmm. Noi audi- 


1. Aodlrer, Audir&niir, 










mul. Ego aiidimn, audl- 


Perfect, maykme been heard. 


rfm, Budiverini, audirll- 


1. Atidltu* Sim, •- fueriin, Auditi simii-, v. futtlmas, 


Mm, audivero. Kon aud^- 


2. AnditD* iif, B. foeri., Auditi .i(i>, .. fuenti., 


aniiH,audiremus, sudiTO- 


& Aadinii lit, *. fuerit ; Auditi >uit, i>. fuerial. 




PlupKrCrci,niiebl,iu:.hai:e been heard. 


verimul, audi, andite, au- 


2. Aadhoi CMM, V. fuiasei, Auditi esietia, t. fulueti*, 




3. Auditiueuet,i>. fuianet; Audit) eMcnt, e. riuuent. 


Rudilum. Lege, le|fte» 


Future, ,1,011 hare Uen heard. 




1. AudUui fMSru, Auditi rueriram, 


l^c.„. I.ege,w,legendum. 


2. Auditai fberW, Au-fiti fueritls. 


iMttun. Eg* kgor, lege 


3. AudiUi liwrit ; Auditi fueriut 


bar, lectu* inm, lectut 


I.MFEBATIVE HOOD 


eraiu,legiur. Notlegimur, 


a Audiie,e. auditor, iKlAouheanf, Audimini, £e ye Aeonl, 


ieeti erarauB, legemar. 




Ego legar, legerer, lectia 




lim, lectui cuem, lectnl 


INFINITIVE MOOD. 


fuero. Not legaunir, lege- 


J>rea. AiKliri, 1« be heard. 


Tcmur. lecti limui, lecU 


K?' A«i;^in,tobeaba»tli>beherml. 


ecEemut, Iccli fuerimni. 


legeretu. Lcgimlni fofc 


PARTICIPLES 


Legitor. Lsguntor. Ego 




audiar, ■udtebiu, audilni 


fS ISSS^Aw 





24 EXERCISES. 

RULES. Ama Deum. A mo te. Amas me. Bonus amat omnes. Re- 

verere pareiites. Amor tegit crimina. Superbia comitatur ho- 

31. Verbs, signify- nores. Pastor, Corydon, ardebat Alexin, delicias. Mars posuit 
ing actively, govern the jjj^^^^ ciistodem ostii. Vivunt vitam. Rufilius olet pastiUos. 

32. Miser '-"or miae- ^^^^'^^ maria ambulavisset, terramque navigasset. Quicquid 
reaco, and s-UagOy go- delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. Mens laetatui turbidum. El« 
vem the geiiltive. rius fere rubet faciem. Vulneratur caput. Recordor lectionem. 

33. Any verb may Qbliviscor injuriae. Cujus supra memini. De quo supra me- 

goverii th« dative m njini^us. Hsec olim meminisse juvabit. Crassus abundabat 

Latm, whicii has /o, or ,. . .. ,. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ *' . ^ * * j« 

for after it in Endish "^^'*^**S' J^atura tantum eget paucis. Insanus eget custodis. 

34. Verbs com- Alter indiget alterius. Implentur veteris Bacchi. Caret omni 
pounded with saiisy culpi. Non tarn artis mdigent, qusim laboris. Utitur fraude. 
oewe, and »/iafe, govern Quousque tandem abutere, CatiUna, patientia nostr&P Debcs 
* «?^ m' u "^"^ "^ diligentia Non debemus abuti tempore, nam fruimur 
compouiidTwiththLe brevi tempore. Ego fungar vice cotis. Nee me taU dignor ho- 
ten prepositions prcB ^<>^» Patemum servum sui participat consilii. Potior reruni. 
adyconjsubyantejposty Depascitur artus. Miserere civium tuorum. Satagit rerum sua- 
abf t», inter, super, go- rum. Desine querelarum. Regnavit populorum. Finis venit 
vem the dative. imperio. Animus redit hostibus. Tibi seris, tibi metis. Seges 
inff to nroUt ^h^t^^/' ^^^^^^ hominibus, Laus debetiir vurtuti. Liberi laborant sibi. 
vour assist ^commmuL ^^^^^^^ dantur tibi. Non nobis solum nati sumus. Multa 
ahey, serve^ resist^ ^^^ eveniunt bonis. Sd lucet etiam sceleratis. Heret lateri 
trust, threaten, 90[id he Icthalis arundo. Nee vox hominem sonat, O Dea ! certe. Pul- 
oiigTy inYA, govern the chrum est benefacere reipublicae. Prefer virtutem divitiis. 

oT ' T>^^^ J Fortuna favet bonis. Adeamus scholam. Exeamus scholL 

Off JKecoraor, me- t» . • -.«! 

mini reminiscor and *^®^^'""* nescit mutare naturam. llle est cupidus scire 

obUviscor, govern the causam. Vidi hostem tentantem fugere. Nunc tempus est 

accusative or genitive, abire. Tempus est equum fumantia solvere coUa. Omnes in- 

^ 38. Verbs o( abound- videre mihi. Mene incepto desistere victam ? Hol^us est dig- 

%ng Md i^oft^i^, go- nug |ggj^ Homines venerunt pascere oves. Gaudeo tc valerc. 

vem the ablative, and a„j- -j • ^ f^ ...... 

sometunes the semtive. ^^^^ praesidem venire. Credo bonos remuneratiim in. Dicrt 

89. VtoTj dbutor ^^ scribere. Dixit me scribere. Multitudo stat. Pars erant 

fungor, frujor, potior, caesi. Magna pars raptae. Tu vocaris Johannes, nia inoedh 

ve9Cor,and some others, regina. Scio ilium haberi sapientem. Scio vos esse discipuks. 

govwn die ablative. Dos est dccem talenta. Omnia pontus erant. Amantium ira, 

40 A. verli com— 

pounded with a prepo- ^^''^ integratio est. Oppidum est appellatum Possidonia. 

sition, often governs ^^^ omnis error stultitia est dicenda. Solius meum peccatum 

the case of that prepo- corrigi non potest. Id maxime quemque decet, quod est cu- 

sition. jusque suum maxime. Cato interfecit se. Miles defendlt suam 

mc^* nl^^ltie*"^^'^^ ^'*^' ^^^^ agnoscimus ex operibus ejus. Miri sum alacri- 

e.'( by r^b, partici- ^^® ^^ litigandum. Multum auri sestimatur. Quid rei tracta- 

pie, adjective,' or noun. ^^^ ^ ^^^ mercedis dabitur. Non multi cibi hospitem acci- 

42. Wlien quod, pies, sed multi joci. Quis vestrum ignorat ? Quis nostrum ignch 

qitfn, ut, or ne, is omit- rat. Dices nummos mihi opus esse. Hector ivit obviui hoitL 

ted in Latin, the word, Difficultates superandae sunt studio et labore. Est hoininisow 

which would otherwise t* j. ^ \J j- ^ 

be in the nominati^ "^* Est stulu dicere, non putaveram. Est prfleoeptoruin cii- 

is put in the accusative' ^^^^' ^^^^^""^ ^^ suo dud parere. Arrogantis est neg^igen 

uid the verb in the in- 4^^ ^^ ^^ quisque sentiat. Pauperis est numerare pecus. Et 

^ *" mood. facere et pati fortia Romanum est. 



EXERCISER. 25 



Xauta, tenens gubemaculuniy regit navim. Exercitus, se- RULES, 

quens hostem, pugnat sa^tds. Mon est anteponenda dedecori. 

Pii sunt fniituri aeteraa vita in caelis. Occulta, et maribus non ^^' Participles, gc- 
• • i.k_ J *• J-* m. • • .!-• runds, supines, and ad- 

mvisa sdte, sed etiam maudita sacra. Tu es invunis mihi. verbs govern the same 

Plebs consulum nomen baud secus qu jUn regum perosa erat. case, as the words from 

Yiveodum est mihi illic. Scio vivendum esse mihi illic Mori- which they are derived, 

endum est omnibus. Scio moriendum esse omnibus. Orandum 44. The gerund in 

est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano. Deliberandum est diu, ^, ^thejiominative, 

quod statuendum est semel. Cicero dixit optime omnium. Po- yg^^g ^y^^ dative ' 

eta agit utiliter urbi. Poeta agit inutiliter sibi. Hector exivit 45, 'fhe gerund in 

obvi^m hosti. Hie laudat mercedes plenius aequo. Nemo dicitur diy of the genitive, is 

locutus fuissc distinctius Demosthene. NuUos his mallem ludos governed by nouns, or 

spectatasse. Mallem granum horde! omnibus gemmis. Con- adjectives. 

suetudo disputandi est impia. Omnes sunt cupidi vivendi beate. , ^^, e geruna in 
_ , ,. Ti, ;. ^1 do, of the dative, IS go- 

Tempus abeundi est. Ilie est peritus cantandi. Charta est uti- yemed by adjectives 

lis scribendo. Non est solvendo. Epidicibn quserendo operam signifying usefitlneaSy 

dabo. Aptat habcndo ensem. Tu es promptus ad audiendum. or fitness, &c. 

Ille est attentus inter docendum. Poena absten*et a peccando. ^7. The gerund in 

Memoria augetur excolendo. Defessus sum ambulando. Igna- ;^««»^ of the acciwative, 

vi a discendo cito deterrentur. Non ibo servitum Graiis matri- pQgjtjQng q^ ^5 jh^m. 

bus. Venientes spectatum, cupiunt spectari. Cur is te perdi- qh^^ propter. 

turn ? It venatum. Hoc est mirabile dictu. Nihil dictu fcedum 48. The gerund in 

raoque haec limina tanget, intra quae puer est. Difficilis est ^0, of the ablative, is 

inventu verus amicus. Palleo metu. Fecit hoc suo more, go^f^cd by the pre- 

Juvenes saltabant gaudio. Ille est pallidus metu. Homo capi- P^* P^ ^ -11 '* '' 

^ ^ . .L. . T J . *^ €x, m; or without a 

tur voluptatc. Georgius scnbit penna. Laus paranda virtute. preposition as die abla- 

Mons est candidus nive. Clypeus fabricatus sere. Est aeger pe- dve of cause, mcofM, or 

dibus. Murus est decern pedes altus. Urbs distat triglnta mil- manner, 

ibus passuum. Pliiladelphia fere distat centum milliarlbus a 4?- The supme in 

Novo Eboraco. Non discedam pedem a te. Sol est multis par- "f ' \?^^ ^®' * ^^"^ 

A ^ ,. . r,. . , XX . of motion, 

tibus major terra. Quaiito diutius Simonides Dei naturam con- ^q r^^ supine in 

sideravit, tanto obscurior res visa est ei. Toto vertice supra est ti, is put after an adjec^ 

Ilocligmmiexceditillud digito. Venithoraterti&. Mansitpau- tive. 

cos dies. Sex mensibus abfuit. Convenimus secundA hord. Sa- ^ 51. Nouns, signify* 

turnus regnavit aurea ajtate. Mansisti mecum unam noctera. ing the ^nce of a thing, 
Emi iibrum tribus solidis. Demosthenes docuit talento. Perfi- ^ Nouns si?nifv- 

dus vendit patriam auro. Ilia juvant quae pluris emuntur. Nulla \f^g ^^e instrument 

res constat patri minoris. Vendam librum tanti quanti valet, cause, means, or man-- 

Ycndidit Hbrum tanti quantum valebat Librum emam tanto n^,are put in the abla« 

pretio quanto valet. Quanti constitit? Asse et pluris. Per- ^^^* • v- 

magnp constitit Dum pro argenteis decem aureus unus vakret. » measure ' oriSui^ 

Venit pridie illius diei. Deus laudatur ubique gentium. Cati- tance are put in the 

ina habuit satis eloquentiae. Mens pater venit ad templum. accusative — sometimes 

Meiv pater va:iit ex templo. Puer ambulat in templum. Ser- in the ablative, 

vus ambalavit sub scalas. Turris incedit super agmma. Puer . ^ Nouns, signify- 

wnbolat m templo. Daphnis consedit sub ilice. Ferns leo ^S the tome ^^^ 

cncovrit in sylvis. Aves super arbore sidunt Alii super alios ^^g^ j^^^ jong, in the 

i traddamnr. Nos autem, viri fortes, satisfiicere ieipublic« vide- accusative'-someliinef 

^ Bwr, n istios furorem ac tela vitemus. in the ablative. 



26 EXERCISES. 

RULES. Cicero accusavit Verrem furti. Postulavit Milonem majes- 

55. Verbs of ctccu- tatis. Damnavit ilium sceleris. Absolvit vos criminis. Mor- 
9mg^ condemning^ ad- bus monet nos mortis. Arguit me furti. Me ipsum inertie 
monMhingf and acquiU condemno. Blum homicidii absolvunt. Monet the officii 
<in^9 govern die accusa- De vi condemnati sunt. Erroris te moneo. Absolvo me 
Uve of a person with peccato. Punit ilium capite. JSstimo te magni. Sapiens 
the genitive of a thing, aestimat voluptatem parvi. Facio te aequi. Consulo tuum 

56. Verbs of e«^eewi- monitum boni. ^stimo te pro nihilo. Comparo Vir^am 
ingj govern the accu- Homero. Dedit homini sublime os. Dicam tibi totam 
sative of the person^ or rem. Eripuit me morti. Ignosce mihi banc culpam. Mina- 
thing esteemed, and tus est mihi mortem. Suum cuique tribuito. Narras fabulam 
the genitive of the va- surdo. Educa hunc puerum mihi. Recita mihi sententiam 
lue. Doce puellam mihi. Emam tibi Hbros. Praefecit Sextum 
' 57 •> Verbs of comr classi. Praefero vim opibus. Gloriosum est iram mutare ami- 
paringygivingy declare citi&. Legam lectionem tibi. Paupertas ssepe suadet mala ho- 
ingf BXid taking away f mmibus. Interdixit Galliam Romanis. Ad prsetorem homi- 
govem the accusative nem traxit. Pacem te poscimus omnes. Egestas docet nos 
and dative. temperantiam. Cela banc rem servos. Moneo te officium. In* 

58. Verbs of askingf stitue hunc puerum Grsecis litteris. Omnes poscimus pacem i 

and teachings govern te. Docuit me grammaticam. Celavit me banc rem. Celavk 

two accusatives ; the hanc rem nuhi. Onerat naves auro. Induit se calceos. Indak 

one of a person, and se calceis. Deum posce voniam. Ea me ne celet. Verres ac* 

the other of a thing. cusabatur furti. Virgilius comparatur Homero. Ego eripior 

59- Verbs of load- morti. Deus rogatur salutem. Nos docemur temperantiam. 

iiigy bindingj chtMngy Haec res celatur servos. Ssepe monemur mortis. Doceor 

depriving^ and some grammaticam. Navis oneratur auro. Scio homines accusatum 

otiiers, govern the ac- iri furti. Habetur ludibrio iis, Tu laudaris k me. Virtus dili- 

cusative and the abla- gitur k nobis. Mare k sole collucet. Phalaris non k pauds 

tive. interiit. Per me defensa est respublica. Neque cemitur uE 

60. When a verb in Vix audior ulli. Ilonesta bonis viris quseruntur. Nulla tuarum 
the active voice go- audita mihi neque visa sororum. Provisum est nobis optimd 
verns two cases, in the k Deo. Reclamatum est ab omnibus. Contigit mihi esse i]lic< 
passive it retains the Expedit reipublicse. Licet ncmini peccare. Libet mihi expfr 
latter case. tiari. Pertinet ad te tacere. Favetur mihi. Mihi non potest 

61. Impersonal verbs noceri. Negat jucund^ posse vivi sine virtute. Per virtutem 
govern the dative. potest iri ad astra. Aliorum laudi et gloriae invideri solet. Re* 

62. hUeiest and re- fert patris. Interest omnium. Non mea refert. Rcfert nuli- 
fert require die geni- tum. Cuja refert. Hoc parvi rcfert. Dlud mea magni inte* 

tive. rest. Faciam quod maxime reipublicse interesse judicabo. 

63. Miserety pceni- Adeone est fundata leviter fides, ut ubi sim, qutLm qui sim, B»- 
tetf pudety tasdety and gisreferat? Plurimum enim intererit, quibus artibus, aut quibv 
P^^^y govern the accu- hunc tu moribus instituas. Miseret me infelicium civium. Sen- 
sative of a person, with per poenitet bonos peccati. Non pudet malos superbiae. Taedet 
the genitive of a thing, te cito tui officii. Piget infelices durae sortis. Miseret me tni. 

64. Decety delectaiy Poenitet me peccati. Taedet me vitae. Pudet me culpie. T» 
juvaiy and oportety go- nitet me pecdbsse. Miseritum est me tuarum fortonanak 

vem the accusative of Neque me tui, neque tuorum liberorum misereri potest Deeet 

a person, with the in- te esse aequum. Delectat pueros ludere. Juvat te maMit 

finitivemood. domi. Oportet te studere diligentdr. 



EXERCISES. 27 

Delectat me studere. Non decet te rixari. Parvum parva RULES. 

lecent. Est aliquid, quod non oporteat^ etiamsi liceat. Sibi 65. The name of a 

luisque consulet oportet. VixitRomae. Mortuus est Londini. town, signifying the 

Juid Romse faciam ? Habitat Carthagine. Studuit Parisiis. P^*^ wAere, or in 

aoratius vixit Tibure et Athenis. Venit Romam. Profectus S"*!^** *^ '* *? f ,^^ 
*o* A*u -D 1 J"* -r. i_ . ^ . . . "Tst or second declen- 

;st Athenas. Regulus redut Carthagmem. Carthagim nun- gion and singular num- 

:io« mittam. Regulus. rediit Carthagine. Venit Aberdonia. ber, is put in the geni- 

Pecit iter Philadelphia. Dbcedit Corintho. Laodice4 iter tive ; but if it be of the 

adebat Per Thebas iter fecit. Quid faciam domi ? Hora- third declension, or plu- 

ius vixit rure. Regulus non redut domum. Petrus abiit rus ^^ "bSti^e '^ '* ^"* "* 

Qoper. Non ibo domo. Manet domi. Domum revertitur. qq The name of a 

Domo arcessitus sum. Vivit ruri. Jacet huml. Ubi vir nar town, signifying the 

tusfiiit? In Italia. Quo abivit? In Italiam. Unde redivit? place trAt^Aer, is put in 

kh Italia. Qu4 transivit ? Per Italiam. Deo volente, omnia the accusative, 

i^edent bene. Opere pcracto, ludemus. Soleoriente, fugiunt ^^' The nane of a 

tenebrae. Dominante libidine, temperantiae nullus est locus. ^^^ ^llAencc^ or 

Nihil amicitii praestabilius est, excepta virtute. Oppressa li- through what f>Lce,is 

bertate patriae, nihil est quod speremus ampHus. Cicero, lo- put in the ablative, 

cutus haec, consedit. Romani, Ubertate adepti, floruerunt. ^8. Damns and rus, 

Jfihil autem magis cavendum est senectuti, quiLm ne languori signifying the place 

sededdiequededat. ru 'u"* ^^^ 

XX .' ^ . • "*^c the names of 

Deus, quern pu colunt, cujus munere vivunt, cujus sunt cu- towns. 

pidi, cui parent et placent, quo fruentur, est aetemus. Specta- 69. A noun, or pro- 
turn admissi, risum teneatis, amici ? Pictoribus atque poetis noun, joined into a 
quidlibet audendi semper fuit aequa potestas. Serpit humi, tu- participle expresaedor 

tus nimium, timidusque procellae. In vitium ducit culpae fiiga, ""^erstood, when its 

^ _/ o ' . . .r. . case depends on no 

SI caret arte. Sumite matenam vestns, qm scnbitis, aequam other word b put in 

viribus. Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum ipsi tibi. Ira- the ablative absolute. 

turn vultum plena minarum verba decent. Et sibi constet. 

Nee deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus incident. Oralis 

ingenium, Grraiis dedit ore rotundo, musa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris. Omne 

tuHt punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci, lectorem delectando, pariterque monendo. Nunc 

est bibendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda tellus. Quibus pepercit aris ? Quid intactum 

ne&sti liquimus? Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos orbis Britannos. Valet ima 

sommis mutare Deus. Nee tibi somnos adimunt. Multis ille quidem flebilis occidit ; 

nulti flebilior qu^ tibi, Virgili. Integer vitae, scelerisque purus, non cget Mauri jacuHs 

neque area. O mater, pulchra filii pulchrior. Nil pictb timidus navita puppibus fidit. 

Nunc vino pellite curas ; eras ingens iterabimus aequor. Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet 

pecus, aut arator igni. Recepto dulce mihi furere est amico. Foliis viduantur omi. 

^hs^ molUom tandem querelarum. Post evfuitem sedet atra cura. Eheu ne rudis 

^tgnuniim sponsus lacessat regius asperum tactu leonem. Dulce et decorum est pro 

patria mori. Justum et tenacem propositi virum non vultus instantis tyranni mente 

qwdt solidi. Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules innixus, arces attiget igneas. Primi 

iM)cte^dcminm elaude, neque in vias sub cantu querulae despice tibiae ; et te saep^ vocanti 

^team^ difficHis mane. Donee gratus eram tibi, Persarum vigui rege beatior. Tecum 

"vifere amem, tecum obeam libens. Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuus affulsit, populo 

intior it dies, et soles melius nitent. Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori. Nunc 

JMtnoslevaredirispectorasolicitudinibus. Nil fuit unquam sic impar sibi. Namque 

n^flctis nrenda filix innascitur agris. Egressum magn^} me accepit Aricia, Romft. 



28 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

RULE<. D£ VIRIS ILLUSTBIBUS URBIS BOMiE. 

. The adjective agrees KE6ULUS. 

2. The verb agrees with jecit. Clypeam urbem et trecenta castella expugnavit : neqoe 

its nominatiye cfMCf in cum hominibus tantum^ sed etiam cum monstris dimicavk. 

"*ft***Th*"*^^"-*^ Nam quum apud flumen Bagradam castra haberet, anguis mine 

oi^ QuHd agrees^wit^te HMignitudinis exercitum Romanum vexabat : multos milites in- 

antm^loit in gender, genti ore corripuit ; plures caudse verbere elisit ; nonndnoi 

nmnber, and person. ipso pestilentis halitus afflatu ezanimavit. Neque b telorm 

^ ? J*** nominative j^.^ perforari poterat ; quippe qui durissima squamarum lorid 

come between the relative • ^ i r -i^ u S ^ n • j ^ •* j f 

and the verb the relative ^mma tela facile repelleret. Connigiendum nut ad machinas, 

is the nominative to the et advectis balistis, tanquam arx qusedam muoita dejiciendus 

verb; but when a nomi- hostis fuit. Tandem saxorum pondere oppressus jacuit; sed 

native intervenes, the cruore suo flumen et vicinam regionem infecit, Romanosqne 

▼eA^orliSr^er word ^astra movere coegit. Corium beUuae centum et viginti pedes 

in the sentence. longum Romam misit Regulus. 

6. Any verb may have Lacedsemonii Xantippum virum belli peritisHimum Cartfaa- 

die same ^^^f'' ** *J' ^iensibus miserunt, k quo Regulus victus est ultima pernide : 

refer' to tiie^same i^rson ^"^ tantiim nullia hominum ex omni Romano exercitu reman- 

or thing. serunt: Regulus ipse captus, et in carcerem conjectus est. 

6. Substantives signify- Deindd Romam de permutandis captivis dato jurejurando mis- 

in^ the same person or gyg ^gj^ yj^ gj ^q^ impetrasset, rediret ipse Carthaginem : qui 

T^OM^bstanUve go- ^l""'^ Romam venisset, inductus in senatum mandata exposuit; 

verns another signifymg et primum ne sententiam diceret recusavit^ causatus se, quo- 

a different person or thing, niam in hostium potestatem venlsset, jam non esse senatorem 

'"fi'^if^th'*'i*ttP f t Jussus tamen sententiam aperire, negavit esse utile captivos 

sob^tantiv^ have an ^^ "Pccnos reddi, quia adolescentes essent et boni duces, ipse vert 

jectife of praiso or dis- jsun confectus senectute : cujus quum valuinet auctoritas, cap 

praise, joined with it, it tivi retenti sunt. 

may be put either m tlie Regulus deinde quum retineretur k propinquis et amicis, to* 
ircmtive or ablative. x _^i . * j..^ >r^« * ^ * 

». An adjective in the ^^^ Carthagmem redut : neque vero tunc ignorabat se adcn- 

neuter sender without a delissimum hostem et ad exquisita supplicia proficiscl, sed jus- 
substantive, governs the jurandum consenrandum putavit. Reversuni Caithaginieiiiei 
^ io*^*r)« T7 °™°^ craciatu necaverunt : palpebris enim resectis aliquasdii 
«i«^njrv!n^^/.5" rPoithS ^^ ^^co tencbiicoso tenuerunt; deinde quum sol esset ardentii' 
the ablative. simus, repente eductum mtueri coelum coegerunt; postremoiB 

11. Verbal adjectives, arcam ligneam incluserunt, in qui undique clavi praeacuti emir 
and such as signify an af- nebant. Ita dum fessum corpus, quocumque inclinaret, fti- 
vera**theieSuv^* ^"^ ^^^ ^^"^*« confoditur, vigUiis et dolore continuo extinctin e* 

12. Partitives, and Hic fuit Atilii Regiili exitus ips& quoque viti, licet per maii' 
words placed partitively, mam gloriam diik acti, clarior et illustrior. 

roraparatives, superla- 
tives, interrogativcs, and PABIUS MAXIMUS. 

Jte^S'Sil.^*™ Annib^superatisI^aietAlpiumjugfa^Iteliamvei^ 

13. Adjectives signify, l^ublium Scipionem apud Ticmum amnemy Sempronium i^ 
ixi% profit or ditproJU, like- Trebiam, Flaminium apud Trasimenuinprofligavit Advew 
TMu oiurUiktn^, fcc. go- hostem toties victorem missus Qumtus Fabius dictator^ Aiioi- 
vera the d^nre. X^^'i impetum mor& Anegit; namque pristinis edoctus dadflMS 
dignuij indigruuf pnM. ^^ rationem mutavit Per loca aha exercitum ducebat, neqie 
tiu, and contentus; also, ullo loco fortunae se committebat: castris nisi quantum neoes- 
natut, M/ut, ortWf editw, gitas cogeret tenebatur miles. Dux neque occajsiraii rei boi^ 
imdjiw like, govern the gereodflB deewt, »i qua ab hoste dtostur, neque ullam me hoUi 

IG. A4iectlves, signify. cts^l^>^ Frumenta^om exeunt! Aonibali c^portunuf adent^ifr 

iiV|i(sn<y, or tDon/, govern men carpens, palantes excipiens. Ita ex levibus prffliis sflptt" 

the genitive, or ablative, nor discessit, militemque coepit nunib jam aut virtiitis so0^ 

'eJ V^rSri^ aut fortuna poenitere. 

or cli^yi^^verns ^e^^ ^^ artibuB Annibalem Fabios io wo Fakmo mdamdi . 

live. sed ille callidos sine ullo ezerdtAs ietAmetito m «ipedMfc 



RULES. 



171} taken fottiabeo, 
we,) governs the da- 
»f a person. 

18. 

m, taken for afferOf 
ringy) governs two 
ra ; the one of a per- 
and the otlicr of a 

19. 



81. 

^ Verbs, sllgnifying ac- 
tively, govern the acca- 
sative. 

32. 
Misereor, mmreteOt 
and uUiMgQ, govern the 
genitive. 

33. 

Any verb may govern 

the dative in Latin, which 



e compounds of has to, or for, after it in 



except Possum, go- 
the dative. 

20. 
irds of the compa- 
'■ degree govern the 
ve when qttam is 
3d in Latin. 

21. 
vertis qualify verbs^ 
aples, adjectives^ 
tber adverbs. 

22. 
ne adverbs of time^ 
t and quantity, go- 
the genitive. 

23. 
e prepositions ad, 
I arUe, inc. govern 
ccosative. 

24. 
e prepositions a, ab, 
tc. govern the abla- 

25. 
e prepositions in, 
taper, and subter, 
n the accusative, 
motion to a place 
pufied; but wh^a 
m or rest in a place 
pnified, in and sub 
n the ablative ; su- 
nd sutler either the 
lative or ablative. 

26. 
e interjections 0, 
proh, and some 
8, govern the norai- 
e, accusative, or vo- 
p. 

27. 
e interjections hei, 
va, govern the da- 

28. 
e conjunctions et, 
qui, nee, and, neque, 
Mime otlien, connect 
MMi and nodes 

29. 
ro, or more substan- 
tingulas, connected 
k CQiijau:tioD, may 
a v«ib, adjective, 
lit! ve plural to agree 
then. 

80. 
te emjanctioas ttf^ 
Keifilw. govern the|tfaey are derived 
Bctbe mood. 



English. 

34. 

Verbs compounded 
with saHs,bene,9nd male, 
govern the dative. 
36. 

Many verbs compound- 
ed with these ten pre- 
positions, prtE, ad, eon, 
sub, ante, post, ob, in, 
inter, super, govern the 
dative. 

36. 

Verbs, signifying to 
profit, hurt, favour, assist, 
command, obey, serve, re- 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be angry with, govern 
the dative. 

37. 

Recordor, memini, re- 
miniseor, and obliviscor, 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 

Verbs of abounding 
and wanting, govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 
39. 

Ulor, abutor, fungor, 
fruor, potior, vescor, and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 

A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 

The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
veib, participle, adjec- 
tivei or noun. 
42. 

When qiiod, quin, ut, 
or ne, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise oe in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 

Participlesi gerunds 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
the words from which 



44. 

The gerund hi dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

45. 



The ^rund in di, of person, and the other of 



talcing away, govern tlie 
accusative and dative. 
58. 
Verbs of adcing, and 
teaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 



the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec 
tives. 

46. 

The gerund in do, of 

the dative, b governed 

by adjectives signifying 

usefuSfiess, or fitness, &u;. 

47. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 
propter. 

48. 
The gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, means, 
or manner. 

49. 
The supine in um, is 
put after a verb of mo- 
tion. 

50. 
The supine in u, is 
put after an adjective. 

51. 
Nouns, signifying the 
price of a thing, are put 
m the ablative. 

52. 
Nouns, signifying the 
instrument, cause, means, 
or manner, are put in 
the ablative. 

53. 
Nouns, signifying mea- 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative— some- 
times in the ablative. 

54. 
Nouns, signifying the 
time w!ien, arc put in the 
ablative ; tliose, how long, 
in the accusative— some- 
times in the ablative. 

55. 

Verbs of accusing, con- 

demning, admomshing, 

and aixqwUting, govern 

the acosative of a per- 



a thing. 

59. 

Verbs of hading, bind* 
ing, clothing, depriving, 
and some ouiers, govern 
the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60. 

When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 

Impersonal verbs go- 
vern the dative. 
62. 

Interest and referi re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 

Miser et, peadtel, pudet, 
ttedet, and pigitt, govern 
the accusative oif a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 

Decet, deleetat, juwst^ 
and oportet, govern the 
accusative of a per 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

66. 

The name of a towDi 
signifying the place 
wfiere, or in which, if it 
he of the first or second* 
declension and singular 
number, is put in the ge' 
nitive ; but if it be of w» 
third declension, or pin* 
ral number, it is put i» 
the ablative. 
66. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place loAt- 
Iher, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 

The name of a towDy 
signifying the place 
whenu, or throu^ what 
place, is put in the abla- 
tive. 

68. 

Domui and nit, signi- 



a thing. 



66. 



Verbs of esteeming, go- 
vem the accusative ^tiie 
person, or thing esteem 



67. 
Veibt ef eomfioringt 



9Bd 



son with the genitive of fying the place lo^kere, are 



construed Ulce tlie names 
of towns. 

69. 
A noun, or pronomv 
joined widi a partidple 



ed, and the g^tive, of[upresi«d or niidereliood, 
the value. 



when iti 

on no etiier wordy ii 

pnt fai tiie aUative able- 



30 EXCERPTA LATLNE. 

RULES. Nemp^ arida sarmenta bourn comibus alligavit, eaque princi- 

I. The adjective agrees pio noctis incendit : metus flammae relucentis ex capite bova 

with its suiMtantire, in velut stimulatos furore agebat. . Hi ergo accensis comibus per 

number, case, and gender, montes, per silvas hue illuc discurrebaut. Romani, qui ad 

3. The verb agrees with gp^^-uiandum concurrerant. miraculo attoniti constitenint : ipse 

its nominative case, in Jt^ . . . ,. ' -i-^ ^ ii j* . •- 

number and person. Fabius nisidias esse ratiis, nulitein extra \'allum egredi veturt. 

3. The relative, qui, Interea Aniiibal ex angustiis evasit. Dein Annibal^ ut Fahio 

qua, quod, agrees with its j^p^i ^^^ crearet invidiam, agrum ejus, omiiibus cvrck vastads, 

M^W^ald pcrsor"*^**^' i"tactum reliquit; at l-'abius oinnem ab se suspicionem propul- 

T If no nominative savit: nam eumdem agrum vendidit, ejusque pretio captiYOs 

come between the relative Romanos redemit. 

and the verb, the relative Quintus Fabius jam scnex fdio suo consuli legatus fiut; 

verb"S?rl'Sn'anomt quumque in ejus castra veniret, films obviam patri progiesm 

native intervenes, the ^t; duodecim lictores pro more anteibant. Equo vehebatar 

relative is governed by the senex, nec appropinquante consule descendit. Jam ex Cctw 

verb, or some other word j^yg undecim verecundia patemae majestatis taciti prceterierant. 

'"s^A^y^verb may have 9"^^ quum consul animadvertisset, proximum lictorem JukH 

the same case after as be- inclamare Fabio patri ut ex equo descenderet. Pater turn ck- 

fore it, when both words silicns : ^* Non ego, fill, inquit, tuum imperium contempsi, sed 

refer to the same pcr&on cxperiri volui an scires consulem agere." Ad summam senec- 

"^'e. sSbstanUves signifv- ^utem vixit Fabius Maximus, dignus tanto cognomine. Cautkr 

ing the same person or quam promptior habitus est, sed insita ejus mgenio [MiiaenlEi 

thing, agree in case. bello, quod tum gerebatiu*, aptissima erat. Nemini dubiom 

7. One substantive go- est ciuin rem Romanam cmictando restilitbrit. 
vems another signifying 

a different person or thing, SCIPIO AFBICANUS. 

in the genitive. 

8. If the latter of two Publius Cornelius Scipio nondum annos pueritiae ecressus 
'eSi^^iT* rSsc o" dU- P?**"®™ singular! virtute servavit : nam quum is in pugnl apod 
praise, joined with it, it Ticinum contra Annibalcm commissa graviter vulneratus esset, 
may be put either in the ct in hostium manus jamjam venturus esset, filius^ interjecto 
genitive or ablative. corpore, Pocnis irruentibus se opposuit, et patrem periciuoli- 

^.L^'L'lJi!^* «li!" l^"" benivit. Qua pietas Scipioni postcai .Edilitatem petenti fefo- 
neuter gender without a {i * .i. .. ^ * • • . . ^ •!_ • i i_» 

substantive, governs the ^^ populi conciliavit; (]uum obsisterent tribuni plebis iw- 

genitive. gantes rationem ejus esse habendaui, quod nondum ad jieten- 

10. Oput and Vsus, cluni legitima iEtas esset : " Si me, inquit Scipio, omnes qui* 

ST^latfve""''' ''*'''"*"' ^*^^^ a>dilem facere volunt, satis annorum hal>eo/' Tanto iniii 

II. Verbal adjectives, ^^vorc ad sufTragia itum est, ut tribuni inccL'pto destiterint. 
and such as signify an af- Quum Romani duas clades in Ilispania accepissent, duoque 
fection of the mind, go- ibi siimmi imperatores cecidisscnt, placuit excrcitum augoii 



^^ i>^"I' J eoque proconsulem mitti; nec tamen quem mitterent 

12. PartiUves, and * i <.. ir a , • j- ^ ^ •4.- u • ^ i- 

words placed partitively, constabat. Ea de re mdicta sunt comitia. Pnmo pqnhi 

comparatives, sopcrla- exspectabat, ut qui se tanto dignos imperio crederent, nonmtt 

tivcs, intcrrogativcs, and profiterentur ; sed nemo audebat illud imperium suydpc'C. 

SrLn'iti J^^liral ^*'"^" ^*^^ *^*<}"® ^^^'^ ^' ^ P"^P^ 5^^^' '"^P*- S"*^'^ ^^ 

13!^ Adjectives signify- melius Scipio quatuor et vi^nti ferme annos natus, professusert 

ing profit, or di^lfrqfit, like- se petere, et in superiore, imde conspici posset, loco cmistitit: 

not or unlikenest, «ic. go- in quem omnium ora conversa sunt. Deinde ad unum onma 

vem^the^datlve.^ ^^'P^®"^®™ ^ HispaniA proconsulem esse jiisserunt. At pa*- 

ctjgfiitf, ifuUgnut, prJcdC- ^^^ animonim impetus resedit, popidum Romanuin ccepk 

tuMt and eorUentut; also, facti^ pcenitere. JBtati Scipionis maxime diifidebant Qiinl 

na^,$atut, ortut, editus, ubi animadvertit Scipio, advocatA condone, ila magpo datofie 

imd jhe id«>, govern the ^nimo disseniit de beUo quod gerendum erat, ut homines aii 

16. Adjectives, signify- Kberaverit, speque cert& impleverit. 
iiigl»/<0fifyiortMm/,govcm Profectus igitur in Hispaniam Scipio Carthaginem oovas^ 

^iJT^'^*' orablative. qu& die venit, expugnavit. Ed congestae erant omnes pa« 

J^SSitoTi^; Africa etHi8pani«op«quibu.potitu.e«. Inter c.»tiv»i< 

or My, govenis the gem- ^^ adducta est exmuae formae adulta viigo. Pottquam MV- 

<>▼«• perit earn illustri loco inter Celtiberos notam, prinupiqiie cf* 



RlLErf. 



ir. 

Sum, taken for habto, 
(io Aare»^ governs the da- 
tive of a person. 
18. 
Sum, taken for afferoj 
(io bring,) governs two 
datives ; the one of a per- 
Bon, and the other of a 
thing. 

19. 
The compounds of 
Sum, except Possum, go- 
vern the dative. 
20. 
Words of tlie compa- 
rative deg^e govern the 
ablative when quam if 
omitted in Latin. 
21. 
Adverbs qualify verbs, 
participles, adjectives, 
and other adverbs. 
22. 
Some adverbs of time, 
place, and quantity, go- 
vern the genitive. 
23. 
The prepositions ad, 
apud, ante, &c. govern 
the accusative. 
24. 
The prepositions a, abj 
abs, &c. govern the abla- 
tive. 

25. 
The prepositions in. 
tub, super, and suhttr, 
govera the accusative, 
when motion to a place 
is signified; but when 
motion or rest in a place 
is signified, in and sub 
govern the ablative ; su- 
per and subier either the 
accusative or ablative. 
26. 
The interjections O, 
htu, proili, and some 
others^ govern the nomi- 
native, accusative, or vo- 
cative. 

27. 
The interjections hti, 
and ne, govern the da- 
tive. 

28. 
The conjunctions e/, 
«, nffiKy nee, out, neque, 
nA loaie otheriy connect 
like cases and modes. 



31. 
VerbSy signifying ac 
tively, govern the accu- 
sative. 

32. 
Misereor, misereseo 
and satago, govern the 
genitive. 

33. 
Any verb may govern 
the dative in Latin, which 
has to, or for, after it in 
English. 

34. 
Verbs compounded 
with saiisjbtnet and niale, 
govern the dative. 
35. 
Many verbs compound- 
ed with these ten pre- 



^ Two, or more substan- 
tifs ilngnlar, connected 
bf a oonjonction, may 
uve a verb, adjective, 
•r rdatba plural to agree 
vUhthem. 

SO. 
The conjunctiona tU, 
fUQ^iiceCylKc. govern the 
xAjoKthre mood. 



positions, /?r<r, ad, con, 
sub, ante, post, ob, iiiy 
interj super, govern the 
dative. 

36. 

Verbs, signifying to 
profit J hurtjfarour, assist, 
command, obct/j serve, re- 
sistj trusty threaten, and 
be angry with, govern 
the dative. 

37. 

RecordoTj memitii, re- 
miniscor, and obliriscor, 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 

Verbs of abounding 

and wanting, govern the 

ablative, and sometimes 

the genitive. 

39. 

Utor, abutor, fungor, 
fruor, potior, vescor, and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 

A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 

The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 
42. 

When quod, quin, utj 
or ne, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 

Participles, gerunds, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
the words from which 
they are derived. 



44. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

46. 

The genmd in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives. 

46. 

The gerund in dot of 
the dative, is governed 
by adjectives signifying 
usefulness, or finess, &c. 

The genmd in dum, 



taking away, govern the 
accusative and dative. 
68. 

Verbs of asking, and 
teaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

59. 

Verbs of leadingt bind 
ing, clothing, depriving, 
and some oUiers, govern 
the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60. 

When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 



of the accusative, is go- leases, in the passive it 
verned by the preposi- retains tlie latter case, 
tions ad, ob, inter, ante. 



propter, 

48. 
The gerund in doj of 
the ablative, is governed 
by tlie prepositions a, ab, 
dCj e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, means, 
or manner, 

49. 
The supine in um, is 
put aAer a verb of mo 
tion. 

50. 
The supine in », is 
put after an adjective. 

61. 
Nouns, signifying the 
price of a tiling, are put 
in the ablative. 

52. 
Nouns, signifying the 
instrument J cause, means, 
or manner^ are put in 
the ablative. 

63. 
• Nouns, signifying tnca- 
n<r«, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 

64. 
Nouns, signifying the 
time when^ are put in the 
ablative ; those, how long, 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 

65. 
Verbs of accusing, con- 
demning, admomshing, 
and accquitHn^i govern 
the acusative of a per- 
son with the genitive of 
a thing. 

66. 
Verbs of eifeemtng, go- 
vern the accusative of the 



ed, and the genitive, of 
the value. 

67. 
Verbs of comparing 
giffing, dec/oringy vad 



61. 

Impersonal verbs go 
vern the dative. 
62. 

Interest and refert re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 

Miseret, painitet, pudet, 
t<edet, and piget, govern 
the accusative of a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 

Decet, delectat, jurat, 
and oportet, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65-. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
where, or in which, if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singular 
number, is put in tl^ ge- 
nitive ; but if it be of the 
third declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 

The name of a town^ 
signifying the place whu 
ther, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
whence, or throu^i, wtuxi 
place, is pnt in (he abla- 
tive. 

68. 

Domui and rut, signi- 
fying the place where, are 
construed like the names 
of towns. 

69. 

A noun, or pronoun, 



person, or thing esteem- joined with a partic^le 



expressed or understood, 
when its case depends 
on no other word, is 
put in the ablative abso- 
lute. 



;?j'rA _iiLN.. 




KlLEri. 



17. 

Sum, taken for haheo, 

(to kare,)gowtna the dap 

tiva of a person. 

18. 

Sum, taken for afferoj 
(to bring,) governs two 
datives ; the one of a per- 
toDi and the other of a 
thmg. 

19. 
The compounds of 
Sum, except Possum, go- 
vern the dative. 
20. 
Words of tlie compa- 
nUve degree govern the 
lUative when quam if 
saitied in Latin. 

4M J • 



31. 
VerbSi signifying ac- 
tively, govern the accu- 
sative. 

32. 
Miser eor, m isereseo , 
and satago, fi^ovcrn the 
genitive. 

33. 
Any verb may govern 
the dative in Latin, which 
has to, or for, after it in 



Adverbs qualify verbs, 
participles, adjectives, 
and other adverbs. 
22. 

Some adverbs of time, 
place, and quantity, go- 
rern the genitive. 
23. 

The prepositions ad, 
aoud, tniie, &&c. govern 
toe accusative. 
24. 

The prepositions a, ab, 
o&t, &c. govern the abla- 
tive. 



25. 



The prepositions in, 
9A, super, and subter, 
fovem the accusative, 
vfaea motion to a place 
is Signified; but when 
pMKkm or rest in a place 
ii signified, in and sub 
fiovem the ablative ; su- 
for and subter eitlier the 
Mcmative or ablative. 
20. 

The interjectioBS O, 
Aeu, pnh, and some 
<then, govern the nomi- 
Mtive, aecnsativc, or vo* 
citiw. 

27. 

The jnlerjections fiei, 
>id Wy govern the da- 
tive. 



The eoiyiiiictions el, 

Pjj ftfii neCf autf neque, 

iMi ottefiy connect 

iHi Md modes. 



^ ^Qt^fwsove mbstan- 

l|UBi|gidV| owuiected 

%^B^)aiiction, may 

^%*v«rii| a^ective, 

^nhtffe ptaral to agree 



&» eoBjmietiow wt, 

•Sills'^ T"*^ 

^IQMiiw moocu 



English. 

34. 

Verbs compounded 
witli satiSfbenCi <^nd male, 
govern the dative. 
35. 

Many verbs compound- 
ed with these ten pre- 
positions, pne, ad, con, 
rub, ante, post, ob, in, 
inter, super, govern the 
dative. 

3(5 

Verbs, signifying to 
profit, hurl,favour, assist, 
command, obey, serve, re- 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be angry Kith, govern 
the dative. 

37. 

Recordor, numinij re 
miniscor, and oblirisron 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 

Verbs of abounding 
and icanlingt govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 
39. 

Ulor, abutor, fungor, 
fruor, potior, veseor, and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 

A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 

The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 
42. 

When quod, quin, ut, 
or ne, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 

Participles, gerunds, 
supinely and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
Uie wordi from which 
they are derired. 



44. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

45. 

Tlie gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is goveni- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives. 

46. 

The genmd in do, of 

the dative, is governed 

by adjectives signifying 

usefuinest, or fitness, kc. 

47. 

The genmd in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 
propter. 

48. 

The gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by tlie prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, means, 
or manner. 

49. 

The supine in um, is 
put after a verb of mo- 
tion. 

60. 

The supine in i{, is 
put after an adjective. 
61. 

?k'ouns, signifying the 
price of a tiling, are put 
m the ablative. 
62. 

Nouns, signifying the 
instrument, cause, meam, 
or manner, are put in 
the ablative. 
63. 

Nouns, signifying mca 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the idblative. 
64. 

Nouns, signifying the 
time when, are put in the 
ablative; \\iOsc, how long, 
in the accusative^HMme- 
times in the ablative. 
65. 

Verbs of occiinn^, con' 
demning, admonishing, 
and aeequUting, govern 
the acusative of a per- 
son with the genitive of 
a thing. 

6o. 

Verbs of esteeming, go- 
vern the accusative of the 
person, or thing esteem- 
ed, and the genitive, of 
the value. 

57. 

Verbs of comparing, 
giving, declaring, and 



taking away, govern the 
accusative ami dative. 
68. 

Verbs of asking, and 
teac/nng, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

69. 

Verbs of loading, bind 
ing, clothing, depriving^ 
nnd some oSiers, govern 
the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60. 

When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains tlie latter case. 
61. 

Impersonal verbs go 
vern the dative. 
62. 

Interest and refert re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 

Miseret, panitet, pudet, 
toidet, and piget, gojern 
the Hccusative of a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 

Decet, deleelttl, jurat, 
and oportet, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
where, or in which, if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singular 
number, is put in the ge- 
nitive ; but if it be of the 
third declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place lo^i- 
ther, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
tmenu, or throu^ wftat 
place, is pat in the abla- 
tive. 

66. 

Domus and nts, signi- 
fying the place where,nre 
constroed like the names 
of tovrns. 

69. 

A noun, or pronoun, 
joined wiUi a participle 
expressed or undentood, 
when its case depends 

no other word, is 

put in the aWative abso- 
lute. 



S- EXCERPTA LATliNE. 

9 

RULES. gentb adolescent! desponsam fuisse, arcessitis parentibus et 

1. The adjective agrees sponso eam reddidit. Parentes vii^inis, qui ad eam redimendam 

with its substantive, in satis magnum auri pondiis attulerant, Scipionem orabaiit vt id 

number, case, and gender, q]^ g^ donum reciperet. Scipio aurum poni ante pedes jussit. 

its\omInrti^c''^se7ln vocaloque ad se virginis sponso: ^•' Super doteni, inquit, quam 

number and person. accepturus a socero cs, hax tibi a me dotalia dona accedent;'' 

3. The relative, qui, aurunw^ue tollere ac sibi habere jussit. llle donuim reversus. ad 

qua:, quod, agrees with its referendam Scipioni inatiam, Celtiberos Roniauis conciliavit. 

antecedent m gender. ' ^ 

number, and person. SCIPIO NASKA. 

4. If no nominative 

come between the relative Scipio IVasica censor factus. pavem :?e ac st'verum pra?buit. 

and the verb, tho relative Q^Qni equituni censum ageret. equitem (|uemdani vidit obesi» 

verb ; but when a nomi- ^^ pingui corpore, equum vero ejus strigosuni et m<icilentum. 

native intervenes, tlie " Quidnam causa; est, incjuit censor, cur sis tu, quclm equus 

relative is governed by the pinguior ? Quoniam, respondit cques, ego mo ipse euro, equum 

in UieT mence******^*^ "*'^** ^^^^ serviis." Minus verecumlum visum est responsum ; itaque 

6. Any verb may have graviter objiirgatus eques, et mulcta damnatus. Idem Scipio 

the same case after as be- Nasica cum Ennio poeta vivebat conjunctissime. Quum ad 

fore it, when both words eum venisset, eique ab ostio qua'renti ancilla dixisset Ennium 

of Sin"* *^ ^^^ ^"°" ^®^" "^" ^^**^' ^'**^*^? ^^"^^^ ^^^^"^ ^*''"""" J["*'''" clixisse, et ilium 

6. Substantives signify- "*t"s esse. Paucis post diebus quum ad Nasicam venisset En- 
ing the same person or nius, et vMin a janua qusen^ret, exclamavit ipse Nasica sc domi 
thing, agree in case. non esse. Tuni Ennius : '• Quid . ego iion cognosce, inquit, 

7. One substantive go- voeo,n tuam ? Hie Nasica: Homo es impudens: ego quum te 
a different person or thing, quccrerein, aiiciUa* tua* crcdidi te domi non esse; tu non mini 
in the genitive. crc*dis ipsi.'' 

8. If the laUer of two 

substantives have au ad- PAULUS .iilMILIL'S. 

"praise, joinccT'with^^t, \i (^oiAwAo hello, Paulus yEmilius rogia na\o ad urbeni est sub- 
may be put either in the vectus. ( 'ompletfc enuit omnes Tibrris rip« obviJUn effusa 
genitive or ablative. niultitudino. Euit ejus tnum[)hus omnium longe magnificentis- 

9. An adjective in tlie siinus. Populus, exstnutis j>er fomm tabulatis in modimi 
substanUvc, govern8*"the thealrorum, spectavit in candidis togis. Aperta templa omnia 
genitive. et sertis coronata thure fumabaiit. in ti(;s dies distributa est 

10. Opus and I'suSf pompa spectnculi. Primus dies vix suflocit transvehcndis signis 
iff "' w*"t^ ^^^^* require tabulisque ; scquenti die translata sunt anna, galeae, scuta, lo- 
ll. Verbid adjectives, lica?? pjjiirctra.', arLientum auiiimque. Terlio die, prinio statim 

and such as signify an af- mane ducere agmen coppere tibicines, non festos solemnium 

fection of the mind, go- pomparum modos, sed bellicum sonantes, ({UJisi in acicm pro- 

vern the genitive. cedendum foret. Deinde agebantur pingues cornibus auratis 

word's placed'partiiively, ^t vittis redimiti boves centum et viginti. 
comparatives, superla- Sequebantur Persei liberi, comitante educatomm et magis- 

tives, interrogatives, and trorum turb.H, qui manus ad spectatores cum lacrymis misera- 

some numerals, govern ^iuter tendebant, et pueros docebant implorandam suppliciter 

the genitive plural. „• . . ,. '. J ,. i-» x r»i- • i i . ' * 

13. Adjectives signify- ^ictoris populi nnsericordiam. Pone idios mcedebat cum uxore 

ing profit or disprofl, like- Perseus stupenti et attonito similis. Inde quadringentse coio- 

»ie« or unlikenctSf &c. go- na? aurea* [)ortabantur, ab omnibus fere Graeciie civitatibus 

vern the dative. j^^^q missa3. Postremo ipse in curru Paulus auro purpurAque 

14. These adjectives, r i • i x • j* •. . la '^ ^« 
dignuty indigtius, pradi- MJ^gens cmmebat, qm magnam quum dignitate alid corpons, 

tui, and conienhts; also, turn senecta ipsa majesUitem prae se ferebat. Post curnuu 

natus, taiuB, ortus, ediitu, inter alios illustres viros filii duo iEmilii 5 deinde equites tur- 

Staii^ ^^^' ^°^*™ ***^ matim, et cohortes peditum suis quaeque ordinibus. Paub^ 

15. '3^^ective8, signify- ^^natu et k plebe concessum est ut in ludis Curcensibus veste 
ing pkrUiftor want, govern triumphali uteretur, eique cognomen Macedonici inditum. 

the genitive, or ablative. 

16. Sum, when it signl- TIBERIUS GRACCHUS ET CAIUS GRACCHUS. 

or A^^crns SIT^^ Tiberius Gracchus et Caius Gracchus Scipiouis Afrlcani tf 

five. fili& nepotes erant. Horum adolescentia bonis artibiis et wag/A 



uljj:^!;. 



17. 
Sum, taken for habeo, 
(to have,) goTems the da- 
tive of a person. 
18. 
Sum, taken for affero, 
(io bring,) governs two 
datives ; the one of a per- 
son, and tlie other of a 
thing. 

19. 
The compounds of 
Sum, except Possum, go- 
vem the dative. 
20. 
Words of the compa- 
rative degree govern the 
ablative wlien quam is 
omitted in Latin. 
21. 
Adverbs qualify verbs, 
participles, adjectives, 
and other adverbs. 
22. 
Some adverbs of time, 
place, and quantity, go- 
vern the genitive. 
23. 
The prepositions ad, 
apud, ante, be, govern 
the accusative. 
24. 
The prepositions a, ab, 
abs, kjc. govern the abla- 
tive. 

25. 
The prepositions in, 
tub, super, and snbter, 
govern the accusative, 
when motion to a place 
is signitied; but when 
motion or rest in a place 
is sigoifitrd, in and sub 
govern the ablative } su- 
per and subler either the 
accusative or ablative. 
26. 
The iutcrjections O, 
heu, proh, and some 
others, govern the nomi- 
native, accusative, or vo- 
cative. 

27. 
The interjections hei, 
and txe, gm-cru the da- 
ti\'C. 

28. 
The conjunctions lii 
ae, aique, n«c, out, neque, 
and some others, connect 
like cases and modes. 
29. 
Two, or more substan- 
tivQ^jingular, connected 
by a oonjunctioni may 
bare a verb, adjective, 
or relative plural to agree 
with them. 

80. 
The oonjuuctions ut, 
fiw, Keetf izc. govern ibie 
inbjunotiyc mood. 



31. 
VerbS| signifying ac 
tively, govern the accu- 
sative. 

32. 
Mistreor, miscnsco, 
and salago, govern the 
genitive. 

33. 
Any verb may govern 
the dative in Latin, which 
has io, or for, after it in 
English. 

34. 

Verbs compounded 
with satis, benci and male, 
govern the dative. 

35. 
Many verb.s compound- 
ed with these ten pi"c- 
positions, pro', ad, eon, 
sub, ante, post, ob, in, 
iritcr, super, govern the 
dative. 

36. 
Verbs, signifying to 
profit, hurt, favour, assist, 
command, obey, serve, re- 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be angry with, govern 
the dative. 

37. 
Reeordor, memini, re- 
miniseor, and obliriscor, 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 
Verbs of abounding 
and wanting, govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 

39. 
Utor, abator, fnngor, 
fruor, potior, vescor, and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 
A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 

41. 
The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 

42. 
When quod, quin, ut, 
or ne, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, wliich would 
otherwise be in tlie 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 
Participles, gerunds, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
the wx>rd8 from which 
they are derived. 



4-1. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

45. 

The gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives.' • 

46. 

Tlie gerund in do, of 

the dative, is governed 

by adjectives sij;nifving 

usefulness, or fitness, kjc. 

47. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 
propter. 

48. 

The gerund in do, of 
(he ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a prejiosition, as the 
ablative of cause, means, 
or manner. 

49. 

The supine in mn, is 
put after a verb of mo* 
tiou. 

5(). 

The f:upine in 7^, is 
put after an adjecti\e. 
51. 

ISouns, 8i«(nifying the 
price of a tliin^C; "i<' put 
in (he ablative. 
62. 

Nouns, sij^i.irying the 
instrument: cause, means, 
or manner, are jnit iu 
the u!)lative. 

Nouns, signifying wiea- 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
54. 

Nouns, signifying the 
time tvhcn, are put in tlie 
ablative; those, lu)W long, 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
55. 

Verbs of accusing^ con- 
demning, admonishing, 
and accquitting, govern 
the acusative of a per- 
son with the genitive of 
a thing. 

56. 

Verbs of M/ceming, go- 
vern the accusative of the 
person, or thing esteem- 
ed, and the genitive, of 
the value. 

57. 

Verbs of comparing, 
giving, declaring, and 



taking away, govern tfaa 
accusative and dative. 
68. 

Verbs of asking, and 
teaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

59. 

Verba o{ loading, bind 
ing, clothing, depriving^ 
and some others, govern 
the accusative and the 
(dilative. 

60. 

When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 

Impersonal verbs go^ 
vcrn the dative. 
62. 

Interest and referl re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 

Miseret, ptenitet, pudei,- 
t<edet, and piget, govern 
the accusative of a pef- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 

Dcctt, deleclat, jurat, 
and oportei, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
where, or in which, if il 
be of tlie first or second 
declension and singidar' 
number, is put in the ge-r 
iiitive ; but if it be of thtf 
(iiird declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put itf 
the ablative. 
66. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place icA<- 
tlur, is put in the aecu-' 
sative. 

67. 

The name of a town^- 
siffiiifying the place 
whence, or through what 
place, is put in ue ablft>' 
tive. 

68. 

JDomus and rus, signi- 
fying the place where,Hre 
construed like the namev 
of towns. 

69. 

A noun, or pronounV 
jouied widi a participle 
expressed or mulentootf/ 
idien its case dependr 
on no other wordf i» 
put m the ablative 9^99^ 
lute. 



c 



54 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

RULES. omnium spe floruit. Ad egregiam quippe indolem accedebat 

1. the adjective agrees opt'mia educatio. Exstant ComelisB matris epistolae, quibus 
with its substantive, in apparet COS non solum in gremio matiis educates fuisse, sed 
number, case, and gender, ^tiam ab ea sermonis elegantiam hausisse. Maximum matro- 

2. The verb agrees with ^^ omamentum esse liberos bene institutes merito pntabat 
nLbc'rand ^rso^' *" sapientissima iUa miUier : quum Campana matrona, apud illara 

3. The relative, qui, hospita, omamenta sua, quae erant iM setate pretiosissima, os- 
qu(ej quod, agrees with its tentaret ei muliebriter, Cornelia traxit earn seimone, quousque 
SU^r^'Snd ^rson*'"'**'^' ^ ^^'^^^^ redirent liberi; quos reverses hospitee exliibens : " En 
num ^r, an^ ^^'^^jnative baec, inquit, niea ornanienta." Nibil quidem btis addiescenti- 
comc between the relative bus neque ^ natura neque a doctrini defuit; sed ambo rem- 
and the verb, the relative publicam, quam tueri potuissent, impie perturbare maluerunt. 

is the nominative to the * ' * '^ 7 r r 

verb; but when a nomi- LUCIUS LUCULLUS. 

?dlative is"go^cr^dV the Ilabebat Lucullus villjim prospectu et ambulatione pulcher- 

verb, or some other word rimam^ quo ({uum venisset Pompeius, id unum reprehendit 

in the sentence. quod ea liabitatio esset quidem a^state peramoena, sed hieme 

5. Any verb may have j^j^us commoda videretur ; cui Lucullus : " Putasne, inquitf 

the same case after as be- .n ni-j* j-^l- 

fore it when both words ^^ nimus sapere quam hirundmes, qu8B advemente hieme se- 

i«fer to the same person dem coniniutaut ?" Villarum magnificentiae respondebat epu- 

or thing. lanmi suinptus : quum aliquando modica ei, utpote soli, ccena 

6. Substantives signify- ^^^^ posita, coqiium graviter objurgavit, eique excusanti ac 
mcr the same person or ,. J i i • i ^ jo ' , t x , 

tlifnff agree in case. dicenti se non debuisse lautuni parare convivmm, quod nemo 

7. One substantive go- esset ad coenam invitatus : ^^ Quid ais, inquit iratus Lucullus, 

vcrns another signifying an nesciebas Lucullum hodie coenaturum esse apud Lucut- 

adifferent person or thing, i „„ >?> 

■ .« ... mill • 

m the genitive. 

8. If the latter of two POMPEIUS MAGNUS. 

substantives have an ad >-« „ • ^* • « • j i 'in* 'i^^ 

jective of praise or dis- Cufeiis Pompeiiis stirpis senatonse adolescens, m bello civib 

praise, joined with it, it sc (*t patr(»m consilio servavit. Pompeii pater sue exercitui ob 

may be put cither in tht avaritiam erat iiivisus ; itaque facta est in eum censpiratio 

gcmiive or ablative. Terentiiis quidam, Cnaei Pompeii contubenialis, eum occiden 

9. An adjective in the , xi^ i"*i i *•• j 

neuter gender without a *""" suscoperat, duni ahi tabernaculum patns mcenderent. 

substantive, go\ ems the Q«a» res juvnii Pompeio copuanti nunciata est. Ipse nihil pe- 

gcnitivo. riculo mot us, solito liilariijs bibit, et cum Terentie e&dem, qii& 

'^% .^^'"' "."*^ ^ *"*' antca, coniitatti usus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressas^ cUm 

SwTablatfve!^^^' ' »<?<l"'rc jj^i^fi^xit se tcntorio, et fn-mam patri circumposuit custodiam. 

Jl. Verbal adjertives, Terentius tum (listricto ense, ad lectum Pompeii accessit, mul- 

aiKl such as Fignify an af- tisque ictibus stragula percussit. Orta mox seditione, Pom- 

fection of the mind, go- p^his s(; in media conjecit agmina, militesqde tumultuantes pre- 

'^*^72. *Partiii\x^8 and ^**^"^ ^^ lacryniis placavit, ac suo duci reconciliavit. 
words placed partitively, Ponipeiiis eodem bello civili partes Syllee secutus, ita egit, 

comparatives, supcrla- ut ab eo maximc diligerelur. Annos tres et viginti natus^ ut 

tives, interrogaUvcs, and Syllaj auxilio voniret, patemi exercitus reliquias coUegit, sta- 

Xrgcnh^™*^phnal.^*^^^"* timque dux peritus exstitit. Illius magnus apud militem amor, 

' 13. Adjectives signify- magna apud omnes admiratio fuit; nullus ei labor taedio, nulla 

ing profit oip disprofit, /i/:c- defatigatio molestiae erat. Cibi vinique temperans^ somni par- 

ness orwdtkeness, &c. go- ^ug^ jut^r niilites corpus exercebat. Cum alacribus saltu, cum 

^^14.* Thcsr^adjectives, velocibus ciu-su, cum validis lucta certabat. Tum ad Syllam 

dignus, indigiius, proidC iter intendit, non per loca devia, sed pal^ incedens, tres hoi- 

tiUf and contentus ; also, tiiun exercitus aut fudit, aut sibi adjunxit. Quern ubi Sylla ad 

"'d"th*'?^k ^'"*' <'*^''"*» se accedere audivit, egregiamque sub signis juventutem aspezi^ 

Illative. *' ff®^®*"" »® desiliit ex equo, Pompeiumque salutavit unperatorem: ddn* 

1ft. Adjectives signify- c^ps ei venienti solebat assurgere de seM et caput aperiie; 

ing plenty or want, govern quem honorem nemini nisi Pompeio tribuebat. 
the gemtive or ablative. Transgressus inde in Africam Pompeius, larbam Numidi* 

to pSSJrfo^^ ^^g^""' *!"' ^^arii partibus fevebat, beUe persecutus est InW 

or iidy, governs the geni- ^^ quadraginta bestem oppressit, et Africam subegit adi' 

^«. lescens quatuor et viginti aBnorum. Turn ei litterael iSb^ 



RULES. 



m 



'J; 



17. 

Sum, taken forhabeOf 
(to /utve,) governs the da- 
tive of a person. 
18. 

SuMf taken for affero, 
(to Mng,) governs two 
oativet ; the one of a per- 
son, Slid the other of a 
thhiff. 

The compounds of 
Sum, except Posmmy go^ 
vem the dative. 

ao. 

Words of the compa- 
rative degree govern the 
ablative when quam is 
ondtted in Latin. 
21. 

Adverbs quali^ vcrbsi 
participles, adjectives, 
and other adverbs. 
22. 

Some adverbs of time, 
place» and quantity, go- 
vern the genitive. 
23u 

Xhe prqioiiUons od, 
Aoudf akttf mi. govern 
the accusative. 
S4. 

The prepositions a, afr, 
o&t, fcc. govern the abla- 
tive. 

25. 

The prcposifkms tn, 
iubf niper, and subier, 
govern the accusative, 
when motion to a place 
is signified; but when 
motion or rest in a place 
is signified) m and ntb 
govern the ablative; lu- 
per and iMer either the 
accusative or ablative. 

The interjectiottt O^ 
htu, prokf and some 
otlwrs, govern the nomi- 
natiTe, accusative, or vo- 
citive. 

the iaierjections heij 
ud re, govern tlie da- 
tive. 

28. 
The conjanctioBS et, 
■e, wtfUf nect out, neque, 
ud SOBS others, connect 
Uke cues and modes 



I. 



IW^ or more snbstan- 

^vv liagiilary connected 

gy * esttjunction, may 

■■*• avBrti, adjective, 

[ JJJjMve plural to agree 

jVifhihem. 

80. 

Iha conjunctions ii/, 
[JMkiiLlbe. govem tlie 
I'l^iBBcttvamood. 



31. 
^ Verbs, signifying ac 
t'^dy* govem the accu- 
sative. 

82. 
MisereoTf miserueo, 
and tatagOy govem the 
genitive. 

88. 
Any verb may govem 
the dative in Latin, which 
has to, or for, after it in 
English. 

34. 
Verbs compounded 
with satu,bene,sund male, 
govem the dative. 
85. 
Many verbs compound- 
ed with these ten pre- 
positions, j^r^;, ad, con, 
nib, ante, post, ob, in, 
inier, super, govtim the 
dative. 

36. 
Verbs, signifying to 
profit, hurt,favour, assist, 
command, o6ey, serve, re- 
sist, trustf threaten, and 
6e angrif with, govem 
the dative. 

87. 
Recordor, memini, re 
miniscor, and obliviseor, 
govem the accusative or 
genitive. 

88. 
Verbs of abounding 
and wanting, govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 
39. 
Utor, abutor, fungor, 
fruor, potior, vescor, and 
some othei*s, govoi'u the 
ablative. 

40. 
A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of tliat 
preposition. 
41. 
The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 
42. 
When quod, ^uin, ut, 
or ne, is omitted m Latin, 
the word, which would 
Otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 
Participles, gemnds, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same cose as 
the words from which 
Ifaey ore derived. 



44. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

45. 
The gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives. 

46. 
The rerund in do, of 
the dative, is governed 
by adjectives signifying 
usefulness, or fitness, &c. 
47. 
Tlie gerun<l in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, oh, ifUer, ante, 
propter. 

48. 
The gcmnd in do, ofl 
the ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a. preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, jneans, 
or maimer. 

49. 
The supine in um, is 
put after a verb of mo- 
tion. 

60. 
The supine in u, is 
put after an adjective. 
61. 
Nouns, signifying the 
price of a tiling, are put 
in the ablative. 
62. 
Nouns, signifying the 
instrument, cause, means, 
or manner, are put in 
tlic ablative. 
53. 
Nouns, signifying^rea- 
surc, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
54. 
Nouns, signifying the 
time when, are put in the 
ablative ; those, Aotc long, 
in tlie accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
55. 
Verbs of accusing, con- 
demning, admomshing, 
and accquitting, govern 
tlie acusative of a per- 
son with the genitive of 
a thing. 

66. 
Verbs of esteeming , go- 
vern the accusative of the 
person, or thhug estr«m 
ed, and the genitive^ of 
tlie i^ue. 

57. 
Verbs of comparing, 
giving} declaring, and 



taking away, govem the 
accusative and dative. 
58. 
Verbs of asking, and 
teaching, govem two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the oUier of 
a thing. 

59. 
YcrhB of loading, bind' 
ing, clothing, deprivingf 
and some otiiers, govern 
the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60. 
When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 
Impersonal verbs go- 
vern the dative. 
62. 
Interest and refert re« 
quire the genitive. 
63. 
Miseret, panitet, pndetf 
tisdet, and piget, govern 
the accusative of a per 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 
Decet, delectat, jural, 
and oportet, govem the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65. 
The name of a town« 
signifying the place 
where, or in which, if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singidar 
number, is put in the ge* 
nitive , but if it t>c of 9ie 
third declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 
The name of a town, 
signifj'ing the place whi- 
ther, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 
Tlie name of a town, 
signifying the place 
whence, or throudk what 
place, is put in the abhl- 
tive. 

68. 
DomM and rus, sfgaU 
fymg theplaceioA«re,ar0 
construed like the naniee 
of towns. 

69. 
A noun, or pronomiy 
joined with a participle 
expressed or understood^ 
when its case depend! 
on no other word, it 
put in the ablative abfo 
lute. 



26 EXERCISES. 

RULES. Cicero accusaiat Verrem furti. Postulavit MUonem majes- 

55. Verbs of accu- tatis. Damnavit ilium sceleris. Absolvit vos criminis. Mor- 
tmg, condemning f ad- bus monet nos mortis. Arguit me furti. Me ipsum inerti« 
monishingf Bnd acquit' condemno. Ilium homicidii absolvunt. Monet Ihe officii. 
<iiig^, govern the aocusa- De vi condemnati sunt. Erroris te moneo. Absolvo mc 
tive of a person with peccato. Punit ilium capite. iEstimo te magni. Sapiens 
the genitive of a thing, festimat voluptatem parvi. Facio te aequi. Consulo tuum 

56. Verbs of esteem- monitum boni. iEstuno te pro nihilo. Comparo Virgilium 
ingy govern the accu- Homero. Dedit homini sublime os. Dicam tibi totam 
sative of the person, or rem. Eripuit me morti. Ignosce mihi banc culpam. Mina- 
thing esteemed, and tus est mihi mortem. Suum cuique tribuito. Narras fabulam 
the genitive of the va- surdo. Educa himc puerum mihi. Recita mihi sententiam 
lue. Doce puellam mihi. Emam tibi hbros. Praefecit Sextum 

57. Verbs of comr classi. Praefero vim opibus. Gloriosum est iram mutare ami- 
paringfgivingy declare citial. Legam lectionem tibi. Paupertas saepe suadet mala ho- 
ingf and taking away, numbus. Interdixit 'Galliam Romanis. Ad praetorem homi- 
govem the accusative nem traxit. Pacem te poscimus omnes. Egestas docet nos 
and dative. temperantiam. Cela banc rem servos. Moneo te officium. In* 

58. Verbs of iwib'fi^, stitue hunc puerum Graecis litteris. Omnes poscimus pacem i 
and teaching, govern te. Docuit me grammaticam. Celavit me banc rem. Celavit 
two accusatives ; the banc rem mihi. Onerat naves auro. Induit se calceos. Induit 
one of a person, and se calceis. Deum posce voniam. Ea me ne celet. Verres ao 
the other of a thing. cusabatur furti. Virgilius comparatur Homero. £go eripior 

59. Verbs of loadr morti. Deus rogatur salutem. Nos docemur temperantiam. 
iiig, binding, clothing, Haec res celatur servos. Saepe monemur mortis. Doceor 
depriving, and some grammaticam. Navis oneratur auro. Scio homines accusatum 
otiiers, govern the ac^ iri furti. Habetur ludibrio iis. Tu laudaris k me. Virtus dili- 
cusative and the abla- gitur k nobis. Mare k sole collucet. Phalaris non k pauds 
tive. interiit. Per me defensa est rcspublica. Neque cemitur ulli. 

60. When a verb in Vix audior ulli. Ilonesta bonis viris quaeruntur. Nulla tuarum 
the active voice go- audita mihi neque visa sororum. Provisum est nobis optimd 
vems two cases, in the k Deo. Reclamatum est ab omnibus. Contigit mihi esse illic 
passive it retains the Expedit reipublicae. Licet nemini peccare. Libet mihi expa^ 
latter case. tiari. Pertinet ad te tacere. Favetur mihi. Mihi non potest 

61. Impersonal verbs noceri. Negat jucunde posse vivi sine virtute. Per virtutem 
govern the dative. potest iri ad astra. Aliorum laudi et gloriae invideri solet. Re* 

62. Intel est and re- fert patris. Interest omnium. Non mea refert. Refert mili- 
fert require tiie geni- tum. Cuja refert. Hoc parvi refert. Ulud mea magni inte- 

tive. rest. Faciam quod maxime reipublicae interesse judicabo* 

63. Miseret, pcmi- Adeone est fundata leviter fides, ut ubi sun, qu^ qui sim, ma- 
tet, pudet, tcRdet, and gisreferat? Plurimum enim intererit, quibus artibus, aut quibtf 
piget, govern the accu- hunc tu moribus instituas. Miseret me infelicium civium. Sem- 
sative of a person, with per poenitet bonos peccati. Non pudet malos superbiae. Taedet 
the genitive of a thing, te cito tui officii. Piget infelices durae sortls. Miseret me toi* 

64. Decet, delectat, Poenitet me peccati. Taedet me vitae. Pudet me culpae. Pcbj 
juvai, and oportet, go- nitet me pecdLsse. Miseritum est me tuarum fortunanfli* 

vem the accusative of Neque me tui, neque tuorum liberorum misereri potest DttlA 
a person, with the in- te esse aequum. Delectat pueros ludere. Jurat te maoa* 
finitive mood. domi. Oportet te studere diUgenter. 



EXERCISES. 27 

Delectat me studere. Non decet te rixari. Parvum parva RULES. 

ecent. Est aliquid, quod non oporteat, etiamsi liceat. Sibi 65. The name of a 

ulsque consulet oportet. VixitRomse. Mortmis est Londini. town, signifying the 

Juid Romae faciam ? Habitat Carthagine. Stiiduit Parisiis. P^*^® whercy or in 

[oratius vixit Tibure et Athenis. Venit Romam. Profectus ?*!f*» '^ '^ *!f/,*^* 

.4.1 T> 1 j-x /^ i_ . ^ 1 . . "^st or second declen- 

8t Athenas. Regulus redut Carthagmem. Carthagmi nun- sio„ and singular num- 

ios mittam. Regulus. rediit Carthagine, Venit Aberdonia. ber, is put in the geni- 

ecit iter Philadelphia. Dbcedit Corintho. Laodiceli iter tive ; but if it be of the 

waebat. Per Thebas iter fecit. Quid faciam domi ? Hora- third declension, or plu- 

us vixit rure. Regulus non rediit domum. Petrus abut rus J?^ "^^^' *^ ^ ^^^ "* 

upcr. Non ibo domo. Manet domi. Domum revertitur. (^^ The'name of a 

kxBo arcessitus sum. Vivit ruri. Jacet huml. Ubi vir nar town signifying the 

aftiit? In Italia. Quo abivit? In Italiam. Unde redivit? place toAtVAer, is put in 

Lb Italia. Qu& transivit ? Per Italiam. Deo volentc, omnia the accusative, 

idem bend. Opere pcracto, ludemus. Soleoriente, fugiunt ^^' '^.^^.J!^® ^^, * 

jnehrae. Dominante libidine, temperanti* nuUus est locus, ^^^l" **5?!!^'"^ ^! 
•MM . . .A , .,. A . ^ , place toAence. or 

ihd amiciUa praestabihus est, excepta virtute. Oppress^ h- through what place, is 

ertate patriae, nihil est quod speremus amplius. Cicero, lo- put in the ablative. 

itus haec, consedit. Roman!, libertate adeptA, floruerunt. 68. DomuB and riM, 

ihil autem magis cavendum est senectuti, qu^m ne languori s^gnify^Jg the place 

idesidi«quededat. r^^^u*^ construed 

rx .. ^ . . . • hke the names of 

lieus, quem pu colunt, cujus munere vivunt, cujus sunt cu- towns. 

idi, cui parent et placent, quo fruentur, est aetemus. Specta- 69. A noun, or pro- 

im admissi, risum teneatis, amici ? Pictoribus atque poetis noun, joined with a 

lidlibet audendi semper fuit aequa potestas. Serpit humi, tu- participle expressed or 

s nimium, timidusque procellae. In vitium ducit culpa fiiga, understood, when its 

«« * -* c •! * • ^ • i*- c^® depends on no 

caret arte. Snmite matenam vestns, qui scnbitis, aequam Qther word is put in 

ribos. Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum ipsi tibi. Ira- the ablative absolute, 
m vultum plena minarum verba decent. Et sibi constet. 
ec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus incident. Qraiis 

genium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo, musa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris. Omne 
lit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci, lectorem delectando, pariterque monendo. Nunc 
t Mbendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda tellus. Quibus pepercit aris ? Quid intactum 
Kiaati liquimus? Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos orbis Britannos. Valet ima 
munis mutare Deus. Nee tibi somnos adimunt. Multis ille quidem flebilis occidit ; 
ilti flebilior qu^ tibi, Virgili. Integer vitae, scelerisque purus, non cget Mauri jaculis 
ique area. O mater, pulchrtL filisl pulchrior. Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus fidit. 
UQc vino pdlite curas ; eras ingens iterabimus aequor. Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet 
icus, aut aralcnr igni. Recepto dulce mihi furere est amico. Foliis viduantur omi. 
es&ne moUium tandem querelarum. Post evfuitem sedet atra cura. Eheu ne rudis 
pninom sponsus lacessat regius asperum tactu leonem. Dulce et decorum est pro 
Uria mori. Justum et tenacem propositi virum non vultus instantis tyranni mente 
latit solidA. Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules innixus, arces attiget igneas. Prim& 
>cte domnm elaude, neque in vias sub cantu querulae despice tibiae ; et te saepe vocanti 
mun, difficilis mane. Donee gratus eram tibi, Persarum vigui rege beatior. Tecum 
vere amem, tecum obeam libens. Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuus afiiilsit, populo 
^stior it dies, et soles melius nitent. Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori. Nunc 
ivit nos'kvare diris pectora solicitudinibus. Nil fuit unquam sic impar sibi. Namque 
ilMui urenda filix innascitur agris. Egressum nagnA, me accepit Aricia, Romft. 



28 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 



RULES. 

. The adjective agrees 
with its substantivei in 
number} case, and gender. 

2. The verb agrees with 
its nominative cijise, in 
number and person. 

8. The relative, qui, 
qvuif qvutdf agrees with its 
antecedent in gender, 
number, and person. 

4. If no nominative 
come between the relative 
and the verb, the relative 
IS the nominative to the 
verb; but when a nomi- 
native intervenes, the 
relative is governed by the 
verb, or some other word 
in the sentence. 

5. Any verb may have 
the same case after as be- 
fore it, when both words 
refer to the same person 
or thing. 

6. Substantives signify- 
ing the same person or 
thing, agree in case. 

7. One substantive ^- 
vems another signifymg 
ft different person or thing, 
in the genitive. 

8. If the latter of two 
substantives have an ad- 
jective of praiso or dis- 
praise, joined with it, it 
may be put either in the 
genitive or ablative. 

9. An adjective in the 
neuter cender without a 
substantive, governs the 
genitive. 

10. Opus and Usus, 
signifying need^ require 
the ablative. 

11. Verbal adjectives, 
and such as signify an af- 
fection of the mind, go- 
vern the genitive. 

12. Partitives, and 
words placed partitively, 
comparatives, superla- 
tives, interrogativcs, and 
some numerals, govern 
the genitive plural. 

13. Adjectives signify- 
ing profit or ditprofil, like- 
rteu ox unlikenetij &^. go- 
vern the dative. 

14. These adjectives, 
digniUf indifpnu, pr^di- 
tus, and contentus; also, 
no/ 111, so/tw, ortu8, editw, 
and the like, govern the 
ablative. 

15. Adjectives, signify- 
ing jifoi/y, or wmt, govern 
the genitive, or ablative. 

lo. Sum^ when it sign!- 
^«s potsesfTon, propafy^ 
or duly, governs the geni- 
tlv©. 



D£ VIRIS ILLUSTRIBUS URBIS BOMiE. 

KEOULUS. 

Regulus deindd in Africam primus Romanonim ducum trap 
jecit. Clypeam urbem et trecenta casteUa expugnavit: napi 
cum hominibus tantum^ sed etiam cum monstris dimicaTk. 
Nam quum apud flumen Bagradam castra haberet, anguis mine 
magnitudinis exercitum Romanum vexabat : multos milhai in- 
genti ore corripuit; plures caudae verbere elisit; nomidkx 
ipso pestilentis halitus afflatu ezanimavit. Neque is telofOD 
ictu perforari poterat ; quippe qui durissimi squamarum knici 
omnia tela facile repelleret. Confugieiidum fuit ad machinas, 
et advectis balistis, tanquam arx quaedam munita dejidendiu 
hostis fuit. Tandem saxorum pondere oppressus jacuit; sed 
cruore suo flumen et vicinam regionem infecit, Romanosqoe 
castra movere coegit. Corium belluse centum et viginti pedes 
longum Romam misit Regulus. 

Lacedaemonii Xantippum virum belli peritisslmum Cartlur 
giniensibus miserunt, k quo Regulus victus est ultima perrnde: 
duo tantiim millia hominum ex omni Romano exercitu reman- 
serunt: Regulus ipse captus, et in carcerem conjectus est. 
Deindd Romam de permutandis captivis dato jurejurando mis' 
sus est, uty si non impetrasset, rediret ipse Carthaginem : qui 
quum Romam venisset, inductus in senatum mandata exposut, 
et primum ne sententiam diceret recusavit, causatus se, qoo- 
niam in hostium potestatem venisset, jam non esse senatorem 
Jussus tamen sententiam aperire, negavit esse utile captivoi 
Pocnos reddi, quia adolescentes essent et boni duces, ipse vei 
jam confectus senectute : cujus quum valuisset auctoritas, cap 
tivi retenti sunt. 

Regulus deinde quum retineretur k propinquis et amlcis, tBr 
men Carthamnem rediit : neque vero tunc ignorabat se ad era- 
delissimum hostem et ad exquisita supplicia proficisci, sed jns- 
jurandum conservandum putavit. Reversum CarthaginieMei 
omni cruciatu necaverunt : palpebris enim resectis aliquaocB 
in loco tafiebricoso tenuerunt; deinde quum sol esset ardeot» 
simus, repente eductum intueri coelum coegerunt; postremois 
arcam ligneam incluserunt, in qu& undique clavi praeacuti emi- 
nebant. Ita dum fessum corpus, quocumqud inclinaret, 8th | 
mulis ferreis confoditur, vigiliis et dolore continuo extinctus eatj 
Hie fuit Atilii Reguli exitus ipsi quoque vit&, licdt per mai 
mam gloriam diu acta, clarior et illustrior. 

FABIUS BIAXmUS. 

Annibal, superatis Pyrenaei et Alpium jugis, in Italiam v< 
Publium Scipionem apud Tidnum amneniy Sempronium a^- 
Trebiam, Flaminium apud Trasimenmnprofligavit* AdveniiiJ 
hostem toties victorem missus Quintus Fabius dictator^ Aani'j 
balls impetum mor& fregit; namque pristinis edoctus dadiM 
belli rationem mutavit Per loca alta exercitum diicebat, nsxftl 
ullo loco fortunae se committebat : castris nisi quantiba neces* 
sitas cogeret tenebatur miles. Dux neque occaskmi lei bat 
gerendae deerat, si qua ab hoste d&retur, neque ullam uae k 
dabat. Frumenta^um exeunt! Annibali opportunus actent^ 
men carpens, palantes excipiens. Ita ex tevSnu pi _1 ^ 
rior djscessit, militemque coepit nunib jam aut Tirtatu 
aut fortunae poenitere. 

Hb anibu8 Annibalem FalmB in am Paksmo in 
sed iUe caltidas sine uJIo ezercMs ^trimentD n 



m, token tarhabto, 
ivti}gonntt the di 
>f apcnoD. 
18. 

7n,tAcm for afftrt 
■ring,) pneniB tw 
ra ; the one of a pei 
utd the oUicr of 



the dativt 



Veri» compouodeil 
with $Qju, benejMnd ntait, 

cveni tbe dative. 
39. 

Manj rcrba conipound- 
ed with theie ten pre- 
poiiliaai, prv, ad, can, 
ntft, anil, patl, oh, in, 
inter, raper, eovcrn Ilie 
dative. 

Verbi, it^irjinir to 
profit, hufl,farouT, atntt. 



E prepoaitions I'li 
tnptr, nnd tubltr 
v tbe ucuwlive 

■allied ; but whci 
o or real in a placi 
inified, in and iu6 
a the BbUtii , _.. 
id hAUt either the 
Btive or ablatJTe. 

2ft 
e inte^ectiona O 
proh, and gomi 
I, govern the aomi 



dB|;idw, cimneeted 
ca^JDDctiiw, ma; 
■ mlt, adjective, 

itiTC jilnnd to agree 



iMtitu-gotrnUM 



!rb Id ay gove 
inLa^n.whi 



Tlie gerund in ifunii 



prapltT. 

48. 
The gerund 



Vertu of dieandmg 
id wanting, goren " 

ablative, and lome' 

the genitive. 



ue of tht 



When quod, gain, 
■ ne, is omitted in Latin, 
le word, which would 



aomioBtire, ia pu 
tbe accuiative, and the 
Ihe influitii 



govern the lame caie ai 



pnt after an adjective. 



intlrumtnt, caaie, 
or manntr, are 
the ablative. 
63, 
Noiioii,gigTiifyli„ 
\re, ov diilana, are put 

meg in the ablative. 

64. 
Noiioa, aignifying the 
me tcAen, arc put in the 
>latjve; ihoac,hovlong. 



the acDiative of a 



n with the genitive of tying the place irhcra, 
thing. CMiitraed like the oai 



M. 

Teitw of ttUtmingigo- 
■trn the acciuative of the 
ieraoD,OT thing ettcem- ji 
'd, and the g^tlra, or|c 



A7. 



Veitx of 



Vcrbg of niting, and 
leadiing, govern two ac- 
cuaativci; the one of a 
peraoa, and the other of 



Verba at leading, bint- 
ig, dolking, dtpriving, 
nd lomc othcra, govern 



.Viaarel, pmaitt, pudtl, 
Utttet, and pigtt, gmem 
Ihe acenaative oT ■ par- 
-m, with tha geniliTa of 



I, with the infiniUn 



The name of a town, 
foifyhig the place 
Jure, or tn lahtcA, if it 
s of the first or second - 
eclenaion and singular 
number, ia put in uiem- 
nitive; but if it be of Or 
third dccleoaion, or irin- 

the ablative'. 

66. 

Tlie name of a torn), 

gignilying the place uAi- 

Uar, ia put in the accn- 



aienifying the place 
t;nen«, or throu^ wkat 
place, is put in uie abta- 



lofaMd with a partidpls 
upreaied or nndoMood, 
when ha ca*e dapaMta 
m no odier wMd, b 
PM ia dM aUMtra Oia. 



30 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

RULES. Nemp^ arida sarmenta boum comibus alligavit, eaque princi- 

1. The adjective agrees pio noctis inccndit : metus flammse relucentis ex capite bovei 
with its substantive, in velut stimulatos furore agebat. . Hi ergo accensis comibus per 
number, case, and gender, monies, per silvas hue illuc discurrebaiit. Romani, qui ad 

2. The verb agrcM with gpe^ujanduin concurrerant, miraculo attoniti constiterunt : ipse 

its nominative case, m vV , . . . ,. ^ ' .»«^ * n j* d.u 

number and person. Fabius msidias esse ratus, militeni extra vallum egredi vetmt 

3. The relative, qui, Interesi Annibal ex angustiis evasit. Dein Annibal, ut Fabio 
qua, quod, agrees with its apud suos crearet invidiam, agrum ejus, omiiibus circ^ vastatis, 
SSlSber^Md Mrson^"**^*^' intactum reliquitj at Fabius omnem ab se suspicionem propul- 

4. If no nominative savit: nam eumdem agrum vendidit, ejusque pretio captives 
come between the relative Romanos redemit. 

and the verb, the relative Quintus Fabius jam senex filio suo consul! legatus fiiitj 

verb I buTw^^n'a Im'! q""™q«« '» ^J"? <='«*« ^"^"i'^' """^ "^^^^ ^^"^ P'^TT' 

native intervenes, the est; duodecim lictores pro more anteibant. Lquo vehebatB" 

relative is governed by the senex, nec appropinquante consule descendit. Jam ex licton 

verb, or some other word jjyg undecim verecundia patemae majestatis taciti prfieterierant 

"^s!* A^y^crb may have 9"^^ quum consul animadvertisset, proximum lictorem juMt 

the same case after as be- inclamare Fabio patri ut ex equo descenderet. Pater turn d^ 

fore it, when both words silicns : ^^ Non ego, fili, inquit, tuiun imperium contempsi^ sed 

refer to the same person experiri volui an scires consulem agere." Ad summam senec- 

"""^ Substantives signify- ^^^em vixit Fabius Maximus, dignus tanto cognomine. Cautkr 

ing the same person or quam promptior habitus est, sed msita ejus mgemo pnidentia 

thing, agree in case. bello, quod tum gerebatiu:, aptissima erat. Nemini dubium 

7. One substantive go- ^st (luin rem Romanam cunctando restititferit. 
vems another signifymg 

a different person or thing, SCIPIO AFRICANUS. 

in the genitive. 

8. if the latter of two Publius Cornelius Scipio nondum annos pueritise egressus 

i^'til^'irDr'rc or° dt: P'^*'"^"' «'"&"'«'' ^''*'*« "^'^'t^ ■«"" I"*™ ^ •" P"g»^ »I«* 

prftise, joined witli it, it ^ icmum contra Annibaicm commissa graviter vulneratus esset, 

may be put either in the et in hostium manus jamjam venturus esset, filius, interjecto 

genitive or ablative. corpore, Poenis irruentibus se opposuit, et patrem periciUo U- 

n^i^'^^XZJ^l "eravit. Que pietas Scipioni postcA ^dUitutem petoiti &«• 

substantive, governs the ^^ populi conciliavit; quum obsistcrent tnbuni plebis ne- 

genitive. gantes rationem ejus esse habendam, quod nondum ad peten* 

10. Opus and Usus, 3um legitima aetas esset : " Si me, inquit Scipio, omnes qni- 

Sfiwative"'^' '"^*^"''"' "^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^°^""^' ^^^ annorum habeo.'' Tanto rndt 

11. Verbal adjectives, favore ad suflragia itum est, ut tribuni incoepto destiterint. 
and such as signify an af- Quum Romani duas clades in Ilispanii accepissent, duoqoe 
fection of the mind, go- ibi summi imperatores cecidJssent, placuit excrcitiim augoij 
^^***l4rtitive8 d ®^^"® proconsulem mitti ; nec tamen quem mitterent satis 
words placed partitivcly, constabat. Ea de re indicta simt comitia. Primd popolitt 
comparatives, supcria- exspectabat, Ut qui se tanto dignos imperio credermt, noxnioa 
tives, interrogatives, and profiterentur ; sed nemo audebat illud imperium su^pere. 

£r«n"ti J^^Skl.^''*'™ ^^^^^ ^^*?"® "^^ ^'^h ^ P"^P^ ^^^^ *"^P*- ^"^'*^ ^^ 

if^Acyectives signify- ^^^i^s Scipio quatuor et viginti ferme annos natus, professus est 

ing profit, or di^proJU, like- se petere, et in superiore, imde conspici posset^ loco ccmstitit : 

neu oxurdikeMtt, &c. go- in quem omnium ora conversa sunt. Deinde ad unum omnes 

^^M.* Tl^^adjcctivcs Scipionem in Hispanii proconsulem esse jiisserunt At pcMt- 

djgntif, indigntu, pnedi- qu^ animomm impetus resedit, populum Romanum coepit 

tui, and eontentus; also, facti pcenitere. .£tati Scipionis maxim^ diffidebant. Qixxl 

nahu,iaiut, ortus, editus, ubi animadvertit Scipio, advocati concione, ita magpo elatoqoe 

l^ilve. ' ^""^^ ^^ animo disseruit de beUo quod gerendum erat, ut homines GII1& 

15. Adjectives, signify- Hberaverit, speque certa impleverit. 
ingffenfy, or looni, govern Profectus igitur in Hispaniam Scipio Carthaginem novaBL 

^Ffi^^' *h *"**!''*•. H^^ ^® v^^*j expugnavit. Ed congestae erant omnes p^ 

^M'pomuh^^f^,^^' Africae et Hispaniae opes, quibus potitus est. Inter captives ad 

or duijf, governs the geni- ^^ adducta est eximiae formse adulta viiigo. Postquam cq0-> 

<>▼«• pent earn iliustri loco inter Celtiberos nalam, prindpique ^ 



UliLEri. 



Sum, taken forfiabeo, 
(to havef)gawemt the dm- 
tive of a person. 
18. 
Sufiii taken for afferoj 
(to bring,) governs two 
ciativcfl ; the one of a per- 
son, anud the other of a 
thing. 

19. 
Tlie compounds of 
Sum, except Potsum, go- 
vern the dative. 
20. 
Words of tlie compa- 
rative degree govern the 
aUative when quam is 
omitted in Latin. 
21. 
Adverbs qualify verbs, 
participles, adjectives^ 
and other adverbs. 
22. 
Some adverbs of time, 
place, and quantity, go- 
vern the genitive. 
2a. 
The prepositions ad, 
apud, ante, kc. govern 
the accusative. 
24. 
The prepositions a, ah, 
aba, &c. govern the abla- 
tive. 

25. 
The prepositions in, 
mb, super, and tubter, 
govern the accusative, 
when motion to a place 
is signified; but when 
motion or rest in a place 
is signified, in and sub 
govern the ablative ; su- 
per and subter either the 
accusative or ablative. 
26. 
The interjections O, 
heu, pn^h Aod some 
others, govern the nomi- 
native, accusative, or vo* 
cative. 

27. 
The interjections liei, 
and WD, govern the da- 
tive. 

28. 
The conjunctions et, 
MCf atqaet nee, aui, neque, 
and some others, connect 
like cases and modes. 
20. 
TfTOf or more substan- 
tiTCi singular, connected 
bjr a oonjnnction, may 
have a veri), adjective, 
or relative plural to agree 
wHh them. 

ao. 

The cenjonctiont ut, 
quo% Keetf w. govern the 
■nbjinicthre mood. 



31. 
Verbs, signifying ac- 
tively, govern the accu- 
sative. 

32. 
Miser tor, miser esco, 
and sata^ro, govern the 
genitive. 

33. 
Any verb may govern 
the dative in Latin, which 
has to, or for, after it in 
English. 

34. 
Verbs compounded 
with satis,bene,and nude, 
govern the dative. 
35. 
Many verbs compound- 
ed with these ten pre- 
positions, priB, ad, con, 
sub, ante, post, ob, in, 
inter, super, govern the 
dative. 

3G. 
Verbs, signifying to 
profit, hurtffarour, assist, 
command, obey, serve, re- 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be atif^ry with, govern 
the dative. 

37. 
Recordor, mcmini, re- 
miniscor, and obliviscor, 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 
Verbs of abounding 
and wantingf govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 
39. 
Utor, abutor, futigor, 
fruor, potior, vescor, and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 
A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 
Tlie infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 
42. 
When quod, quin, ut, 
or ne, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 
Participles, gerunds, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
the words from which 
tliey are derived. 



44. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

45. 
The genmd in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives. 

46. 
The gerund in do, of 
the dative, is governed 
by adjectives signifying 
usefulness, or fitness, &lc. 
47. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 
propter. 

48. 
The gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by tlie prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, means, 
or manner. 

49. 
The supine in um, is 
put after a verb of mo- 
tion. 

60. 
The supine in u, is 
put after an adjective. 
61. 
Nouns, signifying the 
price of a thing, are put 
in the ablative. 
62. 
Nouns, signifying the 
instrument, cause, means, 
or manner, are put in 
the ablative. 

53. 
• Nouns, signifying mea- 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the idblative. 
64. 
Nouns, signifying the 
time 1^/ieif, are put in the 
ablative; those, Aoto/o^ig, 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
65. 
Verbs of accusing, con- 
demning, admomsking, 
and aecquitting, govern 
the acusative of a per 



a thing. 

6o. 

Verbs of esteeming, go 
vem the accusative of the 
person, or thing esteem 
ed, and the genitive, of 
the value. 

57. 

Verbs of comparing, 
giving, declaring, and 



taking away, govern the 
accusative and dative. 
68. 
Verbs of a^ng, and 
teaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

69. 
Verbs of loading, bind 
ing, clothing, depriving, 
and some others, govern 
the accusative and tlie 
ablative. 

60. 
When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 
Impersonal verbs go 
vem the dative. 
62. 
Interest and refert re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 
Miser et, panitel, pudet, 
toidet, and piget, govern 
the accusative of a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 
Decet, delectal, jurat, 
and oportet, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65; 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
where, or in which, if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singular 
number, is put in the ge- 
nitive ; but if it be of the 
third declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 

The name of a town^ 
signify' ing tlie place toAi- 
ther, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
whence, or through what 
place, a pat in the abla- 
tive. 

66. 

DomiuM and rtu, sign!- 



son with the genitive of fying the place t^Acre, are 



construed like the names 
of towns. 

69. 
A noun, or pronouDf 
joined with a participle 
expressed or understood, 
when its case depends 
on no other word, is 
put in the ablative abso- 
lute. 



S: EXCLRPTA LATLNL. 

RULES. gentis adulescenti clcsponsam fuisse, arcessiiis pareiitibus vi 

1. The adjective agrees sponso earn reddidit. Parentes vii^inis, qui ad earn rediniendani 

with its substantive, iu satis mngiiuni auri pondiis attulerant, Scipioncm orabant vt id 

number, case, and gender. ^]y g^ donum reciperet. Scipio aunim puni ante pedes jussit, 

its^'nomtnrtWc*^sr,'*1n vocato(iue ad se virginis sponso: « Super doteni, inquil, quain 

number and person. accepturus a soccro es, hac tibi a me dotalia dona accedent;-' 

3. The relative, quij aummque tollere ac si!)i habere jussit. llle donium reversus. ad 

qua:, quod, agrees with its referendam Scipioni in-atiani, Celtiberos Romanis conciliavit. 

antecedent in gender. ' 

number, and person. SCIPIO naska. 

4. If no nominative 

come between the relative Scipio Xasica censor factus. |fravein :?e ac sevenun pra^buii. 

and the \erb, tho relative Qm,n| equitum ceiisiun atjeret. tMiuiteni cniemdani vidit obebc 

is the nominative to the ^ . * ^ y \ . * * m ^ 

verb; but when a nomi- ^t pnigui cori)ore, equinu Vfi*o ejus .stngosum et macilentum. 

native intervenes, tlie " Quidnam causa; est, iiuiuit censor, cur sis tu, quani equus 

relative is governed by the pinguior ? Quoniam, lespondit ecpies, ego nie ipse euro, eciuuni 

verb, or some other word ^,^^^ servus." Minus verecumluni visum est responsum 5 itaque 
in the sentence. . ,. i.a» - tj o** 

6. Any verb may have graviter objiirgatus eqiies, et mulcta daninatus. Idem bcipiv 

the same case after as be- Nasica cum Ennio poeta vivebat conjunctissinie. Quum ad 

fore it, when both words eum veiiisset, eique ab ostio (puenuiti ancilla dixisset Ennium 

refw to the same person ^^^j^^j ^^^^ ^^^^^ Nasica sensit illam domini fussu dixisse, et ilium 

6. Substantives signify- iwtiis esse. Paucis post diebus quum ad Nasiciim venisset Ed- 
ing the same person or nius, et eum a janua qua-reret, exclamavit ipse Nasica so domi 
thing, agree in case. non esse. Tum Ennius : *• Quid . ego 11011 cogiiosco, inquit. 

7. One substantive go- yocom tuam ? Hie Nasica: Htmio es iinpudens: e£:oquuint« 
vems anotiier sicnitvin"' * 01 

a different person or tiling, qucTrerem, aiicilla* tua* credidi te domi non esse; tu non milii 

in the genitive. credis ipsi.'' 

8. If the latter of two 

substantives have au n«l- PAULUS -IIMILILS. 

praise, joinecT^with^^^it) Xt ^-^ohlWlo hello, Paulus il^hnilius rejria na\e ail urbeni est sub- 
may be put cither in the vcctus. ( 'ompleta} eraiit omiH^s Tiberis ripae obvi^m effusa 
genitive or ablative. multitudinc. Euit ejus triumpbus omnium longe magnificcnti^v 

9. An adjective in the gimns. Populus, exstructis per torum tabulatis in modum 
iubsSinUvc, govem8*"thc thenlrorum, spectavit in <andi(lis toiiis. Aperta teinpla omnia 
genitive. et sertis coronaUi tliure rtannbant. in lies dies distributa est 




and such as signify an af- mane ducere agnien coepere tibicines, non festos soleimiiuiu 

fection of the mind, go- pomparum modos, sed liellirum sonantes, (jUJisi in acicm pro- 

vern the genitive. cedendum foret. Deinde agt?bantur pingues cornibus aunitis 

words pla^d'^partiiively, ^^ ^ittis redimiti boves centum et vigmti. 
comparatives, snperla- Sequebantur Persei liberi, comitante educatorum et magis- 

tives, interrogatives, and trorum turba, qui manus ad spectatores ctmi lacrymis misera- 

some numerals, govern i^iut^^ tendebant, et pueros doccibant implorandain suppliciter 

the genitive plural. „. . . ,. '. T ,. n % /m- * . 1 1 x "I'r"^"" 

13. Adjectives signify- ^ ^^^^^is [)opuli nnsericordiam. Pone iilios mcedebat cum iLXore 

ing profit or disprofu, tike- Pei'seus stupenti et attonito similis. Inde quadringentSD coro- 

nes$ or unlikeness, &c. go- nge aurea? portabantur, ab omnibus fere Graeciic civitatibus 

vern the dative. dono missa;. Postrcmo ip.se in curru Paulus auix) purpurAaue 

14. These adjectives, r 1 • 1 * • i* •. ^ i.a r"*"M 
dignut, indignus, pnedi- ^^jlg^ns einmebat, qm magnam quum digmtale ali& corpons, 

tua, and eontentus; also, tum seiiectai ipsa inajestiiteni pra; se fei-ebat. Post currum 

wUus, tatu8, ortus, edUus, inter alios illustres viros filii duo iEmilii ; deinde equites tur- 

cSuukive ^^^* 8^^®™ **»c matim, et cohortes pedilum suis qua^que ordinibus. Paubi^ 

15. ^Adjectives, signify- s^natu et k plebe concessum est ut in ludis Curcensibua vc8f€ 
ingjileiiti/, or iM»M, govern triumphali uteretur, eique cognomen Macedonici iiiditum. 

the genitive, or ablative. 

16. Swn^ when it signi- TIBERIUS GRACCHUS ET CAIUS GRACCHUS. 

or Aity, governs ^legcni- Tiberius Gracchus et Gains Gracchus Scipioiiis Africani ex 

(iv«» iiM nepotes erant. Horum adolescenda bonis artibiis et mapft 



ULJ.KS. 



17. 
un, taken for habeOg 
ave,) governs the da- 
of a person. 

18. 

tim» taken for affero, 

^rif^O govema two 

ires ; the one of a per- 

and the other of a 

gr- 
ip. 

he compounds of 
!) except Possum, go 
I the dative. 

20. 
''ords of the compa- 
•e degree govern the 
tive wlien quam is 
ted in Latin. 

oi 

dvcrbs qualify verbs, 
iciples, adjectives^ 
other adverbs. 

22. 
)nie adverbs of time, 
e, and quantity, go- 
. the genitive. * 

23. 
he prepositions ad, 
I, ante, &e. govern 
iccnsative. 

24. 
le prepositions a, ah, 
be. govern the abla- 

25. 
le prepositions in, 

super, and snbter, 
rn the accusative, 
1 motion to a place 
ignificd; but when 
on or rest in a place 
gnlfiird, t7i and sub 
m the ablative ; su- 
md subter either the 
sative or ablative. 

26. 
le interjections O, 

proh, and some 
rs, govern tlie uonii- 
'C, accusative, or vo- 
•e. 

2t. 
ic interjections hei, 
va, gm'crn the da- 

28. 
ic conjunctions it, 
IquCi nee, out, neque, 
some others, connect 
cases and modes. 

29. 
wo, or more substan- 
..lingular, connected 
L oonjunction, may 
a verb, adjective, 
laCive plural to agree 
them. 

80. 
le conjunctions ut, 
Heetf Uc. govern the 
notive mood. 



31. 

VerbSf signifying ac- 
tively, govern the accu 
lative. 

32. 
Mistreor, misensco, 
and salago, govern the 
genitive. 

33. 

Any verb may go\orn 
tlie dative in Latin, which 
has to, or for, after it in 
English. 

34. 

Verbs compounded 
with saiiSfbenet and male, 
govern the dative. 
35. 

Many verbs compound- 
ed with these ten pro- 
positions, pric, ad, eon, 
sub, ante, post, 6b, in, 
inter, super, govern the 
dative. 

36. 

Verbs, signifying to 
profit, hurl, favour, assist, 
cotnmand, obey, serve, re- 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be angry tcith, govern 
the dative. 

37. 

ReeordoTf meminij re 
miniscor, and obliriscor, 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 

Verbs of abounding 

and wanting, govern 11i< 

ablative, and sometimes 

the genitive. 

39. 

Ulor, abator, fnngor, 
fruor, potior, vescor, and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 

A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 

The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noim. 
42. 

When quod, quin, ut, 
or ne, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in (he 
nominaUve, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 

Participles, gerunds, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
the words from which 
they are derived. 



4-1. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
tlie verb est, governs the 
dative. 

45. 

The gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives. * 

46. 

The gerund in do, of 
the dative, is governed 
by adjectives M^^nifying 
usefulness, or fitness, &c. 
47. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, oh, inter, ante, 
propter. 

48. 

The gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, means, 
or manner. 

49. 

The supine in um, is 
put after a verb of mo- 
tion. 

5(). 

The fiupine in u, is 
put after an adjective. 
51. 

Nouns, signitying the 
price of a tiling, aie put 
in tlie ablative. 

Nouns, si«;iiifying the 
instrument, cause, mcam, 
or manner, are put in 
(he ablative. 
53. 

Nouns, signifyiug7»iea 
sure, ur distance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
54. 

Nouns, signifying the 
time when, are put in the 
ablative; those, /tou'/ong, 
in tlie accusiUive — some- 
times in tlie ablative. 
55. 

Verbs of accusing, con 
demning, admonishing, 
and accquitling, govern 
the acusative of a per- 
son witli the genitive of 
a thing. 

56. 

Verbs of esteeming, go- 
vern the accusative of the 



taking away, govern the 

accusative acKl dative. 

68. 

Verbs of asking, and 
teaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
u thing. 

69. 

Verba of loading, bind 
ing, clothing, depriving^ 
and some others, govern 
the accusative and the 
(dilative. 

60. 

When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive il 
retains the latter case. 
61. 

Impersonal verbs gp 
vern the dative. 
62. 

Interest and refert re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 

Miseret, ptenitet, pudeif 
t€edet, and jnget, govern 
the accusative of a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 

Decet, delectat, jurat, 
and oportet, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65. 

The name of a town» 
signifying the place 
wfiere, or in which, if il 
be of the first or secoml 
declension and singidar' 
number, is put in t&ge' 
nitive; but if H be of thff 
third declension, or plu-^ 
ral number, it is put iaf 
the ablative. 
66. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place ic/kt- 
tlur, is put In the aceif 
sative. 

67. 

The name of a town^ 
siffuifying the place 
whence, or throu^i what 
place, is put in the abUt-' 
tive. 

68. 

Domut and rus, signi- 
fying the {dace where, are 
construed like the namef 
of towns. 

69. 

A noun, or pronouny 



person, or thing esteem- joined with a participle^ 
ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood/ 
the value. n^en its case dependt 

57. on no other word^ W 

Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative 9im* 
giving, declaring, and lute. 



c 



S4 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

RULES. omnium spe floruit. Ad egregiam quippe inddem accedebat 

1. the adjecave agrees optima educatio. Exstant Comelise matris epistoUe, quilHU 
with its substantive, in apparet eos non solum in gremio matris educatos fuisse^ sed 
number, case, and gender, ^tiam ab ek sermonis clegantiam hausisse. Maximum matro- 

2. The veri> ag^'^s ^'[|j nig omamentum esse liberos bene institutes meritd potabat 
numb^Tand ^rso"^' *" sapientissima ilia mulier : quum Campana matrona^ apud illam 

3. The relative, quiy hospita, ornamenta sua, quae crant ilui 8etate pretiosissima, os- 
quiCj quody agrees with its tentaret ei mulicbriter, Cornelia traxit cam sermone, qnousqne 
antecedent in gender, ^ ^^j^^j^ redirent liberi : quos reverses hospitee exhibens : « En 
nuDiberi and person. ... «« 1^1*1. •! -j * a.* j 1 x: 

4. If no nominative haec, mquit, mca ornamenta." INinil qmdem istis adolesceim- 

comc between the relative bus ncque k natura neque a doctrin& defuit; sed ambo rent- 

and the verb, the relative publicam, quam tueri potuissent, impie perturbare maluenmt. 

is the nominative to the '^ ' * '^ 

verb; but when a nomi- LUCIUS LUCULI«US. 

relative is govcrned'by <*>« Habebat Lucullus villam prospectu et anibulatione pulche^ 

verb, or some other word rimam^ quo ({uum venisset Pompeius, id unum reprehendit 

in the sentence. quod ca Iiabitatio esset quidem a^state peramoena, sed hieme 

5. Any verb may have j^jn^is commoda videretur; cui Lucullus: " Putasne. inquity 
the same case after as oc- . n ^ 1 • j* j -.^^ l» J 
fore it when both words ^^ nunus sapere quam hirundmes, qu8B advemente hieme s^ 

i«fer to the same person dem com mutant ?" Villarum magnificentiae respondebat epu- 

or thing. lanim suniptiis : quum aliquando modica ei, utpotS soiiy coena 

6. Substantives signify- ^^^^j positii, coquum graviter objurgavit, eique excusanti ac 

mff the same person or ,. J 1 V • i x. ' . 1 x , 

thinff agree hi case. dicenti so non debuisse lautum parare convivium, quod nemo 

7. One substantive go- esset ad coenani invitatus : ^^ Quid ais, inquit iratus Lucullus, 

Terns another signifying an nescicbiis LucuUum hodie coenaturum esse apud Luculr 

adiffcrent person or tiling, 1 ,,„ >?? 
m the genitive. 

8. If the latter of two POMPEIUS MAGNUS. 

substantives have an a<l /-« „ ^* • « • j 1 • 1 n • m- 

jective of praise or dis- Cnieus Pompoms stirpis senatonse adolescens, m bello civib 

praise, joined with it, it sc rt jmtrcm consilio servavit. Pompeii pater suo exercitui ob 

may be put either in the avaritiam erat invisus ; itaque facta est in eum conspiratb 

gciiitive or ablative. Terentius quidam, Cnaei Pompeii contubenialis, eum occiden 

1», An adjective in the , ^jn i'«*i 1 ^•- j* 

neuter gender without a ""*" suscopiTat, dum alii tabcrnaculum patns mcenderent. 

8ub.stuutivo, governs the Qua* rrs juveni I'onipeio coenanti nunciata est. Ipse nihil pe- 

gcnitivc. riculo motus, solito liilarius bibit, ct cirni Tercntio e&dem^ m 

•«?^f -^i'"' T*^ .'*"*' antc^, comitate usus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressas, clam 

theahlR^ve^^^ ' «*^q"»re ^uj^i^j^jj g.^j tcntorio, et frrniam patri circumposult custodiam. 

Jl. Verbal adjective^:, Tercntlus tum distficto ense, ad lectum Pompeii accessit, mul- 

and such as signify an af- tisque ictil)us stragula percussit. Orta mox seditione^ Poift- 




comparatives, suiicria- ut ab CO maximc diligeretur. Annos tres et viginti natus, ut 

tivcs, interrogativcs, and Syllaj auxilio veniret, patemi exercitus reliquias collMt, Star 

gome numerals, govern *:t«^ .^ j .- ^ •* /vx tip j .1.. ^ 

the genitive plural. timque dux peritus exstitit. Illms magnus apud militem amor, 

' 13. Adjectives signify- magna apud omnes admiratio fuit; nuUus ei labor taedio, nuDa 

ing profit or disprofitj like- defatigatio molestiie erat. Cibi vinique temperans^ somni p«ff- 

ness or unlikenesSf &c. go- cus, inter milites corpus exercebat. Cum alacribns saltu, cum 

^ 14. Thcsr^adjectives velocibus cursu, cum validis lucti certabat. Tum ad Syllam 

dignusy imlignus, pradi- iter intendit, non per loca devia, sed pal^ incedens, tres bos- 

itu, and eontenius ; also, tiiun exercitus aut fudit, aut sibi adjunxit. Quern ubi Sylla ad 

**d"th*^i^' ^'"*' ^^^^' ^^ accederc audivit, egregiamque sub signis juventutem aspexi^ 

iSlaUve. *' S^^®™ ® desiiiit ex equo, Pompeiumque salutavit imperatormn: dan- 

IS. Adjectives signify- ^^ps ei venienti solebat assurgere de seM et caput aperiKf 

vti^ pUnty ov want, govera qucm honorem nemini nisi Pompeio tribuebat. 
^\t's^ when^^t" • *' • Transgressus inde in Africam Pompeius, larbam Numidte 

&es 'pommm, ^o^Hy, ^^Ji^^J <!"* Marii partibus fevebat, beUo pcrsecutus est InW 

or duty, governs the gcni- ^^^ quadraginta hostem oppressit, et Africam subedl ^ 

tfve. lescens quatuor et viginti amiorum. Turn ei Utterae ft ^^ 



RL7LES. 



17. 
(> taken forhabeot 
^e,) governs the da- 
a person. 

18. 
I, taken for qffero, 
'^t) governs two 
(j the one of a per 
nd the other of a 

19« 



31. 
^ Verbs, signifying ac 
tively, govern the accu 
sative. 

32. 
Misereoff mitereteOj 
and nUagOy govern the 
genitive. 

83. 

Any verb may govern 

Jthe dative in Latin, which 

compounds of has /o, or for, after it in 



xcept Poffuif^ gO: 
le dative. 

20. 
ds of the compa- 
Icgree govern the 
e when qvam \a\ 
1 in Latin. 

21. 
srbs quali^r verbs, 
lies, adjectives, 
ler adverbs. 

22. 
» adverbs of time, 
ind quantity, go- 
e genitive. 

S3, 
propositions ady 
wntt^ Mm. govern 
osative. 

24. 
^repositions a, ab, 
govern the abla- 



English. 

34. 
Verbs compounded 
with tatisfbene, and male, 
govern the dative. 

35. 



44. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

46. 
The gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives. 

46. 
The gerund in do, of 
tlie dative, is governed 
by adjectives signifying 
utefulness, or fitness, &c. 
47. 
Tlie gerund in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 



Many verbs compound-fvcrned by the preposi 
ed with these ten pre- tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 



25. 
prepositions in, 
per, and subter, 
the accusative, 
notion to a phice 
£ed', but when 
or rest in a plaee 
fied, in and nib 
the ablative; tU' 
filler either the 
ve or ablative. 

mrerjections O, 
ahf and some 
l^vem the nomi- 
iccusative, or vo- 

27. 
■terjectiont heiy 
govern the' da- 

28. 
conjimctioBs et, 
,nee,aui,neque, 
e others, connect 
■ and modes 



DT more substan- 
I^UuTy connected 
ojunction, may 
verb, adjective, 
re plural to agree 
m. 

90. 
aonjanctions ut, 
f» Ice. govern the 
hr«mood. 



positions, pro:, ad, con, 
sub, ante, post, ob, in, 
tn/er, si^er, govern the 
dative. 

36. 
Verbs, signifying to 
profit, hurt, favour, assist, 
command, obey, serve, re 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be angry with, govern 
the dative. 

87. 
Recordor, memini, re- 
miniscor, and obliviscor, 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

88. 
VertM of abounding 
and wanting, govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 
39. 
Utor, abutor, fungor, 
fruor, potior, vescor, and 
some othei*s, govei-n the 
ablative. 

40. 
A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 
The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 
42. 
'VVIien ^i(0£f, quin, tU, 
or ne, is omitted m Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 
Participles, gerunds, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
Uie words from which 
they are derived. 



propter. 

48. 
The gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, meaw, 
or manner. 

49. 
The. supine in um, is 
put aAcr a verb of mo- 
tion. 

60. 
llie supine in v, is 
put after an adjective. 
51. 
Nouns, signifying the 
price of a tiling, arc put 
in the ablative. 
62. 
Nouns, signifying the 
instrument, cause, means, 
or manner, are put in 
the ahlativc. 
63. 
Nouns, signifying7/Tca- 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
64. 
Nouns, signifying the 
time when, are put in the 
id>lative; those, /lote/ong' 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
55. 
Verbs of accusing, con- 
demning, adnwni^ing, 
antl accquitting, govern 
tlie acusative of a per 



a thing. 

66. 

Verbs of esteeming , go- 
vern the accusative of the 
person, or thing esteem- 
ed, and the g«aiti^ey of 
the value. 

67. 

Verbs of comparing, 
giving, decletringi and 



taking avJay, govern the 
accusative and dative. 
68. 
Verbs of asking, and 
teaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives ; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

69. 
Verbs of loading, bind' 
ing, clothing, deprivingf 
and some others, govern 
the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60. 
When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 
Impersonal verbs go- 
vern the dative. 
62. 
Interest and refert re« 
quire the genitive. 
63. 
Miseret, posnitet, pudet, 
tiBdet, and piget, govern 
the accusative of a per 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 
Deut, deiectat, juvalf 
and oportet, govern the 
accusative of a per* 
son, with the infinitive 
mood« 

65. 
The name of a town« 
signifying the place 
where, or in which, if ft 
be of the first or 'second 
declension and singular 
number, is put in tl^ge* 
nitive , but if it be of 9i0 
third declension, or jdu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 
The name of a tow0| 
signifying the place K^t- 
tlier, is put in the accv 
sative. 

67. 
The name of a towUf 
signifying the place 
whence, or throu^ what 
plaee, H put in the abidr 
tive. 

Domus and rus, sijgai' 



son with the genitive of tying tfaeplaceMA«re,ar« 



constriiMl like the name* 
of towns. 

69. 
A noon, or pronoany 
johied with a participla 
expressed or nnderstoodJr 
when its case depends 
on no aOker word, is 
put in the ablative abio 
lute. 




so EXCERPTA LATINE. 

RULES. reddiue sunt, quibus jubebatur exercitum dimittere, et cum mk 

1. The adjcctiTe agreei tantum l^one successorem exspectarc. Id segre tulit Pom- 

with its lubstantiTe, in peius : panut tamen, et Romam reveraus est. Revertenti in- 

niimber, case, and gender, credibilis multitudo obviim ivit. Sylla quoque eum letus 

3. The verb agrees witli -^ ^ - - - - 

Its nominatifre cai 
number and person. 

3. The relative^ 

9u«,9um/, agrees with its ^^j^ adorare, quim occidentem : quo dicto innuebat Syll« 

r„:^Xd per«r"'"' potentiam .ninui, suamverft crescere. E& voce audM, SyU. 

4. If no nominative juvenis constantiam admiratus^ exclamavit: Invmpket^ n> 

come between the relative WHphet, 

and the verb, the relative ««„t« ^»a*i> 

it the nominative to the JULIUS CASAR. 

verb; but when a nomi- Julius Caesar qusBStor factus in Hispaniam profectui est j 

JSatiU is"^^^ by Ihe qu«mque Alpes transiret, et ad conspectum pauperis cujusdam 

verb, or some other word vici comites ejus per jocum inter se disputarent an illic etian 

in the sentence. csset ambitioni locus, seri6 dixit Csesar malle se ibi primoD 

§. Any verb may have ^^^^ qusLni Romae secundum. Ita animus dominationis avidu 

the same case after as oe- \ . a . . _ . , ^ . ^ l ■.. 

fort it when both words ^ P^ma State regnum concupiscebat, semperque m are habe> 

Kfer to the same person bat hos Euripidis, Graeci poetae, versus : Nam si vMaiAm 
or thing. eHjtis, t^gnandi ffratid violandum e»t : aUia r^uB pkiotm 
^ 6. Substantives signify- ^o/cw. Quum vero Gades, quod est Hispaniae oppidum, ▼will- 
ing the same person or . . a a i j • n* . '. ^ . . '^ •. * f. a.j:*. 

thmgy agree in case. '^ ^''^ Alexandn Magni imagme, mgcmuit, et laciTmas rodit: 

7. One substantive go. causam quaerentibus amids : '^ Nonne, i'nquit, i^wm dokndi 

verm another signifying causa est, quod niluldum memorabile gesserim, earn etatai 

Ttt th^"'"iitivT'*'*'" **""^' Jideptus qu& Alexander jam teirarum orbem subegerat ?" 

'"'s. ^IMlic Utter of two Caesar quum adbuc in Ga11i& detineretur, ne imperiecto 

inbstantivos have an ad- bcllo disccderct, postulavit ut sibi licerct, quamvis absently i^ 

jective of praise or dis- cundum consulatum petere; quod ei k senatu est negotum. Ek 

SIir'5j'^'*Lrdthcr'in'thc ^^ <^<>mmotus in Italiam rediit, armis injuriam acceptam \in^ 

^mtive or aWatWe.'" ^ ciauniR, i)lurimisque urbibus occupatis, BnindusiUm cimtendit, 

9. An adjective in the quo Pompc-ius consulesque confugerant. Tunc summa* andft- 

neuter gender without a v\x facinus Caesar edidit: k Bnmdusio Dyrrachium inter op- 

lubstantivr, governs tlic positiis classes gravissima liieme transmisit, cessantiboiqiM 

^10. ^'opuM and r««, *^P."* ^"as subscqui jusserat, quum ad eas arcessendas ftwuA 

signifying needy re<iuire mi8is.set, moraB impatiens, castris noctu egreditur, clha soiitf 

the ablative. naviculam conscendit obvoluto capite, ne agnosceretur. Man 

V" X!^^^\ «^j«ctives, ad verso vento vehementer flanie intumescebat; in ahum tamefl 

anci ffucn as sicniiv an at~ ^*ni**« •* • ^ , « <> 

fection of the miiKl, go- P^^tmus dirigi navigium jubet; quumque gubemator pene 

vcm the genitive. obrutus fluctibus advcrsas tempestati cederet ; << Quid times? 

12. Partitives, and ait : Cacsarem vchis." 

JSSSLrativw '''''^u 'erla' ^^^ ^^^ exccM staturA, nigris vegetisque oculis, capHe 

SrS^nterrogatives^^and ^^^^^ ' ^^^^ calvitii deformitatem apgre ferebat, quod saepe 

some numerals, govern obtrcctantium jocis esset obnoxia. Itaque ex omnibus honori- 

the genitive phiral. bus sibi a senatu populoque decretis non aliud recepit aut usu^ 

in5#r *;™jffi P?r5t "bemtiiis, q«am jus laureae perp««6 g«tanda. Eom 

nc»sorunUkencuy6ic.gO' ^"' parcissimum fuisse ne mimici quidem negarunt: unw 

▼em the dative. Cato diccre solebat luium ex omnibus Caesarem ad e^'erteiH 

14; These adjectives, dam rempublicam sobrium accessisse. Armorum et equitandi 

S""d'"«^S'«r5^; I'eritissimus erat; laWisultra fidem patiens : in agminenoi|. 

naiutrtatus, ortus, tdiius] ^^^^^J^^ equo, saepius pedibus anteibat, capite detecto, sive 

and the lilce, govern tiie sol, sive imber esset. Longissimas vias incredibili celeritate 

■*'J»**^f- . eonfecit, ita ut persaepd nuncios de se prsevenerit, neque eum 

m^pl^^TwLy^^^^ morabantur flumina, quae vd nando vef innixus inflatis utriW 

the genitive or ablative. trajiciebat. 

16. 5um, when it signi- CATO UTICENSIS. 

aet potuuion, property, n* --( jt «* 

wrduijff governs the gcni- inarcus Cato, adhuc puer, invictum animi robur ostendit* 

thre. Quum in domo Drusi avunculi sui educaretur, Latini de civi* 



RULES 



17. 
m, taken for habco, 
tve,) g^erns the da 
tf a person. 

18. 
nh taken for tuffero, 
^^"^i) governs two 
es ; the one of a per- 
nad the other of a 



19. 
e compounds of 
except Potmm, go- 
the dative. 

20. 
irds of the compa^ 
^ degree govern the 
ye when quam a 
Ml in Latin. 

21. 
rarlM qualifpr verbs, 
mles, adjectives, 
uer adverbs. 

22. 
ae adverbs of time, 
p and quantity, go- 
thc genitive. 



e picpositions ad, 
MifCr Ice. govern 
xmative. 
24. 
B picposxUons a, ab, 
ic. govern the abla- 

25. 
i picpositions tn, 
Mper, and tubter, 
iw the accusative, 
motion to a place 
inified; but when 
n or rest in a place 
nlAed, m and sub 
■ the ablative; «u- 
Ki fiiifsr either the 
stivo or ablative. 

i interjections O, 
proA, and some 
h govern the nomi- 
^y accusative} or vo- 

27. 
i interjections fieiy 
uBi govern the da- 

28. 
i ccmjonctions e/, 
fw, nee, out, neque, 
Nne others, connect 
lies and m.Mlcs. 

29. 
0, or more substan- 
dagnlar, connected 
conjunction, may 
Averb, adjective, 
itive plural to agree 
hem. 

ao. 

; conjiactionB ill, 
ttf , «e. govern the 
Mttvemood. 



ai. 

^ Verbs, signifying ac- 
tively, govern the accu- 
sative. 

32. 

MmreoTf miteriteoj 

and uUagOf govern the 

genitive. 

88. 

Any verb may govern 

the dative in Latin, whidi 

has to, or fir, after it in 

English. 

84. 
Verbs compounded 
with saii8,b€H€, and malcj 
govern the dative. 
36. 
Many verbs compound- 
ed with these ten pie- 
positions, pne, ad, eon, 
tub, ante, pott, ob, in, 
inter, super, govern the 
dative. 

85. 
Veifos, signifying to 
projit, hurt, favour, amtt, 
command, obey, serve, re 
tia, trust, threaten, and 
be angry with, govern 
the dative. 

37. 
Recordor, memim, re- 
miniseor, and ohliviteor, 
govern die accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 



44. 

Tlie gerund in dum, 

of the nominative, with 

the verb est, governs the 

dative. 

45 
The gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec- 
tives. 

46. 

The gerund in do, of 

the dative, is governed 

by adjectives signifying 

usefulness, or fitness, inc. 

47. 

The gerund in dum, 



taking away, govern tlie 
accusative and dative. 
68. 

VerbH of aJcing, and 
leaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

69. 

Verhi of loading, bind- 
ing, clothing, deprivi7ig, 
and some others, govern 
the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60 

When a verb in tlif 
active voice governs two 



of the accusative, is go- leases, in the passive it 
vemed by the preposi- retains the latter case. 



tions 4id, ob, inter, ante, 
propter. 

48. 
TFie gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, meam, 
or manner. 

49. 
The supine in um, is 
put after a verb of mo- 
tiou. 

00. 
The supine in ii, is 
put after on adjective. 

51. 



oo. 

Vert)s of abounding] Nouns, signifying the 



and wanting, govern the 
ablative, aad sometimes 
the genitive. 
89. 

Ulor, abutor, fmgor, 
fntor, "polivf, vesLor, and 
some r>ther8, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 

A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 

The infmitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec 
tive, or noun. 
42 

When quod, quin, ul, 
or ne, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the -accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 

Participles, gerunds, 
8upines> and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
Uie words from which 
they are derived. 



prke of a thing, are put 
in the ablative. 

62. 
Nouns, signifying the 
instrument, cause, means, 
or manner, are put in 
the ablative. • 

63. 
Nouns, signifying meiiF 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — ^some 
times in the ablative. 

64. 
Nuuns, btgnif^ing the 
time when, are put in the 
ablative ; those, how long, 
in the accusative — some 
times in the ablative. 

66. 

Verbs of accusing, con 

denming, admonishing, 

and acequitting, govern 

the acusative of a per- 



61. 
Impersonal verbs go- 
vern the dative. 
62. 
Interest and refai re- 
quire tlie genitive. 
63. 
Miseret, pemitet, pudet^ 
teedet, and jtiget, govern 
the accusative vt a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 
Decet, deleciat, jural, 
and oportetf govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65. 
The name of a town, 
signifymg the place 
where, or in which, if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singular 

I number, is put in tM ge- 
nitive ; but if it be of the 
Uiird declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 
The name of a towoi 
signifying the place Mlki- 
ther, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 
Tlie name of a towiif 
signifying the place 
whence, or through what 
place, is put in the aUa 
tive. 

6a 

Domus and rus, signi- 



a thing. 

66. 

Verbs of esteeming, go- 
vern the accusative of the 
person, or thing esteem- 
ed, and the genitive, of 
the value.' 

57. 

Verbs of eemparing, 
gmng, dtdaringt «nd 



son witli the genitive of fying the place t«Acre, are 



construed like the names 
of towns. 

69. 
A noun, or piionounf 
joined with a participle 
expressed or nnderstoody 
when Its case depends 
<m no other wordy is 
put in the ablttlbo 
lute. 



38 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

RULE^. tate impetranda Romam venerunt. Popedius Latinorum prin- 

1. The adjective nj^recs ceps, qui Driisi hospes ciut, Catonem puerum rogaivit ut Lati- 

with its substantive, in nos apud avuncuhim adjuvaret. Cato vultu constanti negavit 

""J?*^^* case, and gender, j j gg factunim. Iteruin deinde ac ssepius interpellatus in pro- 

Q The vert) h*'tocs with » ^ • » 

its nominative "case, in posito persitit. Tunc Popedius puenun in excdsam setliiim 

Bomlier and person. partem levatum tenuit, et abjecturum inde se minatus est^ nisi 

3. The relative, quij precibus obtemperaret ; neque hoc metu JL sententi& eum po> 
Vu«, wrf, agrees with its ^^^ dbnovere. Tunc Popedius exclamisse fertur: "GraHde- 

antecedent In gander, u* t a* • u -..^ • • ^ *_ 

Dumber, and person. '^"^ nobis, Latmi, nunc esse tain parvum ; si enim senator 

4. If no nominative esset, ne sperare quidem jus dvitatis nobis liceret." 

eome between the relative 

and the verb, the relative CICERO. 

is the nominative to the a • • j ^ 

rerb; but when a noml- JNIarcus Tullius Cicero equestri genere, Arpnu, quod at 

native Intervenes, the Volscorum (^pidum, natus est. £x ejus avis onus Yemicm 
relative is governed by the j,j extremo naso sitam habuit ciceris grano simikm. mdi cog- 
In the**8enteiice!^ ^^ ^^^^ nomen Ciceronis genti inditum. Quum id Marco liillioi non- 
6. Any verb may have nullis probro verteretur i <^ Dabo operam, inqiut| nt istnd oif- 
tfae same case after as be- nomen nobilissimorum nominum splendorem vincat.'' Qmnn 
fore It, when both words ^^g ^ates disceret quibus stas puerUis ad humanllatem solet in- 

refer to the same person r . . . ^ . .^ i -^ -^ i ^ _■_ ia 

or thing. forman, mgenium ejus ita eluxit, ut eum aequaJes e scfaota n- 

6. Substantives signify, deuntes medium, tanquam regem, circumstantes deducerent 6/^ 

In^ the same person or mum : imo eorum parentes pueri faiii& commotio in ludnm lit- 

***7^oISTub8t^t1ie o- ^<^^^"™ ventitabant, ut eum viserent Ea res tamen quibo- 

verni another signifyfng ^^^ nistici et inculti ingenii stomachum movebat, qui cctiem 

A diflbrent person or thing, pueros graviter objuTgabant qudd talem condiscipulo soo haiM>> 

in the genitive. rem tribuerent. 

.^Jl*«'h:^l'r fice^, dicax erat, « facetiarum 

Jective of praise or dis- soiiias sit appellan Scurra consulfuis. Quum Lentulum gene- 
praise, joined with it, it nim suum exiguse staturse hominem vidisset longo dB& ao 
may be put either in the cinctum : « Quis, inquit, genenim meum ad gladium dUgavit?" 

^^^^I^'^adteSh'e'in the ^^*H°?^ ^"®^ juniorem se, quim erat, simulans dictitabat 

neuter gender without a ?« tngmta tantum annos habere. Cui Cicero: « Venimeit, 

lubiitantive, governs the mquit, nam hoc viginti annos audio." Caesar^ altero consnk 

j;enltive. mortuo die decembris ultim&, Caninium consulem bor& leptilD^ 

10. Opus tmd Isus, jn reliquam diei partem renuntiaverat : quern auum bleriar 
tLf fflve!^ ' '""' irent salutatum de more : ^' Festin«mus, inquU So, ^ 

11. Verbal adjectives, q"^ abeat magistratu." De eodem Caninio acripsit Cicei 
and inch as signify an af- ^' Fuit mirifidL vigilantia Caninius, qui toto suo considatu hq 
liBction of the mind, go- num non \'iderit." 

vem the genitive. 

12. Partitives, and CJESAR AUGUSTUS, 
wordi placed partitively, 

comparatives, siipcrla- Tandem Octavius, liostibus victis, solusque imperio potit 

lives, interrogativcs, and clementem se exhibuit* Omnia deinceps in eo plena mans 

STLiSre'pk.ral.^"''''" ^"^"^ «^ humanitatis. MuJtis ignovit k quibus 8«p^ grav 

13. Adjectives signify- ^^sus fuerat, quo in numero ftut Mctellus unus ex Antonii 
lug profit or dUprojfit, like- fectis. Quum is Inter captivos senex squalidus sordidat 
nets or urUikenesa, kc. go- processisset, agnovit eum filius ejus, qui Octavii partes » 
^*14. ThSlT^ adjectives ^^^^h statimque exiliens, patrem complexus, sic Octavii 
dlgniu, indignus, pntdi- locutus est: " Pater meus hostis tibi ftut; ego miles : no 
tusf and coiiteniw; also, gis ille pcenam, quim ego praemium meriti sumus. Aut 
natus, satia, ortusy ediim, me propter ilium occidi jube, aut iUum propter me vivCTC 

Sitive ' ^^'"''^ libera, qu»so,utrum sit moribustuisconveidentius.^' Oc 

16. Adjectives signify, postqu^n paulikm addubitavisset, misericordii motus 

iBgpUrU^ or v>€mi, govern nem sibi infensissimum propter filii merita servavit 

*'irl2:::Li:Yt'sTgni. ^^^<^r^m ?t^ 

fiet poueuion, propS^, ^^' \*^ .^^ *^ «*« compositis, Jam gemini poif 

0r iJfy, goyems the gem- manu ciausit qax taotummodo bis antei clausae ftierant 

tira. sub NumA regie, iterdm post priouim Funicum bellum 



i 



17. 
7 taken for habeo, 
Cf) governs the da- 
a person. 

18. 
I, taken for afferOf 
'ngt) governs two 
>; the one of a per- 
ad the other of a 

19. 



RULES 



zcept Possum, go- 
le dative. 

20. 
ds of the compa 
legree goffem the 
e when qfluun is 
tin Latin. 

21. 

bIm qualify verbs, 
fkm, adjectives, 
ler adverbs. 

22. 
e adverbs of time, 
tad quantity, go- 
le genitive. 

23. 

piepositions ad, 
mdt^ he. govern 
nsadve. 

24. 

prepocitions a, ab, 
. govern the abla- 

2& 

prepositions in, 
tpetf and tubter, 

the accusative, 
motion to a place 
ified; but when 
or rest in a place 
iiiedi t» and sub 
fte sblathre ; «u- 



iiiierjectii>«rf O, 
foh, Mid some 
gov0O> the nomi- 
accusative, or vo- 

27. 
interjections Jiei, 
\, govern the da- 



31. 

Verbs, signifying ac- 
^ye^Yt govern the accu- 
sative. 

32. 
Misereor, mtsereseo, 
and salagOf govern the 
genitive. 

33. 

Any verb may govern 

the dative in Latin, which 



compounds of has to, or for, after it in 



English. 

34. 
Verbs compounded 
'inth saiis, bene, and male, 
govern the dative. 
35. 
Many verbs compound 
ed with these ten pre 
positions, pra, ad, con, 
sub, ante, post, ob, in, 
inter, super, govern the 
dative. 

36. 
VertM, signifying to 
profit, hurt, favour, assist, 
conunand, obey, serve, re- 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be angry unth, govern 
(he dative. 

87. 
Reeordor, memmi^ re* 
miniseor, and obHmseor, 
govern ihe accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 
Verbs of abounding 
and wanting, govern the 
ablative, and sometirx^s 
the genitive. 
3JV 
Utor^ <t6utor, ./^gor^ 
frtf^f potior, vest or, arid 
I subter either th«r some others, govern the 
JveoraWMi^. aW*tive. 

25,,- I 40. 

A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 
41. 
The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 
42 
Wlicn quod, quin, ul, 
or nt, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 
Participles, gerunds, 
supines, and advcilMy 



44. 



The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb est, governs the 
dative. 

45- 

The gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is govern 
cd by nouns, or adjec 
tives. 

46. 



The gerund in do, of and some others, govern 



taking aaoay, govern Hie 
accusative and dative. 
68. 

Verbs of askitig, and 
teeuhing, govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

69. 

Verbs of loading, land- 
ing, clothing, depriving. 



28. 

conjunctions et, 
t, nee, out, neque, 
De others, connect 
les and mjdes. 

29. 
t or more substan- 
Dgular, connected 
anjonction, may 
t verb, adjective, 
ire plural to agree 
em. 
30. 

conjunctions ui 
!rf,«c. govern the 
ttive mood. 



govern the lune cnaens the value. 



the wordK from wUcb 
they are derived. 



the dative, is governed 
by adjectives signifying 
usefulness, or fitness, he. 

47. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 
propter. 

48. 
The gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in; or .with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of cause, means, 
or manner. 

^. 
The supine in urn, is 
put aAer a verb of mo- 
tion. 

The. supine in u, is 
put after an a^Uective 
61. 
Nqtms, signifying the 
price of a thing, are put 
m the ablative. 
62. 
Nouos, signifying the 
instrument, cause, means, 
or manner, are put in 
the ablative. 
53. 
Nouns, signifyingmea- 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — ^some 
times in the ablative. 
54. 



Nouns, signifying the 
time when, are put in the 
ablative; i^ose,howlong, 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 
55. 

Verbs of accusing, con- 
demning, admonishing, 
and aeequilting, govern 
the acusative of a per- 
son with the genitive of 
a thing. 

66. 

Verbs of esteeming, gt^ 
vern the accusative of Uie 



67. 
Verbs of eoiiipart>ig> 
giving, dedaringi 



and 



the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60 
When a verb in tlie, 
active voice governs two' 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 
Impersonal verbs go« 
vern the dative. 
62. 
Interest and refert re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 
Miseret, panilet, pudety 
Uedet, and fngei, govern 
the accusative of a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 
Decet, delectat, juvat, 
and oportet, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
mood. 

65. 
The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
where, or in tohich, if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singidar 
number, is put in the ge- 
nitive ; but if it be of the 
third declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 
The name of a town^ 
signifying the place uAi- 
ther, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 
The name of a townf 
signifying the place 
whence, or throutdi what 
place, is put in Ihe abla 
tive. 

68. 
Domus and rus, signi- 
fj^ing the place i«Aer6,are 
construed like tlie names 
of towns. 

69. 
A noun, or pronoun, 



person, or thing esteem- joined with a participle 
ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 

when its case dependis 
on no other word, H 
put in the ablalh^ abto- 
lute. 



40 EXCERPTA LATINE ^. 

BULBS. onmes prateritorum raalorum oblivio cepit, populusque Roma- 

1. The adjective agrees nus praesentis otii laetiti& perfruitus est. Octavio maximi ho- 

with its gubstantive, in nores k senatu delati sunt. Ipse Augustus cognominatos est et 

nnmber, case, and gander, j^ gj„g honorem mensis sextilis eodem nomine est appellatus, 

'lu-i«t'^». In quodUlomense bellis dvUibus finis essethnpositus. Eqoite, 

irambw and person. Romani natalem ejus biduo semper celeforarunt : senatus po* 

3. The relative, qtti, pulusque Romanus universus cognomen Patris patriae manmo 
yf»2f^» »6T«es with its consensu ei tribuerunt. Augustus prae gaudio lacrymans re»- 
SSr«!^d person ' Pondit his verbis: « Compos factus sum votorum meonimr 

4. If no nominative neque aliud mihi optandum est, qvtkm ut hunc consensum ves- 
fiome between the relative trum ad ultimum vitae finem videre possim." 

and the verb, the relative Dictaturam, quam populus ma^^na vi ofierebat, Ausfustus 

IS the normative to the . J•^^ ll •-•. ^j ^\ -* i\ 
Terb ; but when a nomi- g^"" n^^cus dejectaque ab humens toga, deprecatus e^ Do- 
native intervenes, the mini appcllationem semper exhomiit, eamque inbi tribui edicto 
rdative is governed by the vetuit, im6 de restituendsL republica non semel cogifavit: sed 
verb, or some other word reputans et sc privatum non sine periculo fore, et rempubucaii 

in the sentence ■ ■ '^ ^ ^ 

j5. knj verb may have P^urium arbitrio commissum iri, summam retiniut potestatem', 

the same case after as fre- id vero stiiduit, ne quern novi status poeniteret. Ben^ de iis 

fore it, when both words ctiam, quos adversarios expertus fuerat, et sentiefiat et loque- 

OTtt^i^ ^^ '*'™^ ^''"**'^ ^*"^- Legentem aUquando unum e nepotibus invenit ; quum- 

' j6. 'substantives signify- ^"® P"^^ territus volumen Ciceronis, quod manu tenebat, veste 

fair the same person or tegeret, Augustus librum cepit, eoque statim reddito : ^ Hie 

thing, agree in case. vir, inquit, fili mi, doctus ftdt et patriae amans." 

^L°wo'w ^^tfygr; /«'"«>'« "^P^ Pe' «rf«"» incedebatsummAque comitate 

a different person or thing, adcuntes exGipiebat : unde quum quidam ubellum supplicem p<K^ 

in the genitive. rigens, prae metu et reverentia nunc manum proferret, nunc re. 

a If the latter of ^o traherpt; " Putasne, inquit jocans Augustus, assem te elephanto 

jectii^ of^prahcT or dig- ^.^ ^" ^^"" aliquando convenit veteranus miles, qui vocatus 

praise, joined with it, it *" jus periclitabatur, rogavitque ut sibi adesset. Statim Augus- 

may be put either in the tus unum f; comitatu suo elegit advocatimi, qui litigat(M«m com- 

genitive or ablative. mendaret.' Ti5«n veteranus exclamavit : " At non ego, te pcri- 

9. An adjective in the rlifo„tr» VuAXr. A /.♦U • • • • j • ^ ,- 

Mutcr gender without a ^"^^^^Jf ^^^^ AcUaco, vicanum quaesivi, sed ipse pro te pug- 

wbstantive, governs the 1^*^^ simulque fletexu cicatrices. Erubuit Augustus, atquc 

genitive. ipse venit m advocatlonem. 

10. /?i?u* and Usiis, Quum post Actiacwn vicioriAi Augustus Romam ingrcden 
Sif affive ' ''"*"''' ^""' ^^^^^ ^* ^^ gratulantes bpifex ijuidam corvrnn tenen 

11. Verbal adjectives, ^"^"^ mstituerat haec dicere: Ave, Om^ar victory imperaia 
itnd such as signify an af- Augustus avem officiosam miratus, earn vlginti lailtibus nun 
fection of the mind, go- monim emit. Socius opificis, ad quern nihil ex Uli liberalitai 
'^iS *he gwy^J'^'e. pervenerat, affirmavit Augusto ilium habere et alium corvun 
word^ placcd7>artitivcly, ^"^"^ ^^^^r* postulavit. Allatus cor^Tis verba quae dUicfv: 
comparatives, supcrla- cxpressit : ^t^e, Antoni victory impercUor. Nihil ea re eza 
lives, intcrrogatives, and peratus Augustus jussit tantiunmodo corvorum doctorem di^ 

some numerals, govern ^^^.g acceptam mercedem cum Qontubemali. Salutatus simi 

ine genitive plural. . \ . * . . . 

13. Adjectives signify, ter d psittaco, eim eum jussit. 

ingprqfil or disprqfitf like- Exemplo incitatus sutor quidam, corvum instituit ad pare 

new or tmlikeness, &c. go- salutationem ; sed, quum parum proficeret, saepe ad avem p 

yem ^^'^J^^^^*^. ^^.^^^ respondentem dicebat : Opera et ithpensa periit. Tandem ' 

digavUf indigntu, prcBdi' ^us coepit proferre dictatam salutationem: qui audita 

tus, and conterUiu ; also, transiret, Augustus respondit : ^^ Satis domi talium salutati 

fiohu, tqt^i ortw, ediiusy habeo." Turn corvus ilia etiam verba adjecit, quibus c 

JSuitWe. ^'^^' ^'*''^™ '*"" "^ querentem audire solebat : Opera et iapensa periU 

16. Adjectives signify- ^"^ Augusrtus risit, atque avem emi jussit quanti nullai 

ingj9l0fi/y or i0an/, govern hue emerat. 

^genitive or ablative. Solebat quidam GraBculus descendenti e palatio Au 

J%f:2^r;ro;!^y^^ ^^t^ ^^^^^ epigramma porrigere. Id quum ft 

or 4iay, governs the geni- ^^^^^P^ Jecuset, et tamen rursum eumdem facturum August 

Hw. 4cPrt, %at mann in chartd breve e:puravit graecum epigrai 



RULES. 



17. 
!m> taken forhabeOf 
avef)gQwernB the da 
of a peraon. 

18. 
um taken for cfferot 
fringj governs two 
ei ; the one of a pei> 
and the other of a 

I* 

19. 
le compounds of 
. except Posium, go- 
the dative. 

ao. 

ords of the compa- 
i degree govern the 
iv.e when quam is 
ed in Latin. 

21. 
tverbs qualify verbs, 
croles, adjectivesi 
ither adverbs. 

22. 
me adverbs of time, 
ty and quantity, go- 
the genitive. 

23. 
le prepositions adt 
9 anUy &c. govern 
ccusative. 

24. 
le prepositions a, ab, 
i£C. govern the Ma- 

25. 
le pr^)ositions in, 

tuper, and subier, 
m the accusative, 
I motion to a place 
gnified; but when 
tm or rest in a place 
pitied, in and sub 
ra the ablative ; su- 
nd subter either the 
sative or ablative. 

26. 
us interjections 0, 

prohf aud' some 
rs, govern the noroi- 
tf accusative, or vo- 
e. 

27. 
le interjections hel, 
r(e, govern the da- 

28. 
le conjunctions etf 
Ique, nee, aut, neque, 
xnne others, connect 
cases and modes 

29. 
"^0) or more substao- 
s'u^ilar, connected 
i conjanction, may 
v*jerb, adjective, 
*we plnralto agree 
them. 

30. 
^^ conjonctiona tif, 
Itca, %ac, govern tke 
iniGtive mood. 



31. 
VerbSi signifying ac- 
tively, govern the accu- 
sative. 

32. 
MitereoTf muereseot 
and tatagOf govern the 
genitive. 

33. 

Any verb may govern 

the dative in Latin, which 

has to, or for^ after it in 

English. 

34. 
Verbs compounded 
with so/if, 6en«, and mcUe, 
govern the dative. 

35. 
Many verbs compound 
ed with these ten pre- 
positions, prd, ad, can, 
tub, ante, pott, ofr, in, 
inter, tuper, govern the 
dative. 

8d. 
Verbf, shpiiifying to 
prifiiikwrlffiaDour, attist, 
commandf obey, teroe, re- 
tid, inui, threaten, and 
be angry 'wiih, govern 
the dative. 

37. 
Reeordor, tnemini, re- 
minitcor, and obliviteor, 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 
Verbs of abounding 
and wanting, govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 

39. 
Utor, abutor, fimgor, 
fruor, potior, vetcor, and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 
A verb compounded 
with a pn^sition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 

41. 
The infinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
verb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or QOun. 

42. 
When quod, quin, tit, 
or tie, is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 
Participles, gerands, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
the words from which 
they arc derived. 



44. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative, with 
the verb ett, governs the 
dative. 

46. 
The gerund in di, of 
the genitive, is govern- 
ed by nouns, or adjec 
tives. 

46. 



The gerund in do, of and some others, govern 



the dative, is governed 
by adjectives signifying 
uaefulnett, orfitmtt, &c. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the aceosative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions oify oh, inter, ante, 
proj^er, 

48. 
l^e gerund in do, of 
the ablative, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
de, e, ex, in ; or with- 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative of catue, meant, 
or manner, 

49. 
The supine in um, is 
put after a verb of mo- 
tion. 

50. 
l*he supine in v, is 
put after an adjective. 

51. 
Nounf, signifying the 
price of a thing, are put 
in the abhUive. 

62. 
Nouns, signifying the 
initrument, eaute, meant, 
or manner, arc put in 
the ablative. 

53. 
Noims, signifying mea- 
ture, or aidance, are put 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 

54. 
Nouns, signifying the 
time when, are put in the 
ablative ; those, how longf 
in the accusative — some- 
times in the ablative. 

55. 
Verbs of aecutin^, con- 
demning,, admonithing, 
and accquUHng, govern 
the acusative of a per- 
son with the genitive of 
a thing. 

66. 
Verbs of etteeming , go 
Vem the accusative of the 
person, or thing esteem- 
ed, and the genitive, of 
the value. 

57. 
Verba of eemparing 
gmmf/ dedmrlmgf and 



taking away, govern the 
accusatiTe ami dative. 

56. 
Verbs of onKng, and 
teaching, govern two ac- 
cusatives ; the one of « 
person, and the other of 
a thing. 

59. 
Verbs of loading, bind" 
ingj clothing, depriving. 



the accusative and the 
ablative. 

60. 

TMicn a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 

Impersonal verbs go- 
vern the dative. 
62. 

Interett and refert re* 
quire the genitive. 
63. 

Miteret, poinilet, pudet, 
ta:d^, and piget, govern 
the accusative of a per 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 

Decet, delectat, jural, 
and oporlet, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinitive 
moQil. 

65. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
where, or in which, if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singular 
number, 'is put in the ge- 
nitive , but if it be of ttio 
third declension, t>r plu* 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place whi- 
ther, is put in the accu- 
sative. 

67. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
whence, or thnpugh what 
place, is put in the abla- 
tive. 

68. 

Domut and rut, signi- 
fying the place where, are 
construed like the names 
of towns. 

69. 

A noun, or proboun, 
joined with a participle 
expressed or understood, 
when its -case depends 
on no other word, is 
put hk the ablative abso 
lute. 



42 EXCERPTA LATINE- 

RULES. et Graeculo venienti ad se obvuLm misit. Ille l^endo laudi 

1. The adjectire agrees ccepit, mirarique t^ voce qu^m vultu^ gestuqfte. Dein qm 
with its substantive, in accessit ad sellam qui Augustus vehebatur, debiissft in pau[ 

""5"*!Ju ^^i*"^ gender. ^^^ crumenam manu, paucos denarios protulit, quos princi 

2. The verb agrees with i ^ j. .^ i j ^ /• • " • i L2l • L^ c 

its nominative case, in "^^^9 dixitque se plus daturum fuisse, si plus habuisset. s 

number and person. cuto omnium lisu, Graeculum Augustus vocavit, dque fv 

3. The relative, qui^ grandem pecuniae summam numerari jussit. 

9iw5,5ruorf, agrees with its Augustus fere nulli se invitanti negabat. Exceptus igitm 
antecedent in gender. , ° a ^. a ^ n ^^.j- a , '^^ ^^ 

number and person. quodam ccena satis parca et pene quotidiana, hoc tantum \ 

4. If no nominative susurravit: '^ Non putabam me tibi esse t^ famiiiiaren 
come between the relative Quum aliquand6 apud Pollionem quemdam ccenaret, fpe| 

and the verb, the relative y^yg ^j^ servis vas crystallinum : rapi ilium protinus Pd 
IS uie nominative to ""^ v \^ x 

verb ; but when a nomi- \^% et ne vulgari morte periret, abjici muraenis, quas ingi 

native intervenes, the piscina continebat. Evasit e manibus puer, eft ad pedes Cae 

relative is governed by the ris confugtt, non recusans mori, sed rogans ne piscium esca I 

veA, or some other word ^^ Motus novitate cradditatis Augustus, servi infelicis pat 

in tbe sentence o ^ x 

6. Any veifo may have minium suscepit : quum autem veniam k viro crudeli non im| 
the same case o/lfer as 6e- traret, crystallina vasa ad se afferri jussit^ omnia manu { 
/we it, when both words fregit; servnm manumisit, piscinamque compleri prsecepit. 
refw to the same person Augustus in qu&dam villa segrotans noctes inquietas uget 

^ %, Substantives signify- I'un^P^c somnum ejus crebro noctue cantu ; qua molej 

in|^ the same person or quum libenuri se vehementer cupei#iignificisset, miles quid 

thing, agree in case. aucupii peritus noctuam prehendendam curavit, vivamque i 

7. One substantive jjo- mojix^ attolit. spe ingentis premii; cui Augustus mille numn 

rems another signifying 5 • . .^ ^ Y*\\ • y j- • • .• r 

a different person or thing, ^"^ jussit: at lUe mmus dignum prsemium existimans, die 

in the eenitive. au8U8 est : Malo %tt tivaJt^ et avem dimisit. Imperatori nee 

6. If the latter of two irascendum causa deerat, nee ad ulciscendum potestas. Han 

•i^tantlves have an ^- tamen injuriam sequo animo tulit Augustus, hominemque im 

P^UisV, join^TJrith^t, it punitum abire passus est. 

may be put either in the Augustus amicitias n(»i facile admisit, et admissas constantei 

genitive or ablative. retinuit : imprimis familiarem habuit M aecenatem equitem Ro 

neL^ge'lfto '^th'L^^a °**"^' ^"^ ^^!.^«^ ^^^ principem valebat gratii, ita sempc 

substanUve, governs the "^^ ^ ^ prodesiet ommbus quibus posset, noceret nenuni 

genitive. Mini erat ejus an et libertas in flectendo Augusti animo, quun 

10. Ofm and Utnuy eum ir& incitatum videret. Jus aliquando dicebat Augustus, e 
tii?*aWjSfve"^^ require niultos morte damnaturus videbatur. Aderat tunc Maecenas 

11. "Verbal adjectives, ^ circumstantium turbam perrumpere, et ad tribunal propit^ 
and such as signify an af- accedere conatus est ; quum id frustnb tentasset, in tabelli 
fcction of the mind, go- scripsit hsec verba : Surge tandem^ camifex : eamque label 
vera ^^l^'j^j^®- ^^ lam ad Augustum proiecit, qui lecti, Augustus statim surrexit 
words pUic^TarUtivSJr, ^t nemo est morte mulctatus. 

comparatives, superla- Habitavit Ai^ustus in eedibus modicis neque laxitate ncqu- 

tives, ioterrogatives, and cultu conspicuis, ac per annos amplius quadraginta in eoder 

thTlJ^Te^^ ^'''^"' cubiculo hieme et aestate mansit. Supellex quoque ejus vix pr 

13. Adjectives signify- ^^^ degantiae erat. Idem tamen Romam, quam pro majestat 

ing profit otdigprofitflikt' imperii non satis omatam invenerat, adeo excoluit, ut jure s 

nttt or unKkeneUi &c. go- ^oriatus marmoream se relinquere, quam lateritiam accepisse 

vera the dative.^^^^^^^ Raro vcste ali& usus est qu^ confecti ab uxore, sorore, fiW 

rftgntw, indignuii^prmdi- neptibusque. Altiuscula erant ejus calceamenta, ut proceri( 

toif and eontaUus; also, quam erat videretur. Cibi minimi erat atque vulgaris. Secui^ 

ruUusj saha, artuSf edUutf darium panem et pbciculos minutos et ficus virides ma^i^ 

and Jhe like, govera the appetebat. 

16. Adjectives signify- Augustus non amplius quim septem boras dormiebet, ac n 

mg plenty or vjtttu, govera cas quidem continuas^ sed ita ut in illo temporis spatio tef ai 

the genitive or ablative. quater expergisceretur. Si interruptum somnum recuperai 

ui^'J^Zi^^''wi'^' non posset, lectores arcessebat, donee resumeret. Quumairfi 

*r dJSy^g^na SegS- ^^ senatorem quemdam, lic^t aere alieno oppressum, arete ' 

t ve. graviter dormire solitum, culcitram ejus magno pretio emi^ 



RULES. 



t, taken for hdbeo, 
vBf) governs the da- 
fapcnon. 

18. 
•i taken finr tiffero, 
iitfi) governs two 
1 1 1^ one of a per 
tiA ibfi other of a 

19. 
compounds of 
}icept Pouunif go- 
lie dative. 

20. 
rds of the compa 
degree govern the 
e when quam is 
1 in Latin. 

21. 
eibs qualiiV verbs, 
|des, adjectivesi 
her adverbs. 

22. 
le adverbs of time, 
and quantity, go- 
lie genitive. 

23. 
prepositions ady 
tmlet &c. govern 
cosative. 

24. 
prepositions a, aby 
;. govern the abla- 



31. 

Verbs, i^gnif jing ac- 
tively, govern &e accu 
sative. 



MUereoTf miterueOi 



and iotago, govern the The gemod in dif of person, and the other of 



26. 

prepositions tn, 
upert and tubter, 
\ the accusative, 
motion to a place 
lified; but when 
t or rest in a place 
lifted, in and «u6 
> the aUative ; su- 
1 mbter either the 
tive or ablative. 
26. 

interjections O, 
9roht and some 
I govern the nomj. 
f accusative, or.vo- 

■ 

27. 
Interjections heiy 
le, govern the da- 

28. 
conjunctions et, 
ue, neCf auty neque, 
me others, connect 
£68 and modes. 

29. 
>} or more substan 
ingular, connected 
conjunction, may 
a verb, adjective, 
tive plural to agree 
tiem. 

30. 

conjunctions uf, 
cef , Sic. govern the 
ictive mood. 



genitive. 

33. 

Any verb may govern 

the dative in Latm, which 

has to, or for, after it in 

English. 

34. 
Verbs compounded 
with tatisy bene, and maUy 
govern the dative. 

36. 
Many verbs compound 
ed with these ten pi'e- 
positions) priSy ad, eouy 
tub, anity post, ob, in, 
intery nxper, govern the 
dative. 

36. 
Verbs, sonifying to 
prqfiif mtrljicovry assist, 
command, obey, servty re- 
sist, trust, threaten, and 
be angry with, govern 
the dative. 

37. 
Recordor, meminiy re- 
miniscory and obliviseoTy 
govern the accusative or 
genitive. 

38. 
Verbs of abounding 
and u>an/ing,L govern the 
ablative, and sometimes 
the genitive. 

39. 
Ulor, abutory fungor, 
fruor, potiory veseory and 
some others, govern the 
ablative. 

40. 
A verb compounded 
with a preposition, often 
governs the case of that 
preposition. 

41. 
The iufinitive mood 
may be governed by a 
vecb, participle, adjec- 
tive, or noun. 

42. 
When quod, quiny ut, 
or nCy is omitted in Latin, 
the word, which would 
otherwise be in the 
nominative, is put in 
the accusative, and the 
verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

43. 

Participles, gerunds, 
supines, and adverbs, 
govern the same case as 
Uie words from which 
they are derived. 



44. 
The gerund in dum, 
of the nominative^ with 
the verb est, governs die 
dative. 

46. 



the geiudwe, is govern 
ed by noons, or adjec 
tivet. 

46. 

The gerund in do, of 
the dative, is governed 
by adjectives signifying 
usefumess, or fitness, &cc. 
47. 

The gerund in dum, 
of the accusative, is go- 
verned by the preposi- 
tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 
propter, 

48. 

The gerund in do, of 
the aUattve, is governed 
by the prepositions a, ab, 
at, e, ex, in; or with 
out a preposition, as the 
ablative o£ eause, means, 
or manner* 

49. 

The supine in urn, is 
put after a veib of mo- 
tion. 

60. 

llie supine in u, is 
put after an adjective. 
61. 

Nouns, signifying the 
price of a thing, are put 
in the ablative. 
62. 

Noons, signifying the 
ifutrumerUy catucy meam, 
or manner, are put in 
(he ablative. 
63. 

Nouns, signifyingmea- 
sure, or distance, are put 
in the accusative — some 
times in the ablative. 
64. 

Nouns, signifying the 
time when, are put in the 
ablative ; those, how long, 
in the accusative — some 
times in the ablative. 
66. 

Verbs of accusing, con- 
demningy admoni^irig, 
and accqidUingi govern 
the acusative of a per 



taking asMxy, govern the 
accusative and dative. 
66. 
Verbs of ttAing, and 
teadwngy govern two ac- 
cusatives; the one of a 



a thing. 

69. 

VeriM of loadingy bind 
ing, dothmg, depriving, 
and some others, govern 
the accusative aud the 
ablative. 

60. 

.When a verb in the 
active voice governs two 
cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case. 
61. 

Impersonal verbs go 
vem the dative. 
62. 

Interest and refert re- 
quire the genitive. 
63. 

Miseret, panitety pudet, 
ttedety and piget, govern 
the accusative of a per- 
son, with the genitive of 
a thing. 

64. 

Decety deledat, jutat, 
and oporlet, govern the 
accusative of a per- 
son, with the infinhive 
mood. 

66. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place 
where, or in whichy if it 
be of the first or second 
declension and singular 
number, is put in tlie ge- 
nitive ; but if it be of the 
third declension, or plu- 
ral number, it is put in 
the ablative. 
66. 

The name of a town, 
signifying the place whi- 
thcTy is put in the accu- 
sative. * 
67. 

The name of a town, 
signifying, the place 
imencCy or through what 
placcy is put in the abla- 
tive. 

68. 

Domus And rusj signi- 



son with the genitive of fying the place trAere, are 
a thing. ' ».---. 

66. 
Verbs of es/eemtng, go- 
vern the accusative of the 
person, or thing esteem- 
ed, and the genftive, of 
the value. 

67. 
Verbs of comparingy 
giving, declaring, and 



construed like the names 
of towns. 

69. 
A noun, or pronoun, 
joined with a participle 
expressed or understood, 
when its case depends 
on no other word, is 
put in the ablative •abso- 
lute. 



^. 1 



44 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

minntibus dixit: '^ Habenda est ad somnum cnlcita m qua homo qui tantum debeba 
dormire potuit.'^ 

Exercitationes campesties equorum et armonim statim post bella civilia omisit^etat 
pilam primo fc^liculumque transiit : mox animi laxandi causa, modo piscabatur bamo 
modo talis nudbusque ludebat ciim pueris minutis, quos facie et gamditate amabSei 
undique conquirdbat. Ale4 multum delectabatur; idque ei vitio datum est. Tanden 
afflictk vaktuidioe in Campaniam concessit, ubi remisso ad otium animo, nullo hilaritatk 
genere abstinuit Supremo vits die, petito speculo, capillum sibi coml jussit, et aai 
cos circumstantes percontatus est num vitae mimum satis comraode egisset ; adjedt 
floiitam claiisulam : ^ Edite strepitum, vosque omnes cum gaudio applaudite." Obii 
Noise sextum et septnagesimum amium agens. 

SALLUSTII CATILINA. 

Omnis homines, qui sese student prsestare cseteris animalibus, sumnul ope niti deee 
vitam silentio ne transeant, veluti pecora, quae natura prona atque ventri obecfientii 
finxit. Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita : animi imperio, corporis servitio 
magis utimur. Alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum belluis, commune est Quo roifa 
rectius videtur ingeuii quJLm virium opibus gloriam quaerere, et, quoniam vita ipsa qui 
fruimur brevis est, memoriam nostri qu^ maxume longam efficere : nam divitiaroD 
et formae gloria fiuxa atque fragilis, virtus clara aetemaque habetur. 

Sed diu magnum inter mortalis certamen fuit, vine corporis, an virtute animi, re 
militaris magis procederet : nam et priusquiLra incipias consulto, et, ubi c^nsulueris 
maturd facto opus est. Ita, utrumque per se indigens, alterum alterius auxilio yeget. 

Igitur initio reges (nam in terris nomen imperii id primum fuit^ diversi ; pars ingc 
nium, alii corpus exercebant : etiam tum vita homlnum suie cupiditate agitabatur ; so 
cuique satis placebant. Posted vero, quum in Asia Cyrus, in Grsecia Lacedaemonii ( 
Athenienses, coep^re urfoes atque nationes subigere, lubidinem dominandi causam bel 
habere, maxumam gloriam in maxumo imperio putare ; turn demum periculo atqu 
negotiis compertum est in bello plurimiim ingenium posse. . 

Quod si regum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita uti in bello valeret, eque 
foiliil» atque constantiiks sese res humanae haberent ; neque aliud alio ferri, neque mutaj 
ac misceri omnia, cerneres ; nam imperium facil^ his artibus retinetur quibus initio pai 
tum est. Yerum, ubi pro labore desidia, pro continenti& et .aequitate lubido atqu 
Buperbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur. Ita imperium semper a 
optumum quemque k minus bono transfertur. Quae homines arant, navigant, aedifican 
virtuti omnia parent. 

Sed multi mortales, dediti ventri atque somno, indocti incultique, vitam sicuti pen 
grinantes transeg^re : quibus, profecto contra naturam, corpus voluptati, anima oner 
fuit. Eorum ego vitam mortemque juxt^ aestumo, quoniam de utr&que siletur. Yerite 
jenimvero is demum mihi vivere atque frui animi videtur, qui, alio negotio intentni 
praeclari facinorn aut artis bonae famam quaerit. Sed iii magna copii rerum aliud al 
natura iter ostendit. 

Pulchrum est bene fecere reipublicae : etiam ben^ dicere baud absurdum est. Y< 
pace vel bello clarum fieri licet : et qui fecere, et qui facta aliorum scripsere, multi lat 
dantur. Ac milii quidem, tametsi baud quaquin par gloria sequatur scriptorem < 
auctorem rerum, tamaoi imprimis arduum vidatur res gestas scribere : primum, quo^ 
facta dictis sunt exaequanda; dehinc, quia plerique, quae delicta reprehenderis, malevQ 
lentia et invidia dicta putant : ubi de magnd Virtute et gloriA bonorum memores, qufi 
«ibf quisque facilia factu potat, aequo animo accipit; supra ea, veluti ficta, pro falsi 
ducit. 

Sed ego adolescentulus, initio, sicuti plerique, studio ad rempublicam latus stun 
ibique mihi advorsa multa fu§re. Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentii, pro virtute, audi 
cia, lar^tio, avaritia, vigebant. Quae tametsi animus asperaabatur, insolens malanin 
artiiiniy tamen inter tanta Vida, imbecilla aetas ambitione corrupta tenebatur : ac Idm 
cdon ab reliquorum malis moribus dissentirem, nihilo minus honoris cupido, eadem, qvA 
caeterosy fam& atque mvidii vexabat. 

^itur, ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque periculis requievit, et mihi reliquam aets 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 45 

m k repablica procul habendam decrevi, non fuit comalium secordii atque desidii 
Hmm otium conterere ; neque ver6 agnim colep-la^ aut venando, servilibus officib in- 
aitam, letatem agere : sed, a qoo incepto studi i ainbitio mala detinuerat, eodem re- 
ressus, 9tatui res gestas populi Romani carptim, ut quaeque memorUl diena videbantur, 
enaribere ; eo magis quod milii k spe, metu, partibus reipublicie, animus liber erat. 
^itiir de Catilioae conjurationey qutUn verissume potero, paucis fdbaolvam : nam id fa- 
unas imprimis ego memorabile existiimo, sceleris atque iiericuU novRafe. De cajus 
ominis moribus pauca prius explananda sunt, qusLm initium narrandi fiiciam. 

Lucius Catiiina, nobili genere natus, fuit magnU vi et animi et corporis, sed ingenio 
lab pravoque. Huic ab adolescentii bella intestina, csedes^ rapinse, ctiscordia civilis, 
rata fuere; ibique juventutem suam exercuit. Corpus patiens inediae, vigiliie, algoris^ 
apii qu^ cuiquam credibile est. Animus audax, subdolus, varius ; cujus rei libet 
inudator ac dissimulator ; alieni adpetens, sui profusus ; ardens in cupiditatibus : satis 
oqwotise, sapientiae parum. Vastus animus immoderata,, incredibilia, nimis alta, 
enmer cupiebat* 

Hone, post dominaticmem Lucii Sullae, lubido maxuma invaserat reipublicse capi- 
mdie: neque, id quibus modis adsequeretur, dum sibi regnum pararet, quidquam pensi 
abebat Agitabatur magis magisque in dies animus ferol inopia rei familiaris, et 
!0ii8cie»ti& scelerum ; quae utraque his artibus auxerat quas supra memoravi. Incita* 
nnt pnetereiL comipti ciYitatis mores, quos pessuma ac diversa inter se mala, luxuria 
itqHe avaritia, vexabant. 

Bes ipsa bortari videtur, quoniam de moribus civitatis tempus admonuit, supril repe-^ 
ere I ac pauci» instil uta majorum, domi militiaeque quomodio rempublicam habuerint, 
pnitamque rdiquerint, utque pauladm immutata, ex pulcherrami et opfuin&y pessuma 
K flag^tiosissuma facta sit, disserere. 



E aCERONIS ORATIONIBUS. 
IN CATILINAM, 

Qvousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patienti& nostri ? Quamdiu etiam furor iste 
tuus no8 «liidet? Quem ad (inem sese efirsenata jactabit audacia ? Nihilne te noetur* 
QUID praesidium Palatii, nihil urbis vigiliae, nihil iimor populi, nihil consensus bonorun» 
omnium, nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque 
moverunt ? Patere tua consilia non sentis ? Constrictam jam omnium horum consci^ 
niti& teneri conjurationem tuam non vides ? quid proxima, quid supcriore nocte egeris,. 
ubi fiieris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, quem nostrum ignorare arbitraris i 
lempora, 6 mores ! Senatus haec intelligit, consul videt : hie tamcn vivit; yn\h} Imo 
vera etiam in senatum venit : fit publici consilii paiticeps : notat et designat oculis ad 
csdem unumquemiquc nostrum. Nos autem viri fortes satisfacere rttpubl. videmur, si 
utius farorem ac tela vitemus/ Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci jnssu consulis jampridem' 
oportebat : in te conferri pestem istam, quam tu in nos omnes jamdiu machinaris. 

Nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas, quod ego non modo audiam, sed etiam videam, 

S^ue senttam. Recognosce tandem mecum iUam superiorem noctem : jam inte^ 
, mutto me vigilare acriiis ad salutem, quam te ad pemiciem reipub. Dico te 
pnori nocte venisse inter falcarios (non agam obscure) in M. Leccae domum : convenisse 
modern complures ejusdem amentiae scelerisque socios. Num negare audes ? . Quid 
^Aces ? Convincam, si negas. . Video enun esse hie m senatu quosdam, qui tecum unft 
Mre. Q dii immortales, ubinam gentium sumus? Quam rempub. habemus? In quft 
>ifbe vivimus ? Hie, hie sunt in nostro numero, P. C. in hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo 
^[raTiagimoque consilio, qui de meo, nostrumqne omnium interitu, qui de hujus urbis, 
Ktquo adeo oibis terrarum exitio cogitent. Hosce ego video, consul, et de republic^ 
^^tteotiam rogo : et quos ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum voce vulnuero. Fuisti 
1P^ apud Leccam ea nocte, Catilina : distriboisti partes Italiae : statuisti quo quan^ue 
Pioficisci placeret : delegisti quos Romae relinqueres, quos tecum educeres : descripsMti 
^la partes ad incendia : confirm&sti te ipsum jam esse exiturum: dixisti paululum tibi 
eaie etiaiQ twea jgaorae, quod ego viverem. Reperti sunt duo equites Rimiani, qui te istH 
^ Ubm^ent, et seae IM ipsa nocte panlo ante lucem me in meo lectulo interiectun* 



46 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

pollicerentur. Hsec ego omnia, vix dum etiam coetu vestro dimisso, comperi : domoni 
ineam majoribus prssidiis munivi, atque firmavi : exclusi eos quos tu mane ad me saliH 
tatum miseras ciim illi ipsi venissent ; quos ego jam multis viris ad me ventmx)s id tenn 
poris esse prsedixeram. Quae cum ita sint^ Catilina, perge quo ccepisti : egredere aK- 
quando ex urfoe : patent portae, proficbcere . . nimium diu te imperatorem iHa tua Man- 
liana castra desidorant. Educ tecum etiam omnes tuos, si minus, qu^ plurimos: 
purga urbem : magao me metu liberabis, dummodo inter me atque te murus intenh : 
nobiscum versari lam diutius non potes : Non feram, non patiar, non sinam. Magna 
diis immortalibus nabenda est gratia, atque huic ipsi Jovi Statori, antiquissimo cuitodi 
hujus urbis, quod banc tarn tetram, tarn horribilem, tamque infestam reipublicc pe»> 
tem toties jam efTugimus, Non est saepius in uno homine salus summa pencUUnda 
reipublicse. 

Quod si ex tanto latrocinio iste unus tolletur, videbimur fortasse ad breve quoddam 
tempos cur& et metu esse relevati : periculum autem residebit et erit inclusum penitib 
in venis atque in -vbceribus reipublicae. Ut saepe homines sesri morbo gravi cum sestu, 
febrique jactantur, si aquam gelidam biberint, primo relevan videntur ; deinde mokd 
gravius vehementiusque afflictantur: si hie morbus, qui est in republic^, relevatus isdnf 
p€cn&, vdiementiiks, vivis-rdiquis, ingravescet. Quare, P. C. secedant improbi, seee^ 
nant se k bonis, unum in locum congregentur ; muro denique, id quod saepe jam dbd, 
secernantur k nobis : desinant insidiaxi domi suae consuli, circiunstare tribunal prsetons 
urbani, obsidere cum gladiis curiam, malleolos et faces, ad incendendam urbem, com- 
parare : sit denique inscriptum in fronte uniuscujusque civis quid de republiei stotiat 
Polliceor vobis hoc^ P. C. tantam in nobis Coss. fore diligentiam, taatam in vobis anc- 
toritatem, tantam in equitibus Roman, virtutem, tantam in omnibus boni» consensionem 
ut Catilinae profectionem omnia patefacta, illustrata, oppressa, vindicata esse videatifi 
Hisce omnibus, Catilina, cum summi reipubl. salute, et cum tu& peste, ac pemide, 
cumque eorum exitio, qui se tecum omni scelere parricidioque junxerunt, proficiscere ad 
impium helium, ac nefarium. Tum tu, Jupiter, qui iisdem, quibus haec urbs, auspidis 
k Romulo es constitutus, quem Statorem hujus urbis atque imperii ver^ nominamus, 
hunc et hujus socios k ttus aris caeterisque templis, k tectis urbis ac mcenibus, k vtA 
fortunisque civium omnium arcebis ; et omnes inimicos bonorum, hostes patriae, latrones 
Italiae, scelerum foedere inter se, ac nefari& societate conjunctos, aeternis suppliciis vivos 
mortuosque mactabis. 

IN CATILINAM II. 

Instruite nunc, Quintes, contra has tam praeclaras Catilinae copias vestra prsesi' 
dia vetrosque exercitus ; et primum gladiatori iUi confecto et saucSb, consules, imp^ 
ratoresque vestros opponite : deinde contra iUam naufragorum ejectam ac debilitataffl 
manum, florem totius Italiae ac robur educite. Jam ver6 urbes coloniarum ac mtmi- 
cipiorum respondebimt Catilinae tumulis siWestribus. Neque vero caeteras copies, 
ornamema, praesidia vestra, cum illius latronis inopii atque egestate debeo conferre. 
Sed omissis his rebus omnibus, quibus nod sappeditamVur, eget ille sencFtu, equitiboi 
Romaniis, populo, urbe, aerario, vectigalibus, canct& Italift, provincns omnibus, ex- 
teris nationibus : si, inquam, his rebus omissis, ipsas causas, quae inter se conflignnt, 
contendere velimus : ex eo ipso, quim valde Uli jaceant, mtelligere possnnius. £x 
h&c enim parte pudor pugnat, illinc petulantia : hinc pudicitia, Hlinc stuprum : hinc 
fides, illinc fraudatio: nine pietas, illinc scelus : hinc constantia, illinc furor : hinc bo* 
nestas, illinc turpitudo : hinc continentia, illinc libido : denique aequitas, temperantia, 
fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes, certant cum iniquitate, cum luxurii, cum ignavil) 
cum temeritate, cum vitiis omnibus : postremo copia cum egestate, bona ratio cum 
perditi, mens sana cum amentid, bona denique spes cum omnium rerum desperatione 
confl%it. In hujuscemodi certamine ac praelioy nonne, etiamsi hominum studia defi* 
ciant, dii ipsi immortales cogent ab his praeclainssimis virtotibns tot et tanta vitia supe* 
rari ? Quae cum ita sint, Quirites, vos, quemadmodnm jam antea dixi, vestra tecta 
custodiis vigiliisque defenctite : mihi, ut urbi sine vestro motu, ac sine ullo tumultu satis 
esset praendu, consultum ac provisum est. 

IN CATILINAM III. 

Hie quis potest esse, Quurites, tam aversus k vero, tam praeceps, tam mente captitf , 
qui nqiety baec omnia quae videmus, praecipu^que hanc urbem, deoium immor^oni 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 47 

[Utu atque potestate administrari ? Etenim cum esset ita responsmn, casdes, incendia; 
Qteritumqiie reipublicae comparari et ea 4 perditis civibtis : quae turn propter magni- 
iidinem scelerum nonnullis incredibiiia videbantur ; ea non modo cogitata k nefariis 
ivibusy verum etiam suscepta esse sensistis. Illud vero nonne ita praesens est, ut nutu 
bvis optiini maximi factum esse videatur ? ut, cum hodierno die mane per forum meo 
I18SU et conjurati et eorum indices in asdem Concordiee ducerentur ; eo ipso tempore 
igBum statueretur ; quo collocato, atque ad vos senatumque converso^ omnia et sena« 
us, et vos, quae erant contra salutem omnium cogitata illustrata, et patefacta, vidistis ? 
2iiO etiam majore sunt isti odio supplicioque digni, qui non solum vestris domiciliis 
itqoe tectis ^ sed etiam deorum templis, atque delubris sunt funestos ac nefarios ignes 
OMVe conati ? quibus ego si me restitisse dicam, nimium roihi sumam, et non sim fe« 
orim: ille, ille Jupiter restitit ; ille Capitolrum, ille baec templa, ille banc urbem, ille 
m omnes salvos esse voluit. Diis ego immortalibus ducibus banc mentem, Quirites^ 
robmlatemque suscepi, atque ad haec tanta indicia perveni. 

^ Quibus pro tantis rebiniy Quirites, nullum ego k vobis praemium virtutis, nullum in- 
tigne honoris, nullum nMiumentum laudis postulo, praeterquam hujus diei memoriam 
lempitemam. In animis ego vestris omnes triumnbos meos, omnia omamenta honoris, 
BfMUiinenta gloriae, laudb insignia, condi et collocari volo. Nihil me mutum potest 
kkctare, nihil tacitum, nihil denique hujusmodi, quod etiam minus digni assequi poi- 
unt. Memorii vestri, Quirites, nostrae res alentur. sermonibus crescent| literarum 
noQnmentis inveterascent et corroborabuntur : eandemque diem intelligo, quam spero 
eteroam fore, et ad salutem urbis, et ad memoriam consulatus mei propagatam : 
noqae tempore in h&c republ. duos cives extiUsse, quorum alter fines vestri imperii, 
wa tenrae sed coeli regionibus terminaret ; alter ejusdem imperii domicilium sedemque 
iervaret. Sed quoniam earum rerum, quas ego gessi, non est eadem fortuna, atque 
conditio, quae iUorum, qui externa bella gesserunt ; quod mihi vivendum sit cum illis 
WM Hd ac subesi ; Uli hostes aut interfectos aut oppressos reliquerunt : vestrum est, 
twites, si caetens recta sua facta prosuht, mihi mea ne quando obsint providere. 
Mentes enim hominum audacissimorum sceleratae ac neiariae ne vobis nocere possent, 
ngo providi ; ne mihi noceant, vestrum est providere. 

IN CATILINAM IV. 

Video, P. C. in me omnium vestrum ora atque oculos esse conversos : video vos non 
M^um de vestro, ac reipublicae, verum etiam, si id depulsum sit, de meo periculo esse 
ioiicitos. Est mihi jucunda in malis, grata in dolore, vestra erga me voluntas : sed eam^ 
per deos immortales, quaeso, deponite, atque obliti salutis meae, de vobis ac de liberis 
f^stm cogitare. Mihi quidem si haec conditio consulatus data est, ut omnes acerbi 
:ates, omnes dolores cruciatusque perferrem ; ieram non solum fortiter, sed etiam liben- 
^; dummodo, meis laboribus, vobis populoque Romano, dignitas salusque pariatur.. 
Elgo sum ille consul, P. C. cui non forum, in quo omnis aequitas continetur; non cam- 
pus, consularibus auspiciis consecratus, non curia, summum auxilium omnium gentium ^ 
Bon domus, commune perfugium; non lectus, ad quietem datus; non denique haec sedes 
^Kmoris, sella curulis, unquam vacua mortis periculo atque insidiis fuit. Ego multa 
tacoi, multa pertuli, multa concessi, multa meo quodam dolore in vestro timore sanavi. 
Nunc si hunc exitum consulatus mei dii immoiiales esse voluerunt, ut vos, P. C. popu- 
^uaque Romanum ex caede miserd, conjuges liberosque vestros, vi^nesque Yestades 
^ BcerbissimH vexatione ; templa, atque delubra, banc pulcherriman patriam omnium 
>K»tram ex foedissimi flammi ; totam Italiam ex bello et vastitate eriperem : quaecun- 
Vie mihi uni proponetur fortuna, subeatur. Etenim si P. Lentulus suum nomen indue- 
^ i vatibus, fatale ad perniciem reipubl. fore putavit ; cur ego non laeter, mcum con- 
sdatum ad salutem reipubl. prope fatalem exstitisse ? Quare, P. C. consulite vobis^ 
pitMpcite patriae ; conservate vos, conji^es, liberos, fortunjisquevestras; populi Ro- 
■Qam nomen, salutemque defendite ; mihi parcere, ac de me cogitare definite. Nam 
Prioium debeo sperare, omnes deos, qui huic urbi praesident, pro eo mihi, ac mereor,. 
'ehtoros gratiam esse ; deinde si quid obtigerit, aequo animo parateque moriar $ neque 
^ turpis mors forti viro, potest acddere^ neque immatura conaularij nee rniaera 

Quae cikm Ha sint^ Patres conscript!, pro imperio, pro exercitu, pro provincii, quam 



4S EXCERPTA LATiNE- 

pe^exi; pro triumpho, cseterisque laudis insignibus, qu«e sunt i me propter urbb ves- 
trstque salutis custodiam repudiata, pro clientelis, hospitiisque provincialibus, quae tamen 
lU'banis opibus non minore labore tueor^ quam comparo : pro his igitur omnibus rebug, 
et pro meis in vos singularibus studiis, proque hac, quam conspicHts, ad conservandam 
rempubl. diligentia, nihil aliud a vobis, nisi hujus temporis totiutque mei consulatus me^ 
moriam postulo^ quae dum erit vestris mentibus infixa, firmissimo me rouro septum esse 
arbitrabor. Qabd si meam spera vis improborum fefellerit^ atquc superaverit ; com* 
mendo vobis parvum meum filium : cui profecto satis erit praesidii, non solum ad salu* 
tern, verum etiam ad dignitatem^ si ejus, qui liaec omnia suo solus pcriculo coIl8e^ 
vaverit, ilium esse filium meminerifjs. Quapropter de summi salute vestr& populique 
Romani, P. C. de vestris conjugibus ac libens, de aris ac focis, de fanis ac templis, 4it 
totius urbis tectis ac sedibus, de imperio, de libertate, de salute Italiae, d^que univeni 
republici decemite diligenter, ut instituistis, ac fortiter. Habetis enim consukm, qui • 
et parere vestris decretis non dubitet ; et ea quae statueritis, quoad vivet, defendere, et 
per seipsum praestare possit. 

^RO LEGE MANILIA. ^ 

Quanquam mihi semper frequens conspectus vester multo jucundlssimus, bio autem 
locus ad agendum amplissimus, ad dicendum omatissimus est visus, Quirites : tamn 
hdc aditu laudis,* qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit, non mea me voluBtBSyied 
meae vitqe rationes ab ineunte aetate susccptae prohibuerunt. Nam cdm antea per 
aetatem nondum hujus auctoritatcm loci contingere auderem^ statueremque, nihil nnc 
nisi perfectum ingenio, elaboratum industria afierri oportere, omne meum tempos aini- 
corum temporibus transmittendum putavi. Ita neque hie locus vacuus unquam fuit ab 
ib'qui vestram causam defenderent ; et mens labor in privatorum periculis caste inte- 
gr6que versatus, ex vestro judicio fructum est amplissimum consecutus. Nam ciho 
propter dilationem comitiorum ter praetor primus centuriis cunctis rentmtiatus siaif 
facile intellexi, Quirites, et quid de me judicaretis, et quid aliis praescriberetis^ Nm^ 
cikm et auctoritatis in me tantum sit, quantum vos honoribus mandandumesse voluisfr: 
et ad agendum facultatb tantum, quantum homini vigilant! ex forensi usu prope quoCi- 
rliana dicendi exercitatio potuit afferre : ccrtd et si quid auctoritatis in me est, ek apud 
eos utar, qui earn mihi dederunt ; et si Quid etiam diccndo consequi possum : lis osten- 
dam potissimura, qui ei quoque rei fructum suo judicio tribuendum esse censujerunt. 
Atque illud imprimis milii laetandum jure esse video, quod in h&c insoliti mihi ex hoc 
loco ratione dicendi, causa talis oblata est, in qui oratio nemini deesse ]K)test. Diceii* 
dum est cnim de Cn. Pompeii singular! eximiique virtute. Hujus autem orationis diffi- 
cilius est exitum, qukm principium invenire. Itaque non mihi tam copia, qu^ modiB 
in dicendo quserendus est. 

Utinam, Quirites, virorum fortium, atque innocentium, copiam tantam haberetis, ot 
haec vobis deliberatio difficilis esset, quemnam potissimum tantis rebus ac tanto beDo 
prseficiendum putaretis. Nunc vero cum sit unus Cn. Pompeius, qui non modd eomm 
hominum, qui nunc sunt, gloriam, sed etiam antiqoitatis memoriam virtute super^^ 
quae res est, quae cujusquam animum in h&c causd dubium facere possit ? Ego enim sic 
existimo, in summo imperatore quatuor has -res inesse oportere, scientiam rei militaris, 
virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem. Quis igitur hoc homine sdentior unquam aut fiiit, 
aut esse debuit ? qui e ludo, atque pueritiae discipline, hello maximo, atque acerrimis 
host<bus, ad patris exercitum, atque in militiae disciplinnm, profectus est, qui extreiD& 
pueritifL miles fuit summi imperatoris; ineunte adolescentia maximi ipse exercitCis im- 
perator : qui saepins cum hoste conflixit, quam quisquam ciun inimico concertavit ; phm 
bella gessit, quim caeteri legerunt; plures provincias confecit qusLm alii concupiverunt: 
cuius adolscentia ad scientiam rei militaris non, alienis praeceptis, sed suis imperils; noo 
onensionibus belli, sed victoriis ; non stipendiis, sed triumphis, est traducta. Quod de- 
nique genus belFi esse potest, in quo ilium non exercuerit fortuoa reipublicae ? Civik) 
Afiicannm, Transalpmum, Hispaniense, mistum ex civi^alibus, atque ex bellicosissmii 
nationibus, servile, navale helium ; varia et diversa genera, et bellorum, et hosthoBi 
non solilUn gesta ab hoc uno, sed etiam confecta, nuuam rem esse declarant in urti 
militari positam, quae hujus viri scientiam fugere possit. Jam vero virtuti Cn. Pompdt' 
quae potest par oratio inveniri ? Quid est quod ouisquam aut dignum illo^ aut voH^ 
novnm^ mit cmquam inauditum possit affnre ? Non enim illae sunt solas virtutes fan- 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 49 

ratoriae quae vulgo existimai)tiu*, labor in negotiis, fortitudo in periculis, industria in 
endo^ celeritas in cdnfidendo^ consilium in provTdcndo ; quae tanta sunt in hoc uno^ 
anta in omnibus reliqms impcratoribus, quos aut vidimus, aut audivimus, non fuenmt; 
3Stiis est Italia, quam lOe ipse victor L. Sulla hujus virtute et consilio confessus esi 
leratam : testis est Sicilian quam multis undique cinctam periculis, non terrore belli^ 
i cderitate consilii ezplicavit : testis est- Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostiunt copiisy 
run ipsorum sanguine redundavit : testis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris in 
ispaniam iter Grallorum intemecione patefactom est : testis est Hispania, quae saepis- 
ae plurimos hostes ab hoc superatos prostratosque conspexit : testis est iterum et 
s^ns Italia, quae cum servili bello tetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium 
riMe expetivit: quod bellum expectatione Pompeii attenuatum atque imminutum 
t; adventu sublatum ac sepultum : testes ver6 jam omnes orae, atque omnes exterae 
sitei ac nationes i denique maria omnia torn imiversa, tum in singulis oris onmes sinuSj 
qneportns. 

PRO ARCIilA POETA. 

^uid est in me ingenii, judices, quod sentio qvAm sit exiguum ; aut siqua exercitatio 
cendi| In qu& me non inficior mediocriter esse versatum ; aut si hujusce rei ratio aliqua 
I qiteanim artium studiis et disciplina profecta, tl qui ego nullum confiteor aetatis 
em tOBpiB abhorruisse : earum rerum omnium vel imprimis hie A. Lidnins fructum 
me tep^ere prope suo jure debet s Nam quoad lon^ssime potest mens mea respicere 
ittfiQm pMrteriti temporis, et pueritiae memoriam recordari ultimam, inde usque repe- 
DB. famic^deo mihi principem et ad suscipiendam et ad ingrediendam rationem horumi 
iidioram extitisse. Quod si liaec vox, hujus hortatu praeceptisque conformata, non- 
dlii aliqnando salitti fuit : k quo id accepimus quo caeteris opitulari et alios servare 
MHmus^ huk profecto ipsi, quantum est situm in nobis, et opem et salutem ferre 
batua* Ac ne quis k nobis hoc ita dici forte miretur, quod alia quaedam in hoc 
edias sit ingoiii, neque haec dicendi ratio aut disciplina : ne nos quidem huic cuncti 
enBo penitds unquam dediti fuimus. Etenim omnes artesj quce ad humanitatem per* 
lenf, haheni quoddam commune vinculum $ et quasi cognatione quddam inter se 
niuictiiur. 

Quaeres i nobis, Gracche, cur tantopere hoc homine delectemur ; quia suppeditat 
ilmi, ul» et animus ex hoc forensi strepitu reficiatur, et aures convicio defessae con- 
descant. An tu existimas, aut suppetere nobis posse, quod quotidie dicamus in < 
9iid varietate renaUy nisi animos nostros doctrina excolamus; aut ferre animos 
mkm posse contentionefny nisi eos doctrina eddem relaocemus ? Ego vero fateor, me 
I staijms esse deditum : Caeteros pudeat, si qui ita se Uteris abdiderunt, ut nihil possint 
: his neqoe ad communem afTerre fructum, neque in aspectum lucemque proferre.* 
ie antem quid pudeat ? qui tot annos ita vixi, judices, ut ab illis nuUo me unquain 
D^pore^ant commodum, atit otium meum abstraxerit, aut voluptas avocarit, aut denique 
amas retardirit. Quare quis tandem me reprehendat, aut quis mihi jure succenseat, 
qoantlim caeteris ad suas res obeundas, quantum ad festos dies ludorum celebrandos, 
lantum ad alias voluptates, et ad ipsam requiem animi et corporis conceditur temporis, 
nntam aHi tribuunt intempestivis conviviis, quantum denique aleae, quantum pilae ; 
ntam mihi egomet ad haec studia recolenda sumpsero ? Atque hoc adeo mihi con- 
^Am^kan est magis: quod ex his studiis haec quoque crescit oratio et facultas: quae'- 
nataatnqiie in me est, nunquam amicoruiA periculis defuit. Quae si cui levior vide' 
r; iUtt qiddem certe^ quae sumraa sunt, ex quo fonte hauriam, sentio. Nam nisi 
ahomm praeceptis mditisque literis mihi ab adolescentii suasissem, nihil esse in vita 
agnopere expetendum, nisi laudem atque honestatem ; in ea autem prosequendi 
imes cAidatus corpdris, omnia pericula mortis atque exilii, parvi esse ducenda nun- 
am mt pro salute vestri in tot et tantas dimicationes, atque in hos profligatorui!n 
miminiqiiotidianos impetus objecissem. Sed pleni omnes sunt libri, plenae sapientium 
cqSy plena exemplorum vetustas; quae jacerent in tenebris omnia, nisi literarum luAienf 
' ' , Quim mulfas nobis Imagines, non solum ad intuendum, verum etiam adf 
1, fortissimorum virorum expressas, scriptotes, et Graeci, et Latinf reli- 

iiaptM ego mihi semper in administrandi repub. proponens, animum et meifitemr 

am iprt co^tatione hommum excellentium conformabam. Quaeret quispiam : Quid ? 



so EXCEllPTA LATINE. 

iili ipsi suinmi viri, quorum virtutes Uteris proditae sunt istane doctrina, quem tu budi- 
bus effers-, en diti fuerunt ? Difficile est hoc de omnibus confirmare ; sed tamen est 
certum, quid kespondeam. Ego multos homines excellenti animo ac virtute fuisse, et 
sine doctrina, naturae ipsius habitu prope divino, per seipsos, et moderatos^ et graves 
extitisse fateor : etiam illud adjungo, ssepius ad laudem atque virtutem, naturam sine 
doctriqiy quam sine natura valuisse docti'inam. Atque idem ego contendo, cum ad 
naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserit ratio qusedam connrmatioque doctrinse ; 
turn illud nescio quid praeclarum ac singulare solere existere. 

Quod si non hie tantus fructus ostenderetur, et si ex his studiis delectatio sola petere- 
tur : tamen ut opinor, hanc animi remissionem humanissimam ac liberalissimam judi- 
caretis. Nam caeterae neque temporum sunt, neque aetatum omnium, neque loconim. 
Hoec studia adolescentiam alunty senectutem oblectant^ secundas res omanty advents 
perfugium ac solatium prahent ; delectant domij non impediunt foris : pemoctant 
nobiscum^ peregrinanfvr, rusticanhtr. Quod si ipsi haec neque attingere, neque sensu 
nostro gustare possemus ; tamen ea mirari deberemus, etiam cum in aliis videremus. 
Quis nostrum tarn animo agresti ac duro fuit, ut Roscii niorte nuper non commovere- 
tur ? qui cum esset senex mortuus ; tamen propter excellentem artem, ac v^nustatem 
videbatur omnino mori non debuisse. Ergo ille corporis motu tantum amorem sibi 
ccmciliarat a nobis omnibus : nos animorum incredibiles motus celeritatemque ingeoi- 
orum negltgemus ? Quoties ego hunc Archiam vidi, judices (utar enim vesti^ bei^gni- 
tate : quoniam me in hoc novo genere dicendi tam diVigenter attenditis) quoties eff> 
hunc vidi, cum literam scripsisset nullam, magnum numerum optimorum versuum de 
his ipsis rebus, quae turn agerentur, dicere ex tempore ? quoties revoc|inm eanden 
rem dicere commutatis verbis atque sententiis ? quae vero accurate cogitateque scripsis- 
set, ea sic vidi probari, ut ad veterum scriptorum laudem pervenirent. Hunc ego dob 
i^ligam ? non admirer ? non omni oratione defendendum putem ? Atqui sic & summis 
nominibus eruditissimisquc accepimus, cseterarum rerum studia, et doctirina et pne- 
ceptis, et arte constare ; poetam naturi ipsa valere, et mentb viribus excitari, et quasi 
divino quodam spiritu afflari. Quare suo jure noster ille Enllius sanctos appellat poetas, 
quod quasi deorum aliquo dono atque munere commendati nobis esse videantur. Sk 
igitur, judices, sanctum apud vos humanissimos homines hoc poetae nomen, quod milk 
unquam barbaria vioiavit. Saxa et solitudines voce respondent, . bestiae saepe iminaiMf 
caiitu flectuntur atque consistunt : nos instituti rebus optimis non poetarum voce mofei' 
raur ? Ilomerum Colophonii civem esse dicUnt suum, Chii vindicant, Salaminii sepe* 
tunt, Smyrnaei vero suum esse confirmant : itaque etiam delubrum ejus in oppido dei& 
caverunt: permulti alii praeterea pugnant inter se, atque contendunt. Ergo illi alienum, 
quia poeta fuit, post mortem etiam expetunt : nos hunc vivum, qui et voluntate et legibas 
noster est, repudiabimus ? praesertim, cum omne olim stadium, atque onme ingenimi 
contulerit Archias ad pop. Rom. gloriam laudemque celebrandam. 

Qu£lm multos scriptores rerum suarum magnus ille Alexander secum habuisie didtor? 
Atque is tamen, cum in Sigaeo ad Achillis tumulum adstitisset, O fortunate^ inmiit) 
adolescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveniris i et vere. Nam niri Ilias 
extitisset ilia ; idem tumulus, qui corpus ejus contexerat, nomen etiam obniisaet. 

Neque enim est hoc dissimulandum, quod obscurari non potest, sed prae nobis fercn- 
dum : trahimur omnes laudis studio, et optimus quisque maxiim gloria dudtur^ \fA 
illi Philosoplii, etiam in illis libellis, quos de contemnenda gloria scribunt, nomen soom 
inscribunt, in eo ipso, in quo predicationem nobilitatemque dispiciunt, praedicari se 
ac nominari volunt. Decimus quidem Brutus, summus iUe vir, et imperator5 ^^ 
amicissimi sui carminibus templorum ac monumentorum aditus exomavit suorom. 
Jam vero ille, qui cum ^tolis, Ennio comite, bellavit Fulvius, non dubitavit Martis 
qianubias musis consecrare. Quare in qua urbe imperatores prope armati poetanim 
nomen et musarum delubra coluerunt, in ei non debent togad judices k musforum hcmore 
et k poetarum salute abhorrere. Atque ut id libentius feciatis, jam me Yobisy judices^ 
indicabo, et de meo quodam amoxe gloriae, nimis acri ibrtasse,. veruntamen honesto, 
▼obis 4:onfitebor. Nam quas res' nos in consulatu nostro vobiscum idmuil pio salute 
hujus urbis atque imperii, et pro vitil civium, proque universft rep. gesnmiiSy '^^'^pt h>® 
rtrsibus, atque inchoavit. Quibus auditis, quod mihi magna res et jucimda^Ml cst^ 
hunc ad perficiendmn kortatus sum. 




>!. 



\ 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 

EX OVIDU OPERIBUS. 

PTBAMUS ET THISHS 

Pf r&miis et Thisbe, jiivenum pulcherrimus alter^ 
Alteril^ (JOBS oriens Mbuit, pseclat& puellis, 
Contiguas tSnuerS domos ; iibY dicKtiir altam 
CociOIbus muris cinxissS S^mirftmis jiirbem. 
Notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit; 
Tempore crevit amor : tsddee quoque jure coissent ; 
Sed vetuere patres. Quod non potuSre vetare^ 
Ex aequo captis arddbant mentibus ambo. 
Conscius omnis aboit. Nutu^ signisque loquuntur. 
Quoque magb te^tur, tectns magis aestuat igius« 
Fissus erat tenui rim&, quam dozerat olim 
Cum flerety paries domui communis utrique. 
Id vitium^ nulli per secula longa notatum^ 
(Quid non sentit amor ?) primi sensisds amantesi 
£t voci fecistis iter : — tutseque per illud 
M urmure blanditise minimo transire solebant. 
Saepe at con^erant, hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc j 
Inque vicem fuerat captatus anhelitus oris ; ' 
Invide, dicebant, paries, quid amantibus obstas ? 
Quantum erat, ut sineres nos toto eorpore jungi f 
Aut hoc ri nlmium, vel ad oscula danda pateres ! 
Nee sumus iqgrati : tibi nos debere fatemur, 
Quod datus est verbis ad amicas transitus aures. 
Talia diversa nequicquam sede locud ; 
Sub noctem dixere Vale : partique ded^re 
Oscula quisque suae, non perveniei^ia contra. 
Posteta nocturnos Aurora removerat ignes^ 
Solque pruinosas radiis siccaverat herbas : 
Ad solitum coi'ere locum. Tum murmure parvo 
Midta pri^ questi, statuunt ut nocte silenti 
Fallere custodes, forisbusque excedere tentent : 
Cumque domo exierint, urbis quoque tecta relinquant . 
Neve sit errandiuA lato spatiantibus arvo ; 
Conveniant ad busta Niqi : lateantque sub umbriL 
Arboris. Arbor ibi niveis uberrima pomis 
Ardua moms erat, gelido contermina fonti.. 
Pacta placent : et lux tarde discedere visa 
Praecipitatur aquis, et aquls nox surgit ab isdem 
Callida per tenebraa, versato cardine, Thisbe 
Egreditur, fallitque suos ; adopertaque vultum 
Pervenit ad tumulum ; dictaque sub arbore sedi 
Audacem faciebat amor. Yenit ecce recent! 
Caede leaena boum spumantes oblita rictus, 
Depositura sitim vicini fontis in undi ; 
Quam procul ad lunae radios Babylonia Thisbe 
Vidit, et obscurmn timido pede fu^t in antrum 
Dumque fiigit, tergo velamina lapsa relinquit. 
Ut lea saeva sitim multa compescuit undll, 
Dum redit in sylvas, inventos fortd sme ipsft 
Oi« cruentato tenues laniavit amictus. ~ 
Sends egressus vestigia vidit in alto 
Pulvore certa ferae, totoque expelhut ore 
Pyramus. lit verd resteni qtioque sangme tinctam 
Repperit; Una duos Aox, inqmt, perdet amantes : 
E quibus ilia iiut longi dignissima idt4« 



H 



10 



Id 



20 



S5 



80 



35 



40 



4S 






90 



55 



at EXCERPTA LATINE. 

Nostra noceiuji anima est. Ego te, miseranday peremi. 
In loca pleDa metus qui jussi nocte venires ^ 
Nee pncM: hue veni. Nostrum divellite corpus^ 
£t scelerata fero consumite viscera morsu, 
O quicunque sid> hac habitatis rupe, leones. 
Sed timidi est optare necem. Velamina Thisbes 
ToUity et ad pactae secum fert arboris uzobi-am. 
Utque dedit notae lachrymas^ dedit oscula vesti, 
Accipe nunc, inquit, no^tri quoque sanguinis haustus 3 
Qooque erat accinctus, demittit in ilia ferrum. 
Nee mora; ferventi moriens e vulnere traxit. 
Ut jacuit resupinus humi, cruor emicat alte ; 
Non aliter, qukm cum vitiato fistula plumbo 
Scinditur, et tenues stridente foramine longe 

' Ejaculstur aquas, at ictibus aera rumpit. 
Axborei foetus aspergine caedis ne atram 
Vertontur faciem : madefactaque sangine radix 
Puniceo tingit pendentia mora colore. 
Ecce, metu nondum posito, ne fallat amantem, 
lUa redit i juvenemque oculis, animoque requirit ; 
Quantaque vit&rit narrare pericula gestit. '^ 

Utque locum, et versam cognovit in arbore forman^^ 
(Sec facit incertam pomi color) haeret an haec sit^^V 
Diun dubitat, tremeounda videt pulsare cruentum^^' 
Membra solum ; retroque pedem tulit ; oraque.buxo ' 
PallidicNTa gerens,' exhorruit aeqooris instar, 

' Quod fremit exigua cikm siimmnm stringitur aura. 
Sed postqusLm remorata suos cognovit amores ; ^ 

Percutit indignos claro plangore labeilos : 
Et laniata <;oma8, amplexaque eaqgim amatum, « 

y ulnera supplevlt lacrymis : detunnique cruori 
Miscuit ; et gelidis in vultibus oscula figens, 
Pyrame, clamavit, quis te mihi casts ademit ? 
Pyrame, responde. Tua te, cariasime, Thisbe 
Nominat. Exaudi ; vultusque attoUe jacentes. 
Ad ncmien Thisbea oculos jam morte gravatos 
Pyramus erexit, visaque recondidit ilia. 
Quae postquam vestemque suam cognovit, et ense 
Vidit ebur vacuimi ; tua te manus, inquit, amorque 
Perdidit, infelix. Est et mihi fortis in unum 
Hoc manus } est et amcH: ; dabit hie in vulnera vires . 
Persequar extinctum 5 lethique miserrima dicar 
Caussa, comesque tui : quique a me morte revelU 
Heu jsola poteras, poteris nee morte revelli. 
Hoc tamen amborum verbis estote rogati, 
Qmultihn miserique mei, illiusque parentes, 
Ut, quos certus amor, quos hora novissima junxit, 
Con^ ^onl tumulo non invideatis eodem. 
At tu ij i.jc ramis arbor miserabile corpus 
Nun t » <• Is unius, mox es tectura duorum ; 
Signa tone caedis ;; pullosque et luctibus aptos 
Semper habe foetus gemini monumenta cmoris. 
Dixit ; et aptato pectus mucrone sub imum 
Ineubuit feno; ^od ahuc a caede tepebat. 
Vota tamen tetigere deos, tetigere parentes. 
Nam color in porno est, ubi permaturuit^ ater ; 
Quodqjue rogis superest, unft req)ai6idt in rnnL 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 53 

EX VIRGILH OPERIBUS. 

GEOR. U. ,406. 

O fortunatos nimium^ sua si bona norint 
Agricolas^ quibus ipsa^ prociil discordibus annis^ 
Fundit huino facilem victum justissima tellus ! 
• Si non ingentem foribus domus alta superbis 
Mane salutantiui^ totb vomit secfibus undam^ 
Nee varios inhiant pulehr4 testudine poster, 
niusasque auro vestes, Eph3rreiaqae sera ; 
Alba neque Assyrio fueatur lana veneno, 
Nee casia liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi! : 
At secura quies^ et nescia fallere vita^ 
Dives opum variarum ; at latis otia fimdi9y 
Spelimcae, vivique lacus ; at frigida Tempe, 
Mugitusque boiiro, mollesque sub arbore somni^ 
Non absunt ; iUic saltus ac lustra ferarum^ 
Et patiens operum exiguoque a^su^a juvehtus. 
Sacra Deum, sanctique patresrifcxtrema per illos ■ 
Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit. 

Me vero primikm dulces ante omnia mn&se, 
Quarum sacra fero ingenti perdMius amore^ 
Accipiant; coelique v|iui et sidera mcmstrent, 
Defectus solis varios^'ftmoque labores ; 
Unde tremor terris f-qtdtvi maria alta tumescant 
Objicibus ruptisi rursusque in seipsa residant ; 
Qmd tantunt4|n8iM properent se tingere soles' 
Hibemi, vd qiiae^^mis mora noctibi» obstet. 
Sin, has ne. poflfttt natorae accedere-partes, 
Frigidus obstilerii eircum praecordia sanguis; 
Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes ; 
Flumina amem sUyasque inglorius. O ubi campi, 
Spercheusque, et virginibus bacchata Lacsenis 
Taygeta ! O qui me gelidis in vallibus Hsemi 
Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat wnbra ! 

Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, 
Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum 
Sabjecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari ! 
Fortunatus et ille deos qui novit agrestes, 
Panaque, Silvanumque senem, N3rmphasque sorores^. 
Ilium non popiUi fasces, non purpura regum 
Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres, 
Aut donjurato descendens Dacus ab Histro ; 
Non res Romanse, perituraque regna : neque ille 
Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti. 
Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura 
Sponte tulere sua, carpsit ; nee ferrea jura, 
Insanumque foiTun, aut populi tabularia vidit. 

Solicitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque 
In ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum : 
Hie petit exeidiis urbem miserosque penates, 
Ut gemmk bibat, et Sarrano indormiat ostro : 
Condit opes alius, defossoque ineubat auro : 
Hie stupet attonitus rostris : hunc plausus hiantem 
Per cuneos geminatus enim plebisque patrumque 
Corripuit : gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum^ 
Exsilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant, 
Atque alio patriam quserunt sub sole jacentem* 



»4 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

Agricola incunro terram dimovit aratro : 
Hinc anni labor; hiiic patriam parvosque nepotes 
Sustinet; hinc armenta boom mmtosque juvencof. 
Nee requies quin aut pomis exuberat aniniSi 
Aut fetu pecDrum, aut cerealis mer^te culmi, 
Proventuque oneret sulcos, atque horrea vincat. 

Veoit hiems ; teritur Sicyonia bacca tnqietis ; 
Glande sues Iseti redeunt ; dant arbuta «lv« i 
£t varios ponit fetus autumnus, et altd 
Mitis in apricis coquitur vindeoMa sans. 
Inf^rea dulces pendent circum oscula nati ; . 
Casta pudicitiam servat domus ; ubera vaccas 
Lactea demittunt ; pinguesque in gramine keto 
Inter se adversis luctantur comibus haedi. 

Ipse dies agitat festos ; fususque par herbam, 
foils ubi in medio, et socii cratera oMtmanty 
Te libans, Lensee, vocat ; pecorisque magistris 
Velbcis jaculi certamina ponit in idmo; 
Corporaque agresti nudant praedura pal«estr&. 

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, * 

Hanc Remus et frater ; nc fortis'Etruria crevit ) 

Scilicet, et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma, 
Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces. \* 

Ante etiam sceptrum Dictae regis, et antd | 

Impia qu^ caecis gens epulata juvends, 
Aureus hanc vitam in terris Satumus agebat» 
Necdom etiam audierant inflari classica, necdom | 

Impositos duris crepitare incudibus enses. 

Sed nos immensum spatiis confeicimuB aeqaoir;,. 
Et jam tempus equCun fumantia solvere cdla» 

GEOR. IV. 149. 

Nunc age, naturas apibus quas Jupiter ipse 
Addidit expediam : pro quA mercede, canoroi 
Cnretum sonitus crepitantlaque ^ra secutSD, 
-Dictaeo coeli regem pav6re sub antro. 
Sola^ communes nato8> consortia tecta 
Urbis habent, magnisque agitant sub l^bns aevum 
Et patriam solae, et certos nov^ penates : 
Venturaeque hiemis menuHres, aestate laborem 
. Experiuntur, et in medium qiuesita reponunt. 
Namque aliae victu invigilant, et ftedere pacto 
Exercentur agris : pars intra saepta domorum 
Narcissi lacrymam, et lentom de cortice gluten, 
Prima favis ponunt fimdamina; deinde tenaces 
Suspendunt cenui ; aliaD, spem gentis, adultos 
Educunt fetus : atiae purissima mella 
Stipaot, et liquido difltendunt nectare cellas. 
Sunt,quibus ad portas ceddit custodial scMti : 
Inque vicem speculantcv aquas et nubila coeli ; 
Aut onera accipiunt venientum ; aiit agmine fyxio^ 
foiavum fucos pecus a prssepibus arcent. 
Fervet opus, reaoleptque thymo fragrantia mdia : 
Ac veluti lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis 
Quum iHToperant, alii taorinis foUibus auras • ^' 

Accipiunt, reddimtque, alii stridentia tii^unt' 
^ Atat lacu ; gemit impositis incudibus iStna : 
" Bli inter sese.magn&'vi brachia tolhmt 
lo numenmi, versaiitqiie tenaci fordpe ftrnrni. 

\ 



^ 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 06 

Non aliterj^si parva licet componere magnis, 
Cecropias innatus apes amor urget habendi, 
Manere quamque suo. Grandaevis oppida cuice, 
£t munire favos, et Dsedala fingere tecta. 
At fessae multa referunt se nocte minores. 
Crura thymo plense : pascuntur et arbuta passim^ 
Et glaucas salices, casiamque, crocumque rubentem^ 
Et pinguem tiliam, et ferrugineos hyacinthos. 
Omnibus ima quies operum, labor omnibus unus. 
Mane ruunt portis ; nusquam mora ; rursus easdem 
Vesper ubi e pastu tandem decedere campis 
Admonuit, tum tecta petunt, tum corpora curant \ 
Fit sonitusy mussantque oras et limina circum. 
Post, ubi jam thalamis se composuere, siietur 
In noctem, fessos sopor suus occupat artus. 
Nee vero a stabulis pluvii impendente recedunt 
Longius, aut credunt coelo, adventantibusEuris \ 
Sed circum tutae sub moenibus urbis aquantur, 
Excursusque breves tentart \ et saepe lapillos, 
Ut C3rmbae: instabiles fluctu jactante saburram, 
Tollunt; his sese per inania nubila librant. 

^N. IV. 170. 

Extemplo Libyae magqas it Fama per urbes \ 
Fama, malum qu& non aUud velocius ullum ; 
Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo ; 
Parva metu primo, mox sese attoUit in auras ; 
Ldgrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit. 
Illam Terra parens, iri irritata deorum, 
Extremam, ut perhibent, Coeo Enceladoque scHrorem 
Progenuit, pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis : 
Monstrum horrendum, ingens ; cui, quot sunt corpore plumafi 
Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu, 
Tot linguae, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit aures 
Nocte volat coeli medio terraeque, per umbram • 
Stridens, nee dulci declinat lumina somno. 
Luce sedet custos, aut summi culmine tectr, 
Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes ; 
Tam ficti pravique tenax quslm nuntia veri. 

.ffiN. VUI. 416. 

Insula Sicanium juxta latus ^oliamque 
ErigittU: Liparen, fumantibus ardua saxis ; 
Quam subter specus et Cyclopum exesa camiius 
Antra ^tnaea tenant, valtdique incudibus ictus 
Audit! referunt gemitum, striduntqiie cavemis 
Stricturae chalybum, et fomacibus ignis anhelat : 
Vulcani domus, et Vulcania nomine tellus. 
Hue tunc ignipotens coelo descendit ab alto. 
Ferrum exercebant vasto Cyclopes in antro, 
firontesque, Steropesque, et nudus membra Pyracmon. 
His informatum manibus, jam parte polity, 
Fulmen erat, toto genitor quae plurima coelo 
Dejicit in terras, pars imperfecta manebat. 
Tres imbris torti radios, tres nubis aquosae 
Addiderant, nitili tres ignis et alitis Austri. 
Fulgores nunc terrificos, sonitumque, metumque 
Miscebant operi, flammisque sequacibus iras. 






m 



56 EXCEBPTA LATERE. 

^ Parte alia Marti cumimque rotasqu^ vohicres ' 

Instabanty qiiibus ille viros, quibos exdtat oxbes : 
j£gidaque horriferam, turbatae Palladia arma, 
Certatim squamis aerpentum auroque polibant, 
Connexosque angues, ipsam in pectore divse 
Gommss desecto vertentem lumina coUo. 
T<^ute cuncta, inqinL coeptoaque auferte labores^ 
^tnaei Cyclopef, et hue advert^ mentienu 
Anna acri fadeiula viro.: nunc viribus usus^ ^' 
Nunc manibus rapidis, omni nunc arte magiivtrft ( 
Prsecipitate moras. Nee plura efiieitus : et iHI 
Ocius incubuere omnes, pariterque laborem 
Sortiti :, fluit sea rivi$, aurique metallum ; .. 
Vulnificusque chalybs vast& fomace liqueQcit 
lA£enlem dypeum informant, mium omnia cimtra 
Tda Latinorum $ septenosque orbibus orbes 
Iinpediunt : alii ventosis foUibus am-as 
Aocipiunt redduntqae ; alii stridentia tingunt 
./Elra laca : gemit imposids incndibus antrum. 
Bti inter sese miilt& vi brachia tollunt 
In numaram, versantque tenaci forcipe antrum. ^ 

JEN. IX. 17J). 

mm erat port» custos, acernmus armis, 

Hyrtacides ;' comitem ^nese quem miserat Ida ^ 

Venatrix, jaculo cekfem levibusque sagittii : 

Et jvapk comf» Euryalus, qup pdchrior alter .• 

Npn fuit ^neadum, Trojana neqne induit arma^ t 

Ora puer prim& signans intonsa juventft. 
ITis amor unu8 erat, pariterque m beUa ruebant ; 
Turn quoque communi portam statione tenebant. 
l^^Ris ait: Dine hunc ardoremmentibus addunt, 
jESuyale ? an sua cuique deus fit dira cupido ? 
Antpngnam, aut atiqatdjamduduminvadere magnum^ 
Mens agitat mihi; nee pkddi contenta quiete est 
Cemisy quse Rutolosliabeat fiduda rerun : 
Lumina rara micant ; sonmo vinoque sepabi 
Procubuere ; silettt lat<& loca. Penapeponro • 
Quid dnbitem, et quae liunc animo sentontia surgat. 
.£nean ftcciri omnes, populusque patretqne, 
ExpoBCunt, mittiqu^ viroa qui certa reportent. 
31 tibi quae posco praadtamt, nam mihi fiicti 
Faina sat est, tunndo Tideor reperire sub fflb 
Posse Viam ad muros et mcenia Pallantea. 
' Obttoo^ magnd laudmn petcdssus amore, 
£urjdiii^ -umul Us ardentem afiatur amicum : 
Mene %w aodun sommis adjungere rebus, 
Nise, mgis? Solum te in tanta pericula mittam ? 
Non ita me genitor bellis assuetus Odbehes 
Argolicum terrorcsn inter Trojseqne labores 
Sublatum eiradiit; nee tecum talla gessi, 
Magnapimum JEimn et fi4i eztrema secutus. 
Est hu^ est animos laos eoiitemptor, et istum 
Qui vitt bend credat emi, qud tendis, bonorem. 
Nisus ad hsee : Equidem de te nil tale verebar, 
Nee fiets| nan : ita me referat tibi magmis oimntem 
Jimiter, aut quieunque oculis hcec aotoicit aeqois. 
Sao, ri quis Qfim muha iHMes^Bscrinmie tali,) 
Si (piis m adwmwi Yifdtt easuire densre, 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 57 

Te superesse velim : tua viUL dignior aetas. 
Sit qui me raptum pugiut, pretiove redemptum^ 
Mandet humo solita 5 aut siqua id fortima vetabit. 
Absent] ferat infetias, decoretque sepulcro. 
Neu matri miserae tanti sim causa dc^oris ; 
Quae te, sola, puer, multis e matribus ausa, 
Penequitur, magni nee moenla curat Acestae. 
Ille autem : Causas nequidquam nectis inanes. 
Nee inea jam mutata loco sententia cedit. 
Acceleremus, ait : vigiles simul excitat ; illi 
Succedunt, servantque vices : statione relict^ 
Ipse comes Niso grsulitur, regemque requirunt. 

« * * 4^ . * * 

r 

Egressi superant fossas, noctisque per umbram 
Castra iliimica petunt, multis tamen ante futuri 
Exitio. 'Passim somno vinoque per herbam 
Corpora fusa vident ; arrectos littore currus. 
Inter lora rotasque viros ; simul arma jacere, 
Vina simul. Prior Hyrtacides sic ore locutus : 
Euryale, audendum dextri : nunc ipsa vocat res. 
Hac iter est : tu, nequa manus se attollere nobis 
A tergo possit, custodi, et consule longe. 
Haec ego vasta dabo, et lato te limine ducam. 
Sic memorat, vocemque premit : simul ense superbum 
Rhamnetem aggreditur, qui forte tapetibus altls 
Exstructus toto proflabat pectore somnum : 
Rex idem, et rcgi Tumo gratissimus augur ; 
Sed non augurio potuit depellere pestem. 
Tres juxt^ famulos temere inter tela jacentes, 
Armigerumque Remi premit,' aungapique sub ipsis 
Nactus equis, ferroque secat pendentia cpUa. 
Nam caput ipsi aufert dommo, truncumque relinquit 
Sanguine singultantem : atro tepefacta cruore 
Terra torique madent. Nee Lamyrumque, Lamumque, 
Et juvenem Sarraniim, ilia qui plurima nocte 
Luserat, insignis facie, multoque jacebat 
Membra deo victus : felix si protenus ilium 
iEqudsset nocti ludum, in lucemque tulisset ! 
Impastus ceu plena leo per ovilia turbans, 
Suadet enim vesana fames, manditque trahitque 
Molle pecus, mutumque metu ; fremit ore cruento. 
Nee minor Euryali caedes : incensus et ipse 
Perfurity ac midtam in medio sine nomine plebem ; 
Fadumque, Herbesumque subit, Rhoetumque, Arabimque, 
Ignaros ; Rhoetum vigilantem et cuncta videntem, 
Sed magnum metuens se post cratera tegebat ; ] 

l^ectore in ad verso totum cui comminus ensem I 

Condidit assurgenti, et multa morte recepit. 
Purpuream vomit iUe animam, et cum sanguine mixta 
Vina refert moriens : hie furto fervidus instat. 
Jamque ad Messapi socios tendebat, ubi ignem 
Deficere extremum, et rdigatos rite videbat 
Carpere gramen equos ; breviter quum talia Nisus, 
(Sensit enim nimia caede atque cupidine ferri>) 
Absistamus, ait ; nam lux inimica propinquat* 

Poenarum exhaustum satis est ; via facta par hostes. j 

Multa Yirum solido aigento periecta relipqiiont i 

Armaque, craterasque simul, pulchroiqae tapetas. 






58 EXCERPTA LATINE. 

Euryaios phaloras Rhamnefis et aui*ea bulits 
CmgidaL ; Tibuiti Remulo ditissiimis olim 
Qax mittit dona, hospitio quutii jungeret absens, 
Caedtcus ; ille suo moriens ilat liabere nepoti : 
Post mortem hello Rutull pugn&que potiti. 
Hsec rapit, atque humeris neqiudqiiani fortibiu aptat. 
Turn galeam Messapi habilem cristis decoram 
Induit. Excedunt castris, et tiita capessunt 
Interea prsemissi equitesex urbe Latinft,' 
Cetera dum legio campis instructa nkqiatur, 
Ibant, et Tumo regi responsa fier^banl, 
Tercentmn, scutati omnes, Volscenle^jna^tro. 
Jamque propinquabant castris^ iliaMlKli^subibant, 
Quwn procul hos laevo flectentfliiille cmiunt ; 
Et galea Euryakim sublustri no<^ krwnfarft 
Prcdidit immemorem, radiisque adversa.refulsit. 
Haud temerd est visum, conclamat ab agmine Voiscens 
State, viri ; quse causa viae ?. quive estis in armis ? 
Qu6ve tenetb iter ? Nihil illi tendere contrA j 
Sed cekrare fugam in silviis, et fidere nocti. 
Objiciunt equites sese. ad divortia nota 
Hinc atque hinc, omnemque abitum custode coronant. 
Silva fuit latd dumis atque ilice nigri 
Horrida, quam densi compl^rant undique sentes i 
Rara per occultos lucebat semita calles. 
Euryalum tenebrae ramorum onerosaque praeda 
Impediunt ; fellitque timor regione viarum. 
Nisus abit : jamque imprudens evaserat hostes, 
Ad lucos qiu post, Albse de nomine/ dicti 
Albani | turn rex stabula alta Latmus habebat. 
Ut stetit, et firustra absentem respexit amicum : 
Euryale, infelix qu& te regione reliqui ? 
QuAve sequar? Rursusperplexum iter omne revolvens 
Fallacis silvae, simul et vestiffia retro ^ 
Observata le^t, dumisque suentibus errat. 
Audit equos, audit strepitus et signa sequentum. 
Nee longum in medio tempus, quum clamor ad aures 
Pervenit, ac videt Euryalum, quern jam manus omnis, 
Fraude loci et nocds, subito turbante tumulto, 
Oppressum rapit et conantem plurima frustra. 
^lid fociat ? qvA vi juvenem, quibus audeat armis 
Eripere ? An sese medios moritunis in enses 
Inferat, et pulchram properet per vulnera mortem ? 
Ociib addncto torquens hastile lacerto, 
Suspidens altam lunam, sic voce precatur : 
Tu, dea, tu prsesens nostro succurre labori, 
Astrorum decus, et nemorum Latonia custos. 
Siqua tuis unquam pro me pater Hyrtacus aris 
IKma tulit; siqua ipse meis venatibus auxi, 
Suspendive tholo,. aut sacra ad fast%ia fixi j . 
Hunc sine me turtiare globum, et r^ tela per auras. 
]>ixerat ; et toCo comiixus corpcHre ferrum 
Conjicit: hasta volans noctis diverberat umtaraSy 
Et venit aversi in tergum Sulmonis, ibique 
Frangitur, ac fisao transit praecordia ligno* 
Vdvitur Uk vomena cdidum de pectofe flumen 
Frigidos, et ht^ singnltibiis ilia miltat. 
Dimsi ciitumsfMdunt. Hoc acnor idem 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 59 

Ecce alittd summi tdum librabat ab aure : 
Dum trepidaat, iit hasta Tago per. tempiu utirumque^ 
Stridens, traiectoque hsesit tepefacta cerebro. 
Saevit atrox Ydscensi nee teli conspicit usquam 
AucUNrem, nee quo 9e ardens immittere possit : 
Tu tamen mtorea calido mihi sanguine poenas 
PenK^ve^ amboram^ inquit. Simul ense reduso 
Ibat in Eiuyalum. Turn vero extenitus, aniens^ 
Conclamat Nisus ; nee se celerare tenebris 
AmpUj^aut tantum potuit perferre dolorem : 
Me. wmx adfum qui feci ; in me converdte fenxun^ 
O Rutobt Met frsius cnnnis : nihil iste nee ausus. 
Nee 90|Bl| csdum hoc et conscia.sidera tester : 
TanWBi'iPMfaiem nimiUm dilexit amicum. 
Talia dicta dabdt $ sed viribus ensis adactus 
Transabiit costas, et Candida pectora nunpit. 
Volvitur Euryalus leto, pulchrosque per artus 
It cruor, inque humeros cervix collapsa recumbit : 
Purpureus veluti quum flos succisus aratro 
Languescit moriens ; lassove papayera collo 
Demisere caput, pluvia quumftHrtegravantur. 
At Nisus ruit in medios, solumque p^ omnes 
Volscentem petit, in solo Vokcente moratur. 
Quern circum glomerati hostes hinc comminus atque hinc 
Proturbant : instat mon seci^^ ac rotat ensem 
Fulmineum ; donee Rutuli damantis in ore 
Condidit adverso, et moriens animam abstulit hosti. 
Turn supor exanimum sese projecit amicum 
Conf(»sus, placidslque ibi demum morte quievit. 
Foitunati ambo, si quid mea carmina possunt, 
Nulla dies unquam memori vos eximet «yo, 
Dum domus ^nese Capitdi immobile saxum 
Accolet, imperiumque pater Romanus babebit. 



EX HORATH OPERIBUS. 

AD HjECBNATEM. LIB. I, ODE X. 

M^enfis &t&vis editS regibiis ; 
O et pr^idium, et dulce decus m^iim ! 
Sunt quos curriculo pulv^r^m Olympiciim 
Collegiss^. jiivat, met&que fervid^ 
Evitat& rotfs, palm&qui nobilis 
Terrarum dominos ev^hit ad DSS«. 
Hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium 
Certat tergeminis tollere honoribus ; 
nium, si proprio condidit horreo 
^cquid de Libycis verritur areis, 
Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 
Agros, Attalicis conditionibus 
Nunquamdivomeas, ut trabe Cypri& 
Myrtoum paiddus nauta secet mare. 
Lnctantem Icariis fluctibus AiHcum 
Mercator metuens, otium et oppidi 
Ludat rura sui : mox refidt rates 
Qnassas, indodlis paupmem patL 

Est qui nee veteris pocula 
Nee partem solido demere de die 




60 * EXCERPTA LATINE. 

- Spernity mmc viridi membra sub arbuto t, 

Stnttos, nunc ad aquee lene caput saerie. ^ .' V 

Multos castra juvant, et litoo tuba 
Pennistuft^lKmitus, bdlaque matribus 
Detestata. Manet sub Jove frigido 
Venator, teneraeconjugisimmemor^ 
Seu visa est catulis cerva fideUbus, 
' Seu rupit teretes Marsus aper plagnU;^ 

Me diDCtarum hederse pra^mia froiilliani 
Dis miscent superis : me geiidum ipooDiiSy .- . 

Nymj^arumque kves cum Satyris c&ori 
Secemunt popuk) ; -si neque-tiluas - ■ ^ 
i .- Euterpe ccmibet, nee Polyhymnia . w ' 

hoMam refu^t tendere bart>itofi : ^ *■ • . 

Qudd rfme Lyricis vatibus inseres, /N 

Sublkni feriam sidera vertice. \\ 

\ 



AD NAVBM QUA VEHITUR YIBOILIUS. LIB. I. OOK III. 



Sic te divft potens Cj^prf, 

Sicfratres^H&len^ylucid&sld^&y ' ^ 
Ventonanq fejlp tt pitfer, 

ObstrietislQpKpi^r l&pf^, 
Navisy quae tibi creditnm 

Debes Virgiliumy finibus Atticis 
Reddas incdu^||M9^ prec(»*, \\ 

Et serves annnie*^dimidium mem. 
Jill robur et ses triplex 

Circa pectus erat^ qui £ragilera truci 
Commiri( pebgp ratem 

Pifi|Miff!^ibPtio)i^t praecipitem Africum ^ 

DeciM»m1ft:^MQ0ibiis, , 

Ne<i tristes HyadttSy jiec rabiem Noti ; 
Quo non arbiter Adrlor- 

Major^ tollere seu'ponere vult freta. 
Quem mortis timuit gradum, 
' ' ^Qui siccis oculis m^istra natantia, > 
Qui vidit mare turgidum^ et ' 

&fames scopulos Adoceraunia ? 
Nequicqu%m D^us abscidit 

Prudensr Oceano dissociabili 
Terras, si tamen iioGq^^ 

Non taoenidi& fi(»<^|^liunt vada. 
Audax omnia perpeti \ 

Gens humana rait pef^j«dhmi nefas : 
Audax lajpeti genus ^ * 

Ignem frau& malft geittibas imulit. 
Post ignem aetherid domo 

Subductum, nkacies, et nova feMum 
Tenia incnbuit c^ors ; 

Simotique prills tarda necessitas 
Leti, corr^pult gradum. 

Expertus vacumh Daedalus adra 
Pennis non honnm datis. 

Perrapit Ach^onta Herculeus labor. 
Nil mortalibus arduum est* 

Coelum ipsmn petimus stuhitiA} ne^pM 
Per noMmm pf^^OMtp seelus 

Iracunda Jopem ponere ftdmRi% :. •« 

.■•■.- . •■•>•• 

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« s 



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i 



r f £XC£ltPTA LATiN£. 61 

AD Ii. iBXTIUM. l/^. I. ODB IV. 

SolvitQr icrTs hj^ems gr&t& vtch Yeifs et F&voni ; 
*. Tr&huntquS siccas'mftchTnn cftrinas : 
Ac neque jam st&bulTs gaudct pecuf, aut &r&tor Tgni 

NSc pratll canTs albicant pruuils. 
Jam C j^thereH choros ducTt Venus immTnente Luiia ; 

Junctaeqiie Nymphls Grati«ie decentds 
Alterno terram qit&tTunt pedS, dum grftves Cj^clopum 

Vulcanus irdens urit offTcinas. 
Nunc decet aut ^ridi nitidum ca|Hit impedlre myrto^ 

Aut llore^ tame quern ferunt solut«e. 
Nunc et in uiifbi*osis Fauno, decet imniolare lucis, 

Seu poscal agnA^ aive malit ha^do. 
Pallida moiii «quo pulsat pede pauperum tabenuui^ 

Reigamque turres. O beate Sexti^ 
Vitae summa brevjs spem nos vetat inchoare longam. 

Jam te premet nox^ fabulseque Manes, 
£t domus exilis Plutonia ; quo^imul me&ris^ 

Nee regna vini sortiere talis, 
Nee tenerura Lycidam mirabere, quo calet juventus 

Nui>^ omnis, et mox'virgines tepebunt. 

AD THALIARCHUM. LIB. I. ODE IX. 

Yides^ ut alia stet nive cundidum 
Soracte, nee j&m sustki^ant onus 
Silvcel&borantes^ geluqu^. 
Fluminft conatitcrint icuto ? 
Dissolve frigus, lignS, super ioc5 ^ 
L&rge reponens, atque bcnTgniijs 
'Deprome quadnmum Sabina, 
O ThalTarch6, nierum dloti^ . . 
Feniiitte Divis cietera ; qui sijqp|ul 
Stravdre ventos gequore fer^o 
DeproeliauteSy nee cupressU 
Nee veteres agitantur orni. 
Quid sit futurum eras, Tuge quserere ; et 
Quern Fors dierum cumque dabit, lucro 
Appone ; nee dulces amores 
Spenie, puer, neque tu choreas^ 
Donee virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et campus et areae^ 
Lenesque sub noctem suairri . 
Compositfl repetantur liori;< 

AD LEUCONOiSN. LIB. I. ODE XI. 

Tu ne quttsierls scire (nefas) quem mlbi, quem tibi 
Finem Di dederint, Leuconoe ; nee Bajb5fl6iiids 
Tent&ris numeros : est melius, qindquid erit, pati. 
Seu plures hyemes, seu tribuit Jupiter ultunam. 
Quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus ma^e 
Tyrrhenum ; sapias, vina liques : et spatio brevr 
Spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fiigerit invida 
<£ta8 \ carpe diem, qujtm minimum crediua posterq. 

AD ARI8TIUM. LIB. I*. ODE XXII; 

Integer vitiL sceKrisqiie puri&s, 
Non Sget Auuri j&di& ntque Srcii, 



.•\. 






62 - EXCERPTA LATraE, 

Nee vfoenatis gr&vidi iigittXs, 

Fusc^, ph&retrft, 
Sive per Syrtes her flestuosas^ i vr 

Sive iacturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum, vel quae loca fabcdosus 

Lambit Hydaspes. 
Namque me silvi lupus in Sabini, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen, et ultra 
Terminum ciiris vagor expeditus, 

Fugit inennem. 
Quale portentum neque militaris 
Daunia in latb alit a^sculetis^ 
Nee Jubse tellus generate leonum^ 

Aridia nutriz. 
Pone me, pigris ubi nulla campis 

Arbor cestivi recreatur aur& ; /T" 

^od latus mundi nebulae, malusque 

Jupiter urget: 
Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Solisy in terra domibus negata ; 
Bulcd ridentem Lalagen amabo, 

]>ulcd loquentem. 

AD YIROILIUM. LIB. I. ODE XXIV* 

Quis desid^rjfo sit plid5r, aut modiis 
Tarn cflri c&pitiiB ? Preolp^ lugiibres 
Cantus Melpomene ; cui Kquldfim p&tSr 

Vocem cum clthfira dSdlt. 
Ergo Quihtilium perpetuus sopor 
Urget ? cui Pudor, et Justitiae soror, 
Incomipta Fides, nudaque Veritas, 

Quando ullum invenient parem ? 
Multis iUe bonis flebilis occidit : 
NuUi flebilior qu^m tibi, Vir^i. 
Tu frustra pius, heu, non ita creditum 

Poscis QuintUium Deos. 
Quod si Threi'cio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus ndem ; 
Non vanse redeat sangms Imagini, 

Quam virgft semel horridd 
Non leius precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulerit Mercurius gregi. 
Durum : sed levius fit patientifi, 

Quldquid corrigere est nefas. 

AD LICINIUM. LIB. 11. ODX X* 

RectYus Tives, Llcini, neque &ltiim 
Semper urgendd) neque dum ptftcelllls 
Cfiiitiis horrescis idmtum prftmtodfi 

Littus Iniquum. 
Auream quisquis medlocritatem 
Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sormbos tecti, caret invidendi 

Sobrius aulft. 
Ssepius ventis agitatur ingen» 
Pinus ; et celsse graviore casu 
Decidunt turres, feriuntque ramnnot 

Fulmina montes. 



J 



EXCERPTA LATINE. fis 

Sperat infestis, metuit secondis, 
^teram -sortem bend prsepdratnm 
pectus, tnfonnes hyemes reducit 

Jupiter; idem 
Submovet. Non, si male nunc, et olim 
Sic erit : quondam cithari tacentem 
Suscitat Musam ; neque semper arcum 

Tendit Apollo. 
Rebus angustis animosus, atque 
Fortis appare ; sapienter idem 
Contrah^ vento nimium secundo 

Turgida vela. 

LIB. II. ODB XVIII. 

Non ^bur, neque aureum 

Mea renid^t in domo l&cunar f 
Non tr&bes H<^mettl£ 

Pr^munt column&s ultima recisas 
, Africa : neque Attali 

Ignotus hseres regiam occupavi \ 
Nee Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt honestae purpuras clientae. 
At fides, et ingeni 

Benigna vena est ; pauperemque dives 
Me petit. Nihil supra 

Deos lacesso ; nee potentem amicum 
Largiora flagito, 

^ttis beatus unicis Sabinis. . 
Truditur dies die, 

Novseque pergunt interire Lun». 

AD TORQUATUM LIB. IV. ODB Vn. 

Dlffugere nlves, red^unt jam gramTnA campfo, 

Ai^ilbusque comae. 
Mutat terra vices, et decrescentl& ripas 

Flumin& prset^r^unt. 
Gratia cum Nymphis, geminisque sonmbus audel 

Ducere nuda choros. 
Immortalia ne speres monet annus, et almum 

Quae rapit hora diem. 
Frigora mitescunt Zephyris : ver proterit sestaf 

Interitura, simul 
Pomifer autumnus fruges efiuderit, et mox 

Bruma recurrit iners. 
Damna tamen celeres reparant ccelestia Lunae : 

Nos ubi decidimus, 
Quo plus ^neas, quo Tullus dives, et Ancus, 

Pulyis et umbr»8umus. 
Quis scit an adiiciant hodiemae crastina summae 

Tempora Di superi ? 
Cuncta mahus avidas fugient haeredis, amico 

Quae dederis animo. 
Ciim semel occideris, et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria \ 
Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

Restituet pietas : 
Infemis neque enim tenebris Diana pndiciuii 

Liberat Hippolytum \ 



tl . EXCERPtA lATINE. 

Nee Lethaea valet Theseus abnunpere caro 
Vincula Pirithoo. 

VITJE RUSTICiE LAUDES. EPOD. II* 

B^atus ille, qui procul negotiiS; 

Ut prisca gens mortalium^ 
Patema rura bobus exercet suis, 

Solutus omni foenore : 
Nee excitatui^ ctassieo miles truci. 

Nee horret iratum mare ; 
Forumque vitat, et superba civium 

Potentiorum limma. 
Ergo aut adulta vitimn propagine 

Altas maritat populos^ 
Aut in reducta valle noigientium 

Prospectat errantes gr^es, 
Inutilesque falce ramos araputsuiS; 

Feliciores inserit 5 
Aut pressa poris mella condit amphoris, 

Aut tondet infirmas oves. 
Vel cum decorum mitibus pomis caput 

Autumnus arvis extulit : ' 
Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pyra, 

Certantem et uvam puipurse, 
Quft muneretur te, Priape, et te Pater 

Sylvane, tutor finium ! 
Libet jacere modo sub antiqua ilice ; 

Modo in tenaci gramlne. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aquae, 

Queruntur in silvis aves, 
Fontesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus, 

Sonmos quod invitet Icves. 
At cum tonantis annus hybemus Jovis 

Imbres niv^sque comparat ; 
Aut trudit acres bine et hinc multcL cane 

Apros in obstantes pbigas , 
Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos ; 
Pavidnrave leporem, et advenam laqueo gxiienii 

Jucunda captat praemia. 
Quis non malarum, quas Amor curas habety 

Haec inter obliviscitur ? 
Quod si pudica mulier in partem jatans 

Domum, atque dulces liberos, 
(Sabina qualis, aut penista solibus 

Pemicis uxor Appuli,) 
Sacrum vetustis extruat lignis focum, 
• Lassi sub adventum viri ; ^ 
Claudenaque testis cratibus Imslxun pecut, 

Distenta siccet ubera ; 
"^ • Et homa dulci vina promens dolio, 

Dapes inemptas apparet : ' 
Non me Lucrina jnverint conchylia, 

Magisve rhombus, aut scari^ 
Si quos Eois intbnata fluctibus 

Hyems ad hoc vertat mare, 
Non Afra avis descendat in ventiem meuniy 

Non attagen lonicus 



EXCERPTA LATINE. 6i 

Jucundior, quim lecta de pinguisslmis 

Oliva ramis arborum, 
Aut herba lapathi prata amantis, et gravi 

Malvae salubres corpori, 
Vel a^a festis caesa TerminalibuB, 

Vef hoedus ereptus lupo. 
Has inter epulas ut juvat pastas oves 

Videre properantes domum ! 
Videre fessos vomerem inversum boves 

CoUo trahentes languido, 
Positosque vemas, ditis examen domClSy 

Circum renidentes Lares ! 

AD AMICOS. EPOD. ZIII. 

HorrTd& tempestas caelum cSntnbdft, St imbres, 
Nivesqiie didiiciknt Jovem. 
Nunc mftrS, nunc sUuae 
Threldo AquHonS sonant ; r&pTamiis &mici 
Occasionim de die ; 
Dumqiie virent genua, 
Et decet, obduct4 solvatur fronte senectus. 
Tu vina Torquato move 
Consule pressa meo : 
Caetera mitte loqui. Deus hsec fortasse benign& 
Reducet in sedem vice : 
Nunc et Achaemenift 
Porfundi nardo juvat, et fide CylleneA 
Levare duris pectora 
Sollicitudinibus : 
Nobilis ut graniidi cecinit Centaurus alumno t 
Lnvicte mortalis De& 
Nate piiSt Thetide, 
. Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 
V '. Findunt Scamandri flumina, 

Lubricus et Simois, 
Unde tibi reditum certo subtemine Pareae 
Rop^re ; nee mater domum 
Caerula te revehet. 
Illic omne malum vino cantuque levato^ 
Deformis aegrimoniae 
Dulcibus alloquiis. 



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THE 

OF 

LATIN GRAMMAR. 



VJrRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing correctly. Latin GramBiar k tiie 

art of speaking and writing the Latin language correctly. 

The Rudiments of Grammar are plain and easy instructions^ teaching beginners tht 

first principles and rules of it. 

Grammar treats of sentences, and the several parts of which they are compounded* 
S^itences consist of words ; Words consist of one or more syllables 5 Syllables of 

one or more letters. So that Letters, Syllables, Words, and Sentences, make up the 

whole subject of Grammar. 

LETTERS. 

A letter is the mark of a soimd, or of an articulation of sound. 

That part of Grammar which treats of letters, is called Orthography. 

The letters in Latm are twenty-five : A, aj B, bj C, c; D, dj E, ej F, f; G. gj 
H,h5 I,i5 J,j5 K,k; L,l; M,m5 N, nj O, o^ P, p; Q, q; R,r5 S,sj T,t| 
U,u; V,v; X,x; Y,y;4J^z. 

In English there is one letteMBiorc, namely, W^ w. 

Letters are divided i^ Vowels and Consonants. 

Six are vowels ; a, e, t, 0, m, y. All the rest are cousoHants* 

A vowel makes a full sound by itself; as, a, e. 

A consonant cannot raake a perfect sound without a vowel ; as, ft, i, 

A vowel is properly called a simple sound; and the sounds formed by the concourse 
of vowels and consonants, articulate sounds. 

Consonants are divided into Mutes, Semi-vowelsy and Double Consonants. 

A mute is so called, because it entirely stops the passage of the voices as j>, in iy« 

The mutes are,^, h; t, d; c, k, q, and g ; but 6, d, and g, perhaps may more pro* 
perly be termed Semi-mutes. 

A semi-vowel, or half Vowel, does not entirely stop the passage of the voice ; thus^ oJ* 

The semi- vowels are, Z, m, w, r, s,f. The first four of those are also called Uqmdij 
particularly I and r ; because they fiow softly and easily after a mute in the same syl- 
UUe, as 62tz, stra. ^ 

The mutes and s A-vow^kmay be thus distinguished. In naming the mutes, tnr 
^owel is pot after them; as, ^Kk? &<^* hut in naming the semi-vowetB, the ^nsw^ is 
[Hit before them ; as, e^sm, oHr . 

The double consonants are, x^ z, *«nd j, X is made up of c«, ksj gz, Z hn the 
^^me relation to s, as v has to^Aeing sounded somewhat more softly. 

In Latin x^ and likewise k aii^, are found only in words derived from the (Sredu 

H by some is not accounted siretter, but only a breathing. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

A diphthcmg is two vowels joined in one sound. 

If the sound of both voweb be distinctly heard^ it is called a Proper Diphthongs ii 
^'^OL^an Improper IMhthong. 
The proper dipbtlrngs in Latin are commonly reckoned three ; ou, eti, et ; as in aurtmj 



*e 



68 SYLLABLES, WORDS, &c. 



Mi 



Eurus, omneis. To these, some, not improperly, add other three j namely, at, as in 
Maia^ oi^ as in Troia; and m, as in Harj^a, or in cmi, and Amc, when pronounced 
as monosyllahies. 

The improper diphthongs in Latin are two ; ae, or when the vowels are written 
together, cb ; as, aetas or ce^cw .• oe, or a; as, poena ox pcena : in both of which the 
sound of the e only is heard. The ancients commonly wrote the vowels separately, 

thus, aetMn poena. 

SYLLABLES. 

A syllable is the sound of one letter, or of several letters, pronounced by one im- 
pulse of the voice : as,a, sed^ urba. 

In Latin there are as many syllables in a word, as there are vowels or diphthongs i» 
it ; unless when u with any other vowel comes after g, gr, or «, as in lingua, qui, auadei^ f 
where the two vowels are not reckoned a diphthong, because the sound of the "^^ 
vanishes, or is little heard. 

Words consisting of one syllable, are called Monosyllables ; of two, Dissyllable^' ^ 
and of more than two, Polysyllables, But all words of more than one syllable, vlM^ 
commonly called Polysyllables. 

In- dividing words into syllables, we are chiefly to be directed by the ear. GorBO 
pound words should be divided into the parts of which they are made up ; as, i^huU^^i 
t»-op«, propter-ea^ et-^nim, veUut, &c. 

Observe, A long syllable is thus marked ["] 5 as, amare ; or with a circumflex sk^- 
cent thus, [""] ; as, amdris. A short syllable is marked thus, p] ; as, omnibus. 

What pertains to the quantity of syllables, to accent, and verse, will be treated ^ 
afterwards. 

WORDS. 

Words are articulate sounds significant of thought. 

That part of Grammar which treats of words, is called Etymology, or Analogy. 

All words whatever are either simple or compound, primitive or derivative. 

The division of words into simple and compound, uj^called their Figure; irmto 
primitive and derivative, their Species or kind. ^ 

A simple word is that which is not made up of more thaj^ne^ 'ds,pitis, pious; eg"^} 
1 5 doceo, I teach. ^ 

A compound word is that which is made up of two or more words ; or of one word axid 
some syllable added ; as, impius, impious ; deddceo, I unteach ; egomet, I myself. 

A primitive word is that which comes from no other ; as, pius, pious 5 disco, I lear U j 
ddceo^ 1 teach. 

A derivative word is that which comes from another word ; as, pietas, piety ; cfcH?- 
frtna, learning. 

The diflerent classes into which we divide words, are called Parts of Speech. 

PARTS OF SPEECH- 

The parts of speech in Latin are eight; l.JVoun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle; 
declined: 2. Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, and Conjunction; undeclined- 

Those words or parts of speech are said to be declined, which receive difiereH* 
Ranges, particularly on the end, which is called the Terminationof words. 
V The changes made upon words are by grammarians dBed Amdents. 

Of old, a& words which admit pf diflerent termiji^Bis were said to be decline^* 
But Declension is now apphed only to nouns. jTh^VBige&^Aade upon the verb as^ 
called Conjugation. '*' -r'JiS 

The English language has one part of speech mH than tlie Latin, namely, tb^ 
ARTICLE. ^3| 

The want of the article is a defect in the Latin Um^e, aind often renders the meaning 
of nouns imdetermined : thus, Jilius regis, may iigPTy either a ton of a king, of ^ 
Jdng^s son ; or the son of the king, or the king^s son. 

NOUN. 

A noun is either substantive or adjective. 

The adjective feems to be improperly called noun : it is only a word aiiei to a fubtfaaiire ^ 
■oun, expressive of te qmOity ; and therefore should be considered as a dUArvst part of 9p9ec 



NOUN SUBSTANTIVE, &c. G9 

t ai the substantive and adjective togetlier express but one object; and in Latin are declined 
?r the same manner, they have both been comprehended under the «ame greneral name. 

SUBSTANTIVE. 

A Substantive, or Noun, is the name of any person, i)lace, or ibing; as, 
y, schooly book. 

Substantives are of two sorts, proper and common names. 

IProper namet are tlie names appropriated to individuals, as tho names of persons 
d places ; such are Ccesar^ Rome. 

Common name« stand. for whole kinds, containing several sorts; or for sorts, con- 
aing many individuals under them 5 as, animal, man, beast, fish, fowl, &c. 
Every particular being should have its own proper name 5 but this is impossible, on 
:ount of tlieir innumerable multitude : men have therefore been obliged to give the 
Qe common name to such things as agree together in certain respects. These form 
aX is called a genus, or kind ; a species, or sort. 

A proper name may be used for a common, and then in English it has the article 
ned to it; as, when we say of some great conqueror, "He is an Alexander 5" or, 
The Alexander of his age.'' 

To proper and common names may be added a third class of nouns, which mark 
s names of qualities, and are called abstract nouns; as, hardness, goodness j white-' 
89, virtue, justice, piety, &c. 

"When we speak of things, we consider them as one or more. This is what we call 
umber. When one thing is spoken of, a noun is said to be of the singular number; 
:ien two or more, of the plural. 

Things considered according to their kinds, are either male or female, or neither of 
e two. Males are said to be of the masculine gender ; females of the feminine ; and 
i other things of the neuter gender. 

Such nouns as are applied to signify either the male or the female, are said to be of 
e common gender ; that is. either mascuhne or feminine. 

Various methods ore u^l in different languages, to express the different connexions 
' relations of one thing ^Hnotlicr. In the English, and in most modem languages, 
is is done by prepositi^C or participles placed before the substantive : in Latin, by 
^clension, or by differei^^ses ; that is, by changing the termination of the noun; as, 
a:, a king, or the king ; regis, of a king, or of the king. 

A Latin noun is declined by Genders, Cases, and JVumbers. 

There are three genders, Masculine, Feminine, and JVeuter. 

The cases are six, J^om>inative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative^ and 
ilative. 

There are two numbers. Singular and Plural. 

There are five different ways of varying or declining nouns, called the 
^st, second, third, fourth, and fifth declensions. 

Cases are certain changes made upon the termination of noons, to express the relation 

one thing to another. 

They are so called, from cado, to fall ; because they fall, as it were, from the noml- 
^-tive, which is therefore named casus rectus, the straight case; and the other cas^ 
tsus obUqui, the obtque ca^. 

The different declensions JB| be distinguished from one another by the terminatitm 
' the genitive singular. TnTCrst declension has m diphthong; the second has f ; tiie 
lird has w ; the fourth has us ; and the fifth has ei in the genitive. - 

Although Latm nouns be said to have ux cases, yet none of them have that number 
^ different terminations, both in the singular and plural. ^ 

OENEBAL BULBS OF DECLENSION. 

1. Nouns of the neuter gender huM.the Accusative and Vocative like the 
fommative, in both numbers ; and nW^cases in the plural end alwayi m a 

2. The Dative and Ablative plural dW always alike. 




fO / GENDER OF NOUNS. 

S* The Vocative, for tiie most part in the singular, and always in the plnrad, 
is the same with the Nominative. ' 

Greek nouns in 8 generally lose « in the Vocative 5 as, Thomas^ Thoma; Auc^^^m^ 
AncMse ; Paris, Pari ; PanthtUy Panthu ; Pallas y -antis / Patta, names of men. 9mA 
nouns in es of the third declension oftener retain the «; as, o AcMUeSj rarely -e; O 
Socrates, seldom -e; and sometimes nouns in is and €w; as, O T^ais^ Mysis, PaOcm^j 
Mis, the goddess Minerva, &c. 

4. Proper names for the most part want the plural: 

Unless several of the same name be spoken of; as, duodicim Cassares, the twd.^ve 
Csesars. 

The cases of Ladn nouns are thus expressed in English : 

1. With the indefinite article, a king. 



Singular, 


Plu] 


ral. 




Nora. 


a king, Nom. 




kinsr^i 


Gen. of 


a king. Gen. of 




hnsr^i 


Dat to or for 


king, Dat. to or for 




kinsr«, 


Ace. 


a king, Ace. 




kin^Th 


Voc. 


king, Voc. 




kin^Th 


AW. mthpfrom, in, hy, 


a king: Abl. withf from, in, 


^7 


kin^ors. 


2. 


With the definite article, the king* 






Singular. 


Plural. 




Nom. 


the king, Nom. 




the kin^ff 


Gen. of 


the king. Gen. of 




the kin^s, 


Dat. to or for 


the king, Dat. to or for 




the kin^Sf 


Ace. 


the king. Ace. 




the kift^t, 


Voc. 


king, Voc. 




kings. 


AW. teith, from, in, hy, 


<Ac A:tn^ .• Abl. with, from, in. 


hi 


the kin^. 




GENDER. 1^ 







Nouns in Latin are said to be of difierent genders, no^Berely from the distinction 
of sex, but chiefly from their being joined with an adjeo^^ of one termination, and 
not bf another. Thus, penna, a pen, is said to be feminin^secause it is always joined 
with an adjective in that termination which is applied to females ; as, iona penna, a 
good pen, and not h6nus penna. 

The gender of nouns which signify things without life, depends on their termination, 
jonditfiflerent declension* 

To distinguish the difierent genders, grammarians make use of the pronoun Uc, to 
l^ark the masculine ; hac, the feminine ; and hoc, the neuter. 

GENERAL RULES CONCERNING GENDER. 

1 . Names of males are masculine ; as, 
Hdmerus, Homer ; pdfi^, a father ; poeta, a poet. 

2. Names of females are feminine ; as, 

Hilina, Helen; mu/ter, a woman ; vxor, a wife; mdter, a mother y sdror, fl sister; 
IkUus, the goddess of the earth. # ; 

3. Nouns which signify either the male or |pale, are of the common 
gender ; that is, either masculine or feminine ; aS^' 
Hie bos, an ox ; haec bos, a cow ; hie j>arei», a father; hxc parens, a mother. - 

The following list comprehends most nouns of the common gender :— ^ 

l^dftlescens, } a young many Cliens, a clieni. Infam, aninfani. 

JttvCnia, i or woman. C6me8, a compcwAn. Interpres, an interpreter, 

AfflmM, a relation by mamage. Conjux, a hudfOlm or mfe. Judex, a iudee 

Mitutes, a prelate. Conviva, a|^ Martyr, a im5<ir. 

Auctor, an author. Gustos, a kSSg^ Mfles, a toUHtr. 

AyS^y flioothfaver S"^»«^«fl^r. Manlceps, « Awrgeft. 



GENDER OF NOUNS. 71 

tru^Us, a co/uaki'gtfman, by Princeps, a prince or printett. Tetiht, a viiiua. 

the father's tide. Sttcerdos, a priest or priestess. Vfites; a^prophet. ' k 

BBS, a surety. Sus, a twine. Vindex, an avenger.* 

But antisteSy cUenSy aod hospesy also change their termination to express the 

ninine ; thus, cmtistUa^ cUentOy hosjpUta : in the same manner with leuy a lion } 

enUy a lioness; iquusy ^qua; miduSy mula; and many others. 

There are several nouns, which, though applicable to both sexes, admit only of a 

Lsculine adjective ; as, cidnenay a stranger ; agricSiay a husbandman ; assecioy an 

lendant ; accdkiy a neighbour ; exuly an exile ; lairoy a robber ; fury a tliief 3 dpifexy 

mechanic ; &c. There are others, which, though applied to persons, are, on ac- 

unt of their termination, always neuter; as, acorfiim, a courtesan; mand^ptum, 

nniiumy a slave, &c. 

In like manner, opercBy slaves or day4abouren ; vtg^icBy excubiay watches ; noxce, 

ilty persons ; though applied to men, are alwa3rs feminine. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

Obs. 1. The names of brute animals conunonly follow the gender of their tcr- 

ination. 

Such are the names of wild beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, in which the distinction 

sex is either not easily discerned, or seldom attended to. Thus, passery a sparrow, 
masculine, because nouns in er are masculine ; so aqutlay an eagle, is feminine, be- 
use nouns in a, of the first declension are feminine. These are called EpicenCy or 
omiscuous nouns. When any particular sex is marked, we usually add the word 
%8 or femina; as, mas passery a mdle spsrrowy femina passery a female sparrow. 

Obs. 2. A proper name, for the most pait, follows the gender of the gtMicral name 
ider which it is comprdiended. 

Thus, the names of months, winds, rivers, and mountains, are masculme ; because 
^nsiSy ventuSy monSy and JluviuSy are masculine ; as, hie Aprilisy April ; hie 2lquUoy 
e north wind ; hie AfncuSy die south-west wind ; hie Ttberis, the river Tiber ; hie 
thrySfB. hill in Thessaly. But many of these follow the gender of their termination; 
y hast'MeUrdnay the riverMarne in France ; haec JEtnay a moimtain in Sicily ; hoc 
Wactey a hill in Italy. ^ 

In like manner, the naiies of countries, towns, trees, and ships, are feminine, be- 
.use terra or riigioy urbsfttrbor, and ndvisy are feminine ; as, haec Egyptus, Egypt ; 
zmoSy an island of that name ; CorinthuSy the city of Corinth ; potnusy an apple-tree ; 
entavruSy the name of a ship. Tlius also the names of poems, haec lUiis, -cuiosy and 
dysseay the two poems of Homer ; haec JEneiSy -tdosy a poem of Virgil's ; hsec 
unuchtiSy one of Terence's Comedies. ^ 

The gender, however, of many of these depends on the termination ; thus, hie PoniuSy 
country of that name : hic SulmOy -onis ; Pesstntis, -untis ; HydruSy -aintis; names 

towns : haec PersiSy -^dis, the kingdom of Persia ; CarthdgOy -anisy the city Car- 
age; hoc Albiony Britain : hoc CoerCy RedteyPrceneste, Tihury ilium y names of towns. 
ut some of these are also found in the feminine ; as, Gelida Prcenestey Juvenal, iii. 190; 
ha lUoHy Ovid. Met. xiv. 466. 

The following names of trees are masculine, oleaster y -triy a wild olive-tree ; rhoM' 
tSy the white bramble. 

The following are mascuUne or feminine; cpttsuSy a kind of slirub; rubus, the 
"amble^ush ; ktrixy the lardi-tree ; lotusy the lote-tree ; cupressusy the cypresS-tree. 
be first two however are ofl4br masculine ; the rest oftener feminine. 

Those in um are neuter ; as, buxumy the bush, or box-tree ; Ugustrumy a privet ; so 
tewise are subery -irisy the cork-tree ; rffer, -em, the osier ; robury -dm, oak of the 
Eldest kind; dcery -erisy the maple-tree. 

The place where trees or shrubs grow is commonly neuter; as, Arhustumy quercetumf 



Conjux, atque parenSf infans, patruelis, et hAsres, 
Affinis, vindex, judex, dux, mUes, et hostis. 
Augur, et antistes, juvenis, eonviva, saeerdos, 
Mumqueeeps, votes, adoletdhs, dvis, et auetor, 
Cudos, nemo, wmu, testis, tm bosqut, eontflquey 
Interpresqne, eHens, prindph F"*'* mwriyr, et ohsu. 




7» FIRST DECLENSION. 

Cfdilefum, aaUctum^ fruttcetumj &c a place where trees, oaks, beeches, wiUows, 
shrubs, &c. grow : also the names of fruits and timber ; as, pomum, or mdhmy an 
apple ; jpHrumy a pear ; ^&^ittcfit, ebony, &c. But from this ruW there are various 
exceptions. 

Obs. 3. Several nouns are said to be of the doubtful gender ; that is^ are sometimes 
found in one gendar, and sometimes in another^ as, aie8y a day, masculine or feminine; 
fm^;u8f the rabble, masculine or neuter. 

FIRST DECLENSION. 

' NouQS of the first declension end in a, e, as^ es. 

Latin noims end only in a, ^nd are of the femimne gender. 

The terminations of the different cases are ; Nom. and Voc. Sing, a ; Gen. and Dat. 
IB, diphthong; Ace. am s Abl. d; Nom. and Voc Plur. ce/ Gen. drum^ Dat and 
Abl. iss Ace. 08. See example, mtwa, a s(mg, page 10. 

EXCEPTIONS. -^ 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine : Hadria, the Hadriatic sea ; comitaf a 
eomet ; pkmeta, a planet ; and sometimes ttdpa^ a mole ; and ddmay a fallow deer. 
PaschOf the passover, is neuter. 

Exc. 2. The ancient Latins sometimes formed the genitive singular in di; thus, aukii 
a hall, gen. auldi; and sometimes likewise in as; which form the compounds of /o- 
mUia usually retain ; as, rndter-famiUaay the mistress of ^ family ; gen. matrii-fa' 
fmUa8} nom. plur. matrea-familiasy or matres^amliarum. 

» Exc. S. The following noims have more frequently abm in the dative and ablative 
plural, to distinguish them in these cases from masculines in im of the second 
declension :-<- 

}UiTma; the soul, the life, Filia, & Nata, a daughter. 

Dea, a goddess, LlberUy a freed wyman. 

fiqua, a mare. Mala, a she-mule, 
' F&mtUa, a female servant. 

Thus, dedbusy fiUdbus^ rather than jiUisy &c. 

GREEK NOUNS. • 

Nouns in as, esy and e of the first declension, are Gif^k. Nouns in cts and «9 are 
masculine : nouns in e are feminine^' * 

Nouns in a« are declined like mma; only they have di or an in the accusative; 
fls, JEniaSf ^neas, the name of a man; gen. JEnece^ dat. -ce; ace -am or -on; 
voc. -a; abl. d. So Bdreas, -ecc, the north wind; Tiaras^ -cb, a turban. In prose 
they have commonly am, but in poetry oftener an, in the accusative. Greek nouns in 
a have sometimes also an in the ace. in poetry ; as, Osaa^ "Om, or -are, the name of a 
mountain. 
/' Nouns in es and e are thus declined : — 

Anchises, Anchises, the name of a man. 

Singular. 
Nom. Anchises, Ace. Anchisen, 

Gen. Anchisae Voc. Anchise, 

Dot. Anchisae, Abl. Anchise. 

Penelope, Penelope, the name of a woman. 

Singular. 

Nom. Penelope, ^cc. Penelopen, 

Gen. Penelopes, FbcJPenelope, 

Dat. Penelope, Abl. Penelope. 

These nouns, being proper names, want the plural, unless when several of the S8 

name are spoken of, and then they are declined like the plural of muaa. 

The Latins fi^quently turn Greek nouns in es and e into a; as, Atrida, for Atrid 
Persa, for Perses, a Persian; Geometra, for -tres, a Geometrician; Circa, for Cir 
Epitdma, for -me, an abridgment ; Grcanmattca, for -cc, grammar ; BAetMca, for • 
oratory. So Clinia, for Clinias, &c. The accusative of nouns in es and c is foi 
iometimes in em. - « 

JVbte. We sooNtimei find tht gen. plural contracted; as, Cmtumn for Oslicolarum; MneSi 
wr-oncm. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 73 

of the second declension end in er, tV, ur, us^ um ; os^ an, 
in um and on are neuter ; the rest are mascidine. 

>f the second declension have the gen. sing, in i; the dat. and abL in o; the 

in um^ the voc. like the nom. (but nouns in us make the vocative in e;) the 

voc. plur. in i, or a; the gen. in onan; the dat. and abl. in ft; and the 

or a. See example, puer^ a boy, page 10. 

le same manner decline socery 'iri^ a father-in-law ; g^ner^ -irt^ a son-in- 

lircifery a villain ; Ijuclfery the morning star ; adulter , ah adulterer; armlgery 

-bearer; presbptery an elder; MulciheTf a name of the god Vulcan; vesper ^ 

g ; and iber, -^rij a Spaniard, the only.noun in er which has the gen. long, 

npound CeUibery -eri : Also, wr, viri, a man, the only noun in ir ; and its 

s, Uvirj a brother-in-law; semtviry duumvir ^ triumvir y &c. . And likewise 

ly full, (of old, saturus^ an adjective. 

St nouns in er lose the e in the genitive. See example, UUerj a book, page 10 

manner decline, 

d. C&per, a he goat. Mftfister, a mailer, 

d boar. Coljibery ana -bra, aterptni. Mfniiteri a servant . 

id -trai,) a judge. Culter, the coulter of a plough, OsAg&Cf a wild oms. 

south wind. a knife. Scalper, a lancet. 

rab-Jisfi. F&beri a workman. 

Lhe bark of a tree, or a book, has libri ; but libera free, an adjective, and 
lame of Bacchus, the god of wine, have libiri. So, likewise, proper names, 
, Evandery Periander^ Minandery Teucer, Meledgery &c. gen. Alexandrij 
&c. For examples in us and um^ see declension of dbmtntw, a master, and 

a gift, page 10. 

EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. 

The following nouns in us are feminine, humus^ the ground ; dlvus^ the 

muSy a sieve : and the following derived from Greek nouns mos: 

bottomless pit. Di&lectus, a dialed; or manner M£th6dus, a method, 

preservattve against of speech. P<<ri5d us, a /imo£?. 

Di^Unetros, the diameier of a P^rlmetros, the circumference. 

Bear, a constellation circle. Fharus, o watcli-towtr. 

\orth pole. Diphthongug, a diphthong. SynSdus, an assembly. 

. tail. KremuS} a desert. 

•^ add some names of jewels and plants, because gemma and planta are 

as, 

, an amethyst. Sapphlrus, a sapphire. Byssus, fine flax or litieu. 

I, a chrysolite. Tfipazius, a topaz. Costus, costmary. 

us, a kind of topaz. «•. . ^ ( an Egyptian reed, of Crdcus, saffron, 

crystal. p« -'^' < which paper was HyssOpus, hyssop. 

IS, a jacinth. Py*"8» ^ made. Nardus, spikenard. 

ames of jewels are generally masculine ; as, Beryllus, the beryl ; Carbun- 

irbuncle ; Pijrdpus, a ruby ; Smdragdus, an emerald : and also names of 

, Asparagus, asparagus, or sparrowgrass ; eUeboruSy ellebore; raphdnus, 

colewort ; iiifyhus, endive, or succory, &c. 

The nouns which follow are either masculine or feminine : 

alotn. BarhUus J a harp. Grossusy a green fig. 

'. fruit of the palm- Camelus, a camel. F^nus, a store-house, 

nent. C^lus, a distaff. Fhiiselus, a little ship. 

Virus J poison ; pilagus, the sea, are neuter. 

VulguSy the common people, is either masculine or neuter, but oftener 

EXCEPTIONS IN DECLENSION. 

names in tM» lose us in the vocative ; as, 

«, Hordti ; Virgilius, Virgtli; Georgius, Cfeorgi, names of men ; LdriuSf 
nciuSf Mincif names of lakes. FUiuSy a son also hath filt; ghm»j one's 
ngel, geni; and deus, a god, hath deuSy in the voc. and m the plmal more 
Mi and diis^ than dei and diis, Metts^ my, an adjective pronoun^ hath miy 
mes meuSy in the vocative. ^^ 

9 



^ 



74 THIRD DECLENSION. 

» • 

Other nouns in ius have'e ; as, tabeUdritu, tabellarie, a letter-carrier ; phUf fUy fiic. So these 
epithets i>^/£u«, Dilie; Ttrynlhias, Tirynthie; and these possessives, Laeriiiu, taertie ; SatumWf 
Salumief &c. which are not considered as proper names. ^ 

The poets sometimes make the vocative of nouns in us like the nominative ; as, fluvitUf LtUimu, 
for fluvie, Laiine, Virg. This also occurs in prose, but more rarely ; thus, ^udi tu, pdpahut for 
piip^t. Liv. i. 24. 

The poets also change nouns in er into ua; as, iwmdert or Evandnu; vocative, Evander, or Evanr 
dre. So Meander, Leandeff Tymber, Teucer, &c. and so anciently puer in the vocative had puHre, 
(rom puirus 

Note. When the genitive singidar ends in tt, the latter t is sometimes taken away by the poets, 
for the sake of quantity : as, tn^trii for iugurii ; ingfnt for ingenii, &c. And in the genitive plural 
we find deUm, libifr^mt Mierdm, duUmvitULm, &c. for deorum, lioerorumf &c. and in poetry, Teuerdiii, 
Graiilm, jirgirHtrnf DinaAm, PilagdLmf &u:. for Teucrorumf &c. 

GREEK NOUNS. 

Os and on are Greek terminations ; as, Alpheos^ a river in Greece ; lli(m^ the city 

Troy \ and are often changed into tis and um^ by the Latins ^ AlpkeuSy ifitnn, 

which are declined like dominua and regn/um. 

■ Noons in eos or ^U5 are sometimes contracted in the genitive ; as, OrphCiUt genitive Orj^i, 
Orpkeif or Orphi. So ThesCui, Prometheus, &c. But noims in eiu, when eu is a diphthong, are of 
the third detlension. 

Some nouns in os have the genitive singular in.o; as, Androgeos, genitive Androgtos or -Bi, the 
name of a man ; Alhos, Atho, or -i, a hill in Macedonia : both of which are also found in the third 
declension ; thus, nominative Androgeo, genitive Androgednis. So Atho, or Alhon, -onis, &c. An- 
ciently nouns in os, in imitation of the Greeks, had the genitive in it ; as, Menandru, Apolloddru, 
for Minandri, ApoUodori, Ter. 

Nouns in os 'have the accusative in um or on; as, Delus or Delos, accusative Delum or Delon, the 
name of an island. 

Some neuters have the genitive plural in-^n; as, Georgtca, genitive plural Georg^cdih ^ok) 
which treat of husbandry, as Virgil's Georgia. 

THIRD DECLENSION. 

There are more nouns of the third declension than of all the other declensions toge- 
ther. The number of its final syllables is not ascertained. Its final letters are thirteen, 
tty e, if Of y^ Cy dy ly Uy Vy By ty X. Of thcsc, cight are peculiar to this declension, namely^ 
iy Oy y, Cy dy ly ty X .' o Bxid € are common to it with the first declension ; n and r with 
the second^ and 9 with all the other declensions. Ay iy and t/y are peculiar to Greek 
nounfi. 

The terminations of the difierent cases are these; nom. sing, a, e/&c.; gen. is; 
dat. t/ ace. em; voc. the same with the nominative; abl. e, or 2*; nom. ace. and voc. 
plur. esy Oy or ia ; gen. um^ or ium ; dat. and abl. thus. See examples, sermoy a speech; 
rupesy a rock; lapiuy a stone; caputy the head; aedihy a seat; Bnditery a journey 
page 10. 

OF THE GENDER AND OENJTIVE OF NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

A, E, I, and Y. 

i. Nouns in a, e, i, and y, are neuter. 

Nouns in a form the genitive in dtis; as, diadema^ diademdtisy a crown; dognuif 
'dtisy an opinion. So, 

Enigma, a riddle, ^ JNamisma, a coin. Stigma, a mark or brand, a dit' 

Ap^thegma, a short pithy say- Fhas^ia, an apparition. grace. 

ing. Po€ma, a poem. Str&t&gSma, ari artful conlti- 

ArOma, sweet spices. Schema, a scheme or figure. vance. 

AxiOma, a pkan truth. S^hisma, a deceitful argu- Th€ma, a theme, a svbjed to 

Dijpldma, a charter. ment. torite or speak on. 

£pigramma, an inscription. Stemma, a pedigree. T6reuma, a carved vessel. 

Nouns in e change e into is; as, retey retisy a net. So, 

Ancile, a shield. Cablle, a couch. 6vlle, a sheep-fold, 

Aplustre, the flag of a ship. £quile, a stable for horses. Praes^pe, a staU; a bee-hitt' 

Campestre, a patr of araW' Lftqueare, a ceiled roof S^c&le, rye. 

ene. Mantile, a towel. Suile, a souhcoU. 

Cochle&re, a spoon. M5nile, a necklace. Tibiale, a stocking. 

Cond&ve, a room, Navale, a dock or place for ship- , 

Crltale, a pin for tb^^dr. ping. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 79 

in t are generally indeclinable; as, gumndj gum; nn§^ibM^ ginger; but 
eek nouns add HHs ; as, hydrdmeliy hydromeUHsy water and honey sodden 
mead, 
in y add os$ as, moHy^ molyos, an herb ; mysy^ -yos^ vitriol. 

O. 

tuns in o are masculine, and form the genitive in onis / as, 

ermoniSf speech; dracoj draconisj a dragon. So, 

orse-keeper. Cvxxo^ihe chief of awardot curia. Pdro, o kind of shoe* 

north toind. fiquiso, a groom or hostler. Praeco, a common crier 

m earnest-penny, a ' Erroy a wanderer. fVttdo, a robber. 

Fullo, a fuller of doth. ' Puhno, the lungs, 

pitiful fellow. Helluoi a glutton. Pusio, a little Aild. 

a fiaiterer. Histrio, a player. Salmo, a salmon, 

\ckhead Latro, a robber. Sannio, a buffoon, 

wl. Leno, a pimp. Skpo, soap, 

d. Ludio, and -ius, a player. Slfpho, a pipe or tube, , 

iier*8 slave. Lurco, a glutton. Sp&do, an eunuct^. 

pon. • Mango, a slave merchant. St5lo, a shoot or teion. 

oal. Mi rmillo, a /encer. Str^bo, a goggle-^ed persttm, 

innkeeper. Mdrio, a fool. Temo, the pole or dmt^gAt-lree. 

>6/er, or one who foU Mucro, the point of a weapon. Tiro, a raw soldier. 

\ean trade. Mulio, a muleteer. Umbo, the boss of a shield, 

frisler of hair. N€biilo, a knave. Opilio, a shepherd, 

wasp or hornet. P&vo, a peacock. Vdlo, a volunteer. 

. Nouns in to are feminine, when they signify any thing without a body; 89^ 
lionisy reason. So, 

fuirk. Perdaellio, treason. Sanctio, a confirmalion. 

Uiony care. Portio, a part. Sectio, the confiscation or for* 

. assembly, a speech. Pdtio, drink. feiture of one's goods. 

ielding. PrOdltio, treachery. SldTUo, a rAuliny. 

}ord. Froscriptio, a proscr^ion, or- Sessio, a sitting. 

surrender. dering cilizens to be slain and St&tio, a station. 

tsson. confiMoHng their effects. SusplTcio, mistrust. 

gion, a body of men, Qiuegtio, an inayiry. Titill&tio, a tickling. 

zniion. R^bellio, rebellion. Transl&tio, a transferring. 

Hion or idea. R^gio, a country. Csficftpio, the enjoyment of a 

opinion. R^l&tio, a telling. thing by prescription. 

otce. "B&Hgio, religion. ViucktiOffieedomfromlabourf^c* 

leech. Rtoiissio, a slackening. Vlfsioj an apparition. 

taym^ni. ^ . 

len they mark any thing which has a body, or signify numbers, they are ma»» 

the throat-pipe f the Scipioj a, stcff. XJmo, a pearl. 

Scorpio, a scorpion. VcsperUlio, a bat. 

butterfly. Septentrio, the north. Ternio, the number three. 

%gger. Stellio, a lizard. Qii^ternioy f our, 

tie child. Trtio, a firebrand. Senio, 



:. Nouns in do and go are feminine, and have the genitive in inia; as, drundoj 

?, a reed ; tmagOy imagtnisy an image. So, 

it (of brass.) Hirundo, a swallow. Scatdrigo, a spring, 

kness. IntercapCdo, a space between. Testfldo, a tortoiu. 

a gristle. Lanugo, down. . Torpedo, a numbness, 

creek, a bank. Lentigo, a pimple. tjll^y tlie natural moisture of 

I mixture. Orlgo, an origin. the emrth. 

ust (of iron.) Porrlgo, scurf oV scales in the VSletudo, heatth. 

fear. head; dandruff. Vcrti^ a dizziness. 

\t. Pr5pago, a lineage. Virgo, a virgin. 

%il. Rabigo, rust, mildew. V5rftgo, a gulf. .^ 

horse-leech. Sartago, a frying-pan. 

i following are masculine ; ^ 

is, a hinge. Margo, -Ifnif, the brink of a river ; also fcm. 

s, a leather cap. Ordo, -ftiis, order. 

-dnis, a drag. Tendo, -Inis, a tendon. ^ 

t a spade. tJdo, -Onis, a linen or wodOin «ocA. 

desire, is often masculine with the poets ; but in pn^e always ftninine. 



76 THIRD DECLENSION. 

Exc 3. The following nouns have mis : 

JUk>Uo; -Ynis, the god JlpoUo. Nemo, -tnig, m. or f. no body. 

Hdmo, -lois, a man or woman. Turbo, -Inis, m. a whirlwind. 

C&ro^ flesh, fern, has camis. Inuh mas. the name of a nver^AnUnit ; Jferio, J^erienUf the wife 
of tiie g^d Mars : from the obsolete nominatives, Anien, Jferien. Turbo, the name of a man, 
has onis. 

Exc. 4. Greek nouns in o are feminine^ and have U8 in the genitive, and o in the 
other cases singular; as, Didoy the name of a woman; genit. Dtdus; dat. Did6^&c* 
^metimes they are declined regularly ; thus, DidOy Didonis ; so ichOy -^tSy f. the re- 
sounding of the voice from a rock or wood ; Argo, -Wy the name of a ship ; hak^ 
'Cnisy f. a circle about the sun or moon. 

C, D, L. 

3. NouDS in c and I are neuter, and form the genitive by adding is ; as, 
Mimaly av^mdUs^ a living creature ; t6raly ••dlisy a bed-cover ; haleCy hcdedi, a 

kind of pickle. So, ^ 

Cervical, a bolster. Mlnerval, entry-money. Pdteal, a wtll-eover. 

CubYtal, a cushion, Minutal, minced meat. Vectlgal, a tax. 

, Except, Consul, -Olis, m. a consul. Mugil, -His, m. a mullet-jisli. 

Fel, fellis, n. gall. Sal, -s&lis, m. or n. salt. 

Lac, lactis, n. mUk. SSlcs, -ium, pi. m. witty sayings, 

Mel, mellis, n. honey. Sol, -solis, m. the sun. 

D is the termination only of a few proper names, which form the genitive by adding 
is; as, Ddvidy Damdis. 

N. 

4. Nouns in n are masculine, and add is in the genitive ; as, 

C&non, -5nis, a rule. Lien, -enis, the milt. Ren, renis, the reins. 

Dsmon, -Onis, a spirit. Paean, -ftnis, a song. Splen, -enis, the spleen. 

Delphin, -Inis, a aolpMn. Phjsiogn6mon, -Onis, one who Syren, -Snis, f. a syren. 

Qn6mon,'6niSfiheeockofaduU. guesses at the dispositions of Titan, -ants, f/ie 5un. 
Hymen, -finis, the god of mar- men from the fau. 
riage. 

Exc. 1. Nouns in men are neuter, and make their genitive in inis; as, fiuvmj 

flunHmSy a river. So, 

Abd6men, the paunch. Discrlmen, a difference. Pdtamcn, a nut-sfiell. 

A^men, sharpness. Ex&men, a stvarm of bees. ' Sa^men, vervain, an kerb. 

Agmen, an army on inmrch. F6r&men, a hole. S^men, a seed. 

AlAmen, alum. Germen, a sprout. Specimen, a proof 

Bitumen, a kind of clay. Gr&men, grass. St&men, the warp. 

C&cumen, the top. Lfigumen, all kinds of pulse. Subtemen, the woof. 

Carmen, a son^, a poem. Lfimen, light. Tegtnen, a covering. 

Cogndmen, a str-name. NOmen, a name. Vimen, a twig. 

Cdiamen, a support. Ncimen, the Deity, Vdlumen, a folding. 

Crimen, a crime. omen, a presage. 

The following nouns are likewise neuter : 

Gluten, -Tnis, glue. Ingiien, -Ynis, the groin. 

Unguen, -Inis, ointment. Pollien, -Inis, fine flour. 

Exc. 2. The following masculines have inis; pecterty a comb ; ^u&tcen, a trumpeter; 
tihiceny a piper; and osceny v. oscinisy sc. dvisy f. a bird, which foreboded by singiog* 

Exc. 3. The following noims are feminine: sindony 'dnisy fine linen ; aedouy -dnitj^ 
nightingale ; halcyony -dnisy a bird called the king's fisher ; icony -onisy an image. 

Exc. 4. Some Greek nouns have oniis; as, Labmedony •ontiSy a lung of Trov. So 
AcheroUy Chamadeony Phaithony Chdrony &c. 

AR AND UR. 

5. Nouns in ar and ur are neuter, and add is to form the genitive ; as, 
Calcar, calcdrisy a spur ; murmur y murmurisy a noise. So, 

Guttur, -Oris, the throat. Nectar, -Juris, drink of the gods. 

Jabar, -&ris, asuH-beam. Pulvinar, -aris, avillow. 

liftcAnar, -ftris, « miing. Sulphur, -Oris, tuqthur. 



THIRD DECLENSION* 77 

ept, £bur, -dris, n. ivry, JScar, -tfrig, or jccXkitfris, a. the liver 

Far, farris, n. earn, Rdbur, -dris, n. strength. 

Femur, -6ri8, n. the thigh, Sftiar, -ftris, m. a trotU. 

Farfur, -tirisy m. bran, TurtaTy Oris, m. <r turtle-dove. 

Fur, furis, m. a thief. Vultar, -ttaris, m. a vultwre. 
H£j>ar, -&tis, or -fttos, n. the liver. 

ER AND OR. 

». Nouns in er and or are masculine, and form the genitive by adding is; as, 
rer, ameriSf a goose, or, gander ; agger j -^ris, a rampart ; der, -<fm, the air ; career^ 
8y a prison ; c»»er, Ms, and a»n*«, -^^ a plank ; d^^, 6m, pain ; cdfor, drt>, a 

)ur. So, 

»r, a doer, a pleader. Odor, and -os, a smell. Splendor, brightness. 

Utor, ^e thai trusts or lends. 6lor, a swan. Sponsor, a surety. 

H*, gore. "PadortJUlh. SquaXor, JUthiness. 

ftor, a debtor. Pastor, a shepherd. Stapor, auUness 

)r, an ill smell. Prator, a commander, Sator, a sewer. 

or. fionour. Pddor, shame, TSpor, tearmth, 

or, a reader. ■ Riibor, blushing. Terror, dread. 

or, an q^er among the Ro- Rumor, a report. Ttmor, fear. 

anSf who attended the magi- S&por, a taste. Tonsor, a barber. 

rates. Sartor, a cobler or tailor. Tutor, a guardian. ^ 

Vj paleness, malice. S&tor, a sower, a father, V&por, a vapour. 

>r, a strong smttt. SOpor, sleep. VSn&tor, a nunieir. 

^tw, a r&torfeian, has rhetifris; castor, a beaver, -A*tr. 

^c. 1. The following nouns are neuter : 

*, -Sris, a maple-tree. Marmor, -5ri8, marble. 

r, -dris, fine wheat. P&p&rer, -Sris, popjpy, 

lor, -dris, a plain, the sea'. Piper, -eris, ptppw. 

aver, -^is, a dead carcass. Spinther, -^ns, a eUup, 

!r, -^ris, vetches. Tuber, -^is, a iW^Ung, 

> cordis, the heart. iJber, -Sris, a pap, or fatness, 

, itioSris, a journey. Ver, T&ris, the spring. 

rbor, Sris, a tree, is feminine. Tuber, -iris, the fruit of the tuber-tree^ is masculine, but vrhtm 

for tiie tree, is feminine. 

Cxc. 2. Nouns in ber have 5m in the genitive ^ as, hie imber^ imbrisy a shower* 
Jn9U&er, October^ &c. 

^ouns in <er have tris; as, venter ^ ventrisy the belly ; pater ^ patrisy a father \f rater y 
8, a iM-other ; acctptfer, -^«, a hawk ; but crater^ a cup, has crdteris; sotery -erisj 
iviour ; latere a tile, latMs; Jupiter , the chief of the Heathen Gods, has Joms} 
er, -^rts, a little boat, is masc. or fein. 

AS. 
r. Nouns in as are feminine, and have the genitive in dtis ; as, <Btas, tetdiiff 
age. So, 

:as, the summer, Sati£tas, a glut or disgust. Veritas, truih. 

as, piety. Simultas, ,a feud, a ^^ge. VQljuntas, will, 

estas, power. Tempestas, a time, a tempest. Vdluptas, pleasure. 

bttas, probity. Cbertas, fertility. Anas, a duck, has ftniltis. 

•xc. 1. As, assis, m. a piece of money, or Mas, m&ris, m. a male, 

any thing which may be divided into Vas, T&dis, m. a surety, 

twelve parts. Vas, vasis, ro. a vessel. 

^ote. All the parts of as are masculine, except unda^ an ounce, feminine ; as, sixtims, 2 ooncei \ 
(favftf, 3 ; triens, 4 ; quineunx, 6 ; semis, 6 ', septunx, 7;bes,8', dodrans, 9 ; dextans, or dScunx, 10 ; 
nx, 11 ounces. 

Exc. 2. Of Greek movins in o^, some are masculine, some feminine, some neuter, 
tose that are masculine have antis in the genit. BSy^gas, gigantism a giant : dd&ma^f 
"Us, an adamant ; Hephas, -aniis, an elephant. Those ti^at are feminine have M£r , 
ados; as, lampasy lampddisy or lampados, a lamp ; drdmasy "ddis, f. a dromedary : 
swise Arcasy an Arcadian, though masculine, has Arcadia or -mfot. Those ttiat 
neuter have atisy as, hucMraSy --atiSy an herb ; artocreasy -Stisy a pie. 

ES.. 

B. Mouns in «f sgre feminine, and in the genitive change es ijito «i^ as* 
'ei, rv^y a rock; mibesy nuUsy a cloud. So, 



J ■' 



n 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



•»- 



iBdes, or -is, a temple ; plur. a FVdes, a fiddle, 

house. Lues, a plague. 

Cautes, a ragged rock. Moles, aheap. 

Clades, an overthrow, destruc- Pifttes, the Imtlock. 

thn. Pftlumbes, in. or f. a pigeon. 

Crfttes, a hurdle. Proles, an offspring. 

Ffimes, a hunger. Pubes, youlji. 

£xc. 1. The following noiins are masculine^ and most of them likewise excepted 
in the formation of the genitive : 



Sepes, a hedge. 
S0b6let| an (^spring, 
Strftges, a slaughter, 
Strues, a heap. 
Sadcs, a slake. 
TAbes, a consumption, 
Viilpes, a fox. 



Ales, -Ris, a tnrd, 

Ames, 4tis, a fowlefs staff. 

Aries, -£tis, a ram. 

Bes, bessis, two thirds of a pound, 

Cespes, -Ttis, a turf. 

gques, -Ttis, a horseman, 

Fdmes, -His, fuel. 

Gurges, -Ytis, a whirlpool. 

H^res, -edis, an heir. 

Indices, -Stis, a man deified. 

Interpres, -^tis, an itUerpreier. 

LTmes, -Ttis, a limit or oound. 

JAiles, -Ttis, a soldier. 



Palmes, -Uis, a vine branch. 
Pftries, -£tis, a wall. 
Pes, pSdis, the foot. 
Pgdes, -ttis, a footman. 
Foples, -Itis, the ham of tlie leg. 
Praeses, -Tdis, a president. 
S&telles, -ttis, a life guard. 
Stipes, -Ttis, the stock of a tree. 
Terraes, -Ttis, an olive-bough, 
Trames, -Ttis, a path. 
Veles, -Ttis, a light-armed soldier, 
Vates, vatis, a prophet. 
Verres, verris, is boar-pig. 



* 



Obses, 'Tdis, afiotiage. 
But ales, miles, lures, interpres, obses, and vates, me also used in the feminioo^ 

£xG. 2. The following feminines are excepted in the formation of 

Abies, -Stis, a fir-tree. 
C^res, -itis, the goddess of corn. 
Merces, -idis, a reward, hire. 
Merges, -Ttis, a handful of com. 
Quies, -itis, rest. 

To these add the foilowii^ adjectives : 

Xles, -TtiSf swift. 
BTpes, -idis, two-footed, 
Qiuidrapes, -Mis, four-footed. 
Deses, -Tdis, slothful. 
Dives, -Ytis, rich. 
Hebes, -Stis, dull. 
Perpes, -itis, perpetual. 



iT€: 



RSquies, -itis, or requiiij (qfJlufifih ieektmvik, 

rest, 
Sigis, -itis, growing com. 
Tigis, -itis, a mat or coverlet, . 
TOdes, is, or -Ytis, a hmmmer. 

Pnepes, -itis, swift-winged. 

Rises, ^Tdis, idle. 

Sospes, -Ttis, safe. 

Saperstes, -Ttis, surviving 

Tires, -itis, rotmd and Jong, smooth, 

Ldcuples, itis, rich, 

Mansues, -itis, gentle. 



£xc. 3. Greek nouns in es are commonly masculine ; as, hie actnace9y -iff, a Peniaa 
sword, a scimitar : but some are neuter; as, hoc cdcoethesy an evil custom; kipp6m&iiitf 
a kind of poison which grows in the forehead of a foal; pdndc€8, the herb alHieBlf 
nejpentlteSf the herb kill-grief. Dissyllables, and the monosyllables Cres, a Cietaiif 
have itis, in the genitive ; as, hie magneSy magnetisy a loadstone; tapesy '•etisj tapefttf) 
lehes, 'itis, a caldron. The rest follow the general rule. Some proper nouBi - W® 
either 6^i« or is; as, Dares, Daritis, or Doris; which is also sometimes of te M 
declension; AcMlles, has Achillis; ox AchiUi^ contracted iot Achillei ot AMUtfy 
the second declension, from AchiUeus: So, Vfyssety FMcUs, Verres, ArisH^kif ' 

IS. 

9. Nouns in is are feminine, and have their genitive the same with the 
nominative; as, 

aurts, aurtSj the ear ; avis, avis, a bird. So, 

Apis, a bee. Messis, a harvest or crop. 

Bills, the gall, anger, Naris, the nostril. 

Classis, a fleet. Neptis, a niece. 

Fills, a cat. dvis, a Aeep. 

Fttris, a door; oftener plur. fores, Pellis, a skvn, 

-ium. Pestis, a plague. 



R&tis, a raft. 
Rjidis, a rod, 
Vallis, a. volley. 
Vestis, a garment, 
Vltis, a vine. 



Axis, axis, an axle-tree. CoUis, a hiU, 

Aqiridis, a water-pot, a ewer, . Cenciius, a kind of serpent. 

Callis, a beaten road, Ensis, a sword. 

CauUs, the stalk of an herb, Fascis, a bundle. 



the genitive according 

Fidftlis, a herald. 
FolUs, apair of beUomt^ 
Fastis, astciff. 



THIBD DECLENSION. 79 

•il, o muUd^fith, Poitis, a pott. Unguis, tlie naiL 

tie, the world, SOdilis, a companion. Vectis, a Uver. 

cousin-german, Torrif » a fire-brand. Vermis, a worm. 
9h. 

ie add Latin nouns in nw; as^ pdnis, bread; crinisp the hair; igniSy fire; 

ope, &c. But Greek nouns in nia are feminine^ and have the genitive in 

tpranniSf tpranmdis^ t3rranny. 

The following nouns are also masculine^ but form their genitive difTerently : 

y ashes. Pubis, or pdbes, -is, or o//ener -Srisy marriageable. 

s, or -£ris, a eitcumber. Pulvis, -Sris, dusi. 

'he sod of riches, or rich, an adj. Quirit, -His, a Roman. 

a aormoxtse, a rat Samnis, -itis, a Samrrite. 

' impubes, -is, or -Sris, not marriage' Sanguis, -Xais, blood. 

Semis, -issb, the half of any thing. 

a stone. Vomis, or -er, Sris, a ploughshare, 

ad cinis are sometimes feminine. Semis is also sometimes neater, and then it is iode* 
^is and impubis, are properly adjectives ; thus, Puberibus caulem foUH, a stalk witb 
es, Virg. ^n, xn. 413. Jmpube corpus, the body of a boy not having jet got the down 
i,) of youth, Horat, Epod, v. 13. Exsanguis, bloodless, an adjective^ has exsangmt in 

The following are either masculine or feminine^ and form the genitivt 
to the general nile : 

per. Finis, the end; fines, the boundaries of a field 

nake. or territories, is alwcQfs masculine, 

^nduit-pipe, ScrObis, or scrobs, a ditch, 

buttodf, Torquis, a chain, ^ 
%sket. 

These feminines have idis : CassiSf -tdisy a helmet ; cu9pi8^ 'idUj the point 
; capisy ^dis^ a kind of cup ; promulsisj '4d%Sy a kmd of drii^ meth^^. 
, f. has IU%9. 

. Greek nouns in is are generally feminine, and form the genitive variously: 
\ eos or ios; as, hcerisiSy -eosy otios^ or -i>, a heresy; so, bctsiSf f. the foot of 
ihrasis, a phrase ; phthisis^ a consumption ; poisisy poetry ; metropdHsy a 
&c. Some have mis, or tdos ; as, Pdrisy tdisy or -idos, the name of a man ; 
8, f. an asp ; ^phemirisy -idisy f. a day-book ; iriSy"^ 4disy f. the rainbow ; 
lisy t a box. So, JSgis, the shield of Pallas; cantAaria, a sort of fly; 

a garter; proboscis, an elephant's trunk ; pyramisy a p3nramid; and tigrtSy 
Usy seldom ttgris : all fern. Part have tdisy as, PsophiSy -ddisy the name of 
lers have inis; as, Eleusis, inisy the name of a city; and some have entts^ 
; SimoentiSy the name of a river. Charisy one of the graces, has Charltii*, 

OS. 

ouns in os are masculine, and have the genitive in otis ; as, 
isif a grandchild ; sdcerdoSy -otisy a priest ; also feminine. 
The following are feminine : 

-or, -dris, a tree. ' Eos, edis, the morning. 

a whetstone. Glos, gidris, the hushandi's sister, or broffktr^i 

a dowry. wife. 

The following masculines are excepted in the genitive : 

a flower. Custos, -ddis, a keeper; also ftm. 

or, -Oris, honour. H€ros, herOis, a hero. 

T, -6ris, labour. Minos, 6is, a kirig of Crete. 

r, -dris, wit. Tros, Tr6is, a Trojan. 

f a cvMom. " Bos, bSvis, m. or f. an ox or cow. 
dew. 

. Osy osjnsy a bone; and oSy-oriSy the mouth, are neuter. 

Some Greek nouns have oisy as, heros, -oisy a hero or great man : So Mhum^ 

Crete; Trosy a Trojan; thosy a kind of wolf. 

US. 

onus in us are neuter, and have their genitive in fris; as, 
cCffrj»| the breast ; eemptftyfempdm, time. So, 



80 ^ THIRD DECLENSION. 

Corpus, a body, Frlgva, cold. Penug, prwrinoni. 

D^u8| honour, Lictus, athore, Pignug, a pledge, 

Dedteus, ditgraee, NSmus, a grove. Stergnsi aimg. 

F&cYdus, a great action. Pficus, catSe, Tergus, a Mat. 
Fcenusi usury. 

Exc. 1. The following neuters have eris: 
AcuS) ch^ff. Munus, a gift or office. ScSliu, a crime. 

Fflousi a funeral. Clus, pot-Strbt. Sidus, a ttar. 

Foedosi a ewerumt. Onu«, a burden. Vellus, a fleece of Vfool. 

Qibaaa, a kind or kindred. Opus, afror*. Viscus, an en/rot/. 

Glomus, .a ekw. Fondus, a weisht. Ulcus ^ a bile. 

L&tus, the Hde. Rudus, rubbi£. Vulnus, a wound. 

Thus acSrisy fur\£ris, &c. Glomus, a clew, is sometimes ma&culine, and has g^omti of Ihe second 
declension, vinus, the goddess of love, and vitiu, old, an adjective, likewise have Atr. 

Exc. 2. The following nouns are feminine, and form the genitive variously: 

Incus, -fldis, an anvil. Sftlus, -utis, dofety. 

PUns, -adis, a pool or morass. S^nectus, nltis, old age. 

Pteui, (not used,) -iidig, a sheep. Servltus, -fttis, slavery. " 

Subscus, -udis, a dove-tail. Virtus, •iltis, virtue.. 

Tellus, -uris, the earth, or goddess of the earth. Intercus, -iltis, a hydropsy. 

Jtlventus, 'Utis, youth. 

Inlereus u properly an adjective, having aqua understood. 

Exc. 3. Monosyllables of the neuter gender have uris in the genitive ; as^ . 

Cms, cruris, the leg. Rus, ruris, the country. 

Jus, juris, law or right ; also broth. Thus, thibris, frankincense. 

Fug, puris, the corrupt matter of any sore. So Afos, mtUris, masc. a mouse. 

Ligus or 'Ur, a Ligurian, has Lig&ris; Upus, masc. a hare, Up&ris; sus, masc. or fern, a iwittei 
«iiif ; grus, masc. or fem. a crane, gruis. 

(Emipus, the name of a man, has (Edipddis: sometimes it is of the second declension, and kM 
OMtaL The compounds of pus have 8dis ; as, tripus, masc. a tripod, tripddis; but Utgdma, -Sdis^^ 
kfaiaof bird, or the herb hare's foot, is fem. Names of cities have untis; as, Tri^esutj TrapemolHH 
Opus, Opuntis. 

YS. 

12. Nouns in ys are all borrowed from the Greek, and are for the mblt 
part feminine. In the genitive they have sometimes yis or yos ; as, 

hsec cMlySy chelyis, or -yosy a harp; CapySy Capyisy or -^o«, the name of aaia^^ 
sometimes they have ^disy or pdoa ; as, haec chlamisy chlampdisy or chkmpdoiy a m)" 
dier's cloak ; and sometimes ynisy or ynos ; as, TrdchySy TrachyniSy or TradijnQh 
the name of a town. 

iES, AUS, EUS. 

13. The nouns ending in (Bs and atu are, 

iEs, seris, n. br^us, or money. Laus, laudis, f. praise. 

Fraus, fraudis,' f. fraud. Praes, pnedis, m. or f. a surety. 

Substantives ending in the syllable eus are all proper names, and have the renitive in Ml/.ilf ,, 
Orpheus, Orpheos ; Tireus, Tereos.' But thesie nouns are also found in the second declensionywhSi ' 
tus is divided into two syllables : thus, Orpheus, gen. OrpkBi, or sometimes contracted OrpJkd, tiU 
that into Orphi. 

S WITH A CONSONANT BEFORE IT. 

14. Nouns ending in s \n\h a consonant before it, are {bminine ; and fctfin . 
the genitive by changing the s into is or ft^ ; as, 

trab9y trdbisy a beam ; scohsy scobisy saw-dust ; hiemsy hiinUsj winter ; getUj gitdk) 
a nation ; stipsy sttpisy silms; parsy partisy a part; sorsy sartisy a lot ; morsy •4i8y devA* 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine: 

ClUUybs, -jrbis, steel. MSrops, -6pia, a woodpecker. 

Dens, 'tis, a tooth. Mons, -tig, a mountain. 

Fons, -tis, a well. Pons, '-tis, a M%e. 

Grypg, grjphis, a griffin. Seps, s«pig, a AM 0/ mtpwt; but, 

Hydrops, -opis, the dropsy. Seps, s^b, ahedg$y it Rm. 

Exc. 2. The following are either masculine or feminine s 

Ideps, adipis, fatness. Serpeng, -tig, a mr p ent , 

Bfideng, -tis, a cable. Stirpg, gthrpit, fit i)Ml of a ine, 

Scrobs, gcr6bi8, a diich. Stirpg, on ^ffsipnfigf ahniys fen. 

'Mlimansf a living creature, ig found in all the gendert, bvt mof t fnnpiaiAf in dM ftm. or MoHr 



Polyijlkiblei in cpt dnngc 4 into t ; as^ hiec forcep$f fon^SipUf a nair of 

^cefSy -ipUy a prince or princess; parHcepsy -cipisy a partaker; so BlLewise 

'Unsy an unmamed naiB or woman. The compounds of edpui have c^Uiw^ 

», prcBctpUiSy headkmg; anap^y ancipUisy doubtful ; bicqtgy •dpUxMy ttro- 

iucepsy a fowler, has cwcfipitf* 

The following feminines have dis : 

lU, the leaf ^f a tree. JugUnt^ -dif, a tpalniU. 

lisy an oeom. Lcus, leudis/ a mf. 

Wr libripendis, m. a weigher; nefrens, -dUt ni. or f. a gricci or pig; and tlie coiniKmiidf 

WiWTt eomeoriU, agreeing , ditton^ disagreeing ; vieonj mad, &c. But/ron«, the foK' 

otitu, fein« ami /enh a kind of polsei leniu, also fem. 

lens goingy^ and ^vtens, being able, participles from the verba eo and oveo, 
eompounds, have euntia: thus, ten*, euntis; quieruy quewUiw; rimen^ 
ru^quietUynequeuniia; b\xt ambiensy going round, has ai^6teRfts. 
Tirifnsy a city in Greece, the birth-place of Hercules, has TiryntkiB. 

T. 

ere is only one noon in ty namely, caputy capttisy the head, neuter, 
inner, its compounds, stncSpii^, sindlpitiSf the forehead ; and occiputy 
lind-head. 

uns ill X are feminine, and in the genitive change x into as ; as. 
the voice ; luxy lucUy light. So, 

fcis, an addition ; Crux, crfleky a cross. Nutriz, -icis, a nurfe. 

I. Farac, •cii| dregs. Nuz, nOdsy a nut. 

I castU. FalZ| -cisi a scffthe, Paz, •4cit, jieaee. 

a pinnace. Fax, -Acis, a torch. Piz, pfcis, pitch. 

the neck. Filiz, -Icis, a fem. Ilftdiz, -Icis, a root. 

I, a tear. Lanz, -cis, a plate, S&Hl, -Icis, a willow. 

a crow. Lddix -ids, a sheet. Ytbht, or -ex, -loB^thtmgrk^f 

is, a quail. MSretriz, -Icis, a courtezan, a wound. 

:is, the hip. Merz^ -cis, merdiandise. 

Polysyllables in etx and ex are masculine ; as, tkoraxy -dcis, a breast-plate ; 

isy a raven. Ex in the genitive is changed into tct>,* as, poUeXy-^cUy m. 

So the following noims, also masculine : 

ft or tassel, on the Codez, a book. PonUfex, aehiefprieM, 

rie*t*s cap, the cap COlex, a gnat, a midge. Patex, a flea, 

e top of an^ thing. Frtttex, a shrub. R&mex, a rupture. 

Ttist. Index, an itiformer. Sdrex, a rat. 

executioner. L&tex, any liquor. Vertex, the crown of the head, 

trunk of a tree. Murex, a she(l-fith, purple. Vortex, a whirlpool. 

t;. Podex, the breech. 
R^edder sheep, has vervecit; faenisex, a mower othsiy, fgenisgcis; rifseXf m. •ids, aviAe* 

r. 

masculines add, 

B aip. Oryx, -ycis, a wild goal, 

the bud of a fUtwet. Phoenix, -icis, a bint to called. 

s, vel -ycis, a cuekow. Tr&dux, dds, a grqff or qff'sek of a vtiM, a]S9 

a vault. fem. 

ollowing polysyllables in ax and esb lire feminine : 

, a furnace. ' Hftlex, -teis, a herring, 
the herb all-heal. Smflax, -Sds, the herb rope-weed, 

a ladder. Cerex, -Icis, a sedge, 

a pair of scissors. Sapellex, supellecUlis, household furniture. 

A great many nouns in « are either masculine or feminine ; as, 

iieel, or the end of any tfung; the Obex, -Icis, a HoU or bar. 

alx, Kme, is always fem. Ptrdix, -icis, a partridge, 

the bark of a tree. Pftmex, -Icis, apumice-ttone. 

a porcupine. BSann, -Icis, torrelr an herb, 

a gutter, or roof iiU. Sandix, -Icis, a purple colour. 

ounce, a beast of ttty quick tight. Silex, -Icis, a flint, 

a snail. V&rix, Icis, a stcoln teim. 

5 



84 FOURTH DECLENSION. 

Oytt 8. Noam whitk have turn ia tiw^peidtiirepiiiimly ara, by tbeiMietftyOftctai tmdmeted ioU u»%> , 
ai, noeetiMfan fbrfMeenftiim/ and sometimes, to increaBe the niinriber of s^Ilabliei^^iHIertei^^ 
csy et^ktuu m for eeftbtm. The former of these is said to be dene by the figore Sjfnei^; mad tta« 
latter hy EpenihUns. 

XXCCPTIONS IN THE DATIVE FLUBAL. 

£xc. 1. Greek nouns in a have commonly tit instead of Hbus^ B9y poema^ a poexn^ 
poemaHsy radier than poematilnis, from the old nominative poemdtam of the secoamd 
declension. 

Ezc. 2. The poets sometimes form the dative plural of Greek nouns in «t^ or nfli^ii 
the next word b^^ with a vowel, in sin; as, Tyodsi or TrodnMf for Tro&tUbu*, frosn 
TProaSy Droadity a Trojan woman. 

KXCEPTIONS IN THE ACCUSATIVE PLURAL. 

Exc. 1. Nouns wliich have tt^iit in the genitive plural make their accusative pIturaJ 
in e9y eisy or m ; as, partesy partiuniy ace. pttrtesyparteisy or partis. 

Ezc. 2. If the accusative singular end in a, the accamtive plural also ends ia m^ ; 
as, Umywykuttpddemy or lampSday lampadesy or lampddOM, So Tros, Ttooi; kett^Sy 
Keraas; JEthiopSy JEthiopasy &c. 

OBEXK NOUNS THROUGH ALL THE CASES. 

Xiampa«,a lamp, f. lampddisy or '■ados; -Mi; ademy or 'Ma; 'Os^'dde: YUxtAyHtdes ; 

"dibtm; "ddibus; '•odes y or '•ddcu ; --iides ; nidUnts. 
Droati L Troddisy or -ddos; 4; em ox a; as; e: PI. Troadesy '•urn; Ums si or sin; 

es or as ; ^s ; thus. • 

IVoff, m. IVois / Troi; Traem or a; I^ros ; TroSy 9k. 
PkaUSf f. PhiUidiSy or -dos; di; demy or da; t or is ; de. 
Pdrisy m. PaHdiSy or -dos; di; demy Parimy or in; i; de. 
CUdmySy f. CMampdiSy or -pdos; pdi; pdem, or pda; ys; pde; &c. 
CUpySy m. Capyisy or -yos; yi; ymoxyti; y; ye or y. 
MmUiorphosiSy f. -ds or -eos/ t; em or t»; t; t, &c. 
Of^pAeaw, m. -ed«; ei or et ; ea; et£; abl. ee ; of the second declension. 
Duhy f. Didiis or Didanis; Dido or Didoniy &c. 

FOURTH DECLENaON. 

Nouns of the fourtii declension end in us and «. 

Nouns in us are masculine^ nouns in ii are neuter, and indeclinable in the smgolA' 
number. 

The terminations of the cases are : nonv sing, us; gen. ^; dat. «t ; ace. tnii; vo^* 
like the nom» Nom. ace. voc. plur. t£« orua ; gen. uvm; dat. and abl. ilms. See e^' 
amples, currusy a chariot ; and comuy a horn, page 10. 

£xc. 1. The following nouns are feminine : 

Acus. a needle. Ficus, a Jig, PortTcus, a gallery. 

Anus, an old woman. Mftnos, the htmd. Spteus, a den. 

1>amiis, a hoMe. Peousi a ston-house. Trlbus, a tribe. 

Penut and speciu are sometimes masc. Fieutf penusj and domu»i with several othersi are also <'' 
the second declension. CaptAeomut, m. the sign Capricorn, although from eormh is alwajrs of tl>< 
second declension, and so are the compounds of mantu ; unimdntu, having one hand ; renflmdltf < 
be. adjectives. Domut is but partly of the second declension ; thus, 

Domus, a housey feminine. 

Sing4 Plur. 

horn, domus, Nom. domus, 

Gen, domtCis, or -mi^ Gen. domorum, or -uum, 

Dat. domui, or -ttio, Dat. domibus. 

Ace* dooiuin, ^cc. domos, or -us, 

Voc. domus, Voc. domus. 

Ml. dmno; Abl. domibus. 

NHfte. Domusy in Aejeiiitive signifies^ «if a house i and domiy at home, or of home; 
af| mtmneris domi. l^reat. br. f . 45. 



FIFTH DECLENSION. 85 

Exp. 2. The followiog nouiis have ukuty in the dative aiul aUalive phml : 

tUpaneedU. LSciiCy a lake. Sptou, a iffii. 

ciit, a bow. Partiu, a birth. 1 rXbtM, & tribe. 

bisi a joint. Portnt, a harbour. \&ca, a tpit. 

■■H the knee, 
Portmt getm, aod rem, have likewt«« ibut; «t» parhbitM or portUbut, 

Ijcc. 3. Ibsub^ the v^necable name of our Saviour, has ton in the accusative, and 
Ji all the other cases. 

*9tmm of this declenaioa aacicady belonged to the third, and were declined like gnu, gruut a 
ne ; thus, fruelut, fruetuiM, frueiui, frudvem, Jrwiut ; fntdtvttti fruitvnm, frwimbrnffruetvit, 
t€tues, fnituibw. So that all the caies are contracted except the dative singular, and genitive 
nL In some vritersy we still find the genitive singular in uu; as, Ejut amimt eaicsd, lor mi{Lt* 
Seat Heut ii. 8. 46. and in others, the dative in u ; as, Remtere impetu, for impetuif Cic. Fam. x. 
Etse tauy tibi, for tifut, ib. xiit. 71. The genitive plural is sometimes contracted; as, emrrtfm 
€wrruvm. 

FIFTH DECLENSION. 



INouns of the fifth declension end in es, and are of the feminine gender. See 
!S, re8j a thing ; and fadegj the face, page 10. 

Except d&tSi a day, masculine or feminine in thcaingular, and alwi^a aaasculiae in the plnal j 

I miridies, the mid-day or noon, masculine. 

rhe poets sometimes make the genitive, and more rarely the dative, in e. 

The nouns of^ this declension are few in number, not exceeding fifty, and seem anciently to have 

ya comprehended under the third declension. Most of thtm want the genitive, dative, a»d 

flitive plural, and many the plural altogether. 

IlU nouns of the fifth declension eud in iesf except three : fidtt, faith ', tpttf hope ; res, a tiling ; 

1 all nouns in iet are of the fifth, except these four : iSbies, a fir tree ; ibriuy a ram ; pdritt, a ww ', 

i qtdtt, re^t ; which are of the third declension. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS. 
Int^lar nouns may be reduced to three classes, Variable j Defective^ and Redundant 

I. Variable Nouns. 

Nouns are variable either in gender, or declension, or in both. 

I. Those which vary in gender are called heterogeneous^ and may be reduced to the 

lowing classes : 

1. MascuKne in the singular ^ and nettter in thephtral. 

emus, a lake in Campania, hell. MaenfiJus, a hill in Arcadia. 

ndymus, a hill in Phrygia. Pangiens, a promontory in Tkraee. 

Dims, a hill in Thrace. Tsenftros, a promontory in Laeoma. 

usfcos, a hill in Campama, famout for excel- Tart&rus, hell. 

lent winet, Tayg^tus, a hill in Laamia. 

rhus, Avtma, Avernorum ; Dindyma, •orum ; fac. These are thought by some to be properly 

iectiTes, having irtont understood in the singular; mad jifga or caeumina, or the like in the plurat 

2. MascuKne in the singular ^ and in the plural mascuKne and neuter. 

JdcuSy a jest, pi. joci and Joca ; IdcuSy a place, pi. loci and hca. When we speak 
passages in a book, or topics in discourse, lod only is used. 

3. Femtntfte in the singular^ and neuter in the plural. 

Carbdsusy a sail, pi. carbdsa ; FergdrmtSy the citadel of Troy, pi. Pergama, 

4. Neuter in tlie singular^ and masaiUne in the plural. 

Ccduniy pi. ccdiy Iieaven ; ElMum^ pi. Etysii, the Elysian fields 5 Argos, pi. Argi^ 
city in Greece, 

5. Neuter in the singular^ in the plural n^ascuUne or neuter. 

Reutrunif a rake, pi. rastri, and rostra^ frtemum^ a bridle, pi. frtxni and frosna. 

6. Neuter in the singular^ and feminine in the plural, 

DeUdum, a delight, pi. delicice ; tpuiumj a banquet, ^. ^pulm; fiabieumj a JNitb^ 
1* hahemy and halnetiL. 

II. Nouns which vary in declension are called heterodites; as,iMV, vasiff a vessel, 
I. vdsay vasorum ; jugirum,jugMy an acre, pi. jugira, jugirum^ jugeMm, which 
as likewise sometimes jw^^n* and jt^«frie, in the angular, ktm Uie olMK>leteyi^riit, or 

«^. 

n. P«FECTiyE Nouns. 

Noiins axe defective, either in cases or in number. 
Nouns are defective in rases different wa3rs. 



•5 JOIREGULAR NOUNS. 



■*-^. 



1. Some are altc^tiier indeclinable ; as, pondo, a pound or pounds ; fu^ ri^t ; 
ftefaty wrong ; tUndpiy nmstard ; mdne^ the mcMming ; as, cldrum mane^ Pers. A meau 
md vetperamj PlauL Midto mane, &c. cipe^ an onion i gaugape, a rou^ opal, &ۥ 
all of tnem neii|er. We may rank among indeclinable nouns, any word put for a nopn ; 
asy veUe 9umi^ for sua vobmtaSy his own inclination, Pers. Istud eras, for tMie crdS' 
tiHUB dies, that to-morrow. Maxt, magnum QrtBCorumy the Omiga^ or the large O 
of the Greeks. Infidus est compositum ex in et fidus ; infidus is compounded of «fi 
ondjidus. To these add foreign or barbarous names ; that is, names which are neither 
GreSek i^or Latin ; as, Joby Eluabet^ Jerusakmy &c. 

2. Some are used only in one case, and therefore called mdnoptota ; as, inqmeSj 
vrant of reist, in the nominajti vie singular ; diciSf and naucij in the gen. singular ; thus, Hci* 
jgraiid, for form's sake ; res nauciy a thing of no value ; inficiaSy and incXta or indtaSf 
in the ace. pi. thus, ire inficiasy to depy ; ad incitas redactusy reduced to a stnut or 
nonplus ; ingrdtiisy in-the abl. plur. in spite of one ; and these ablatives singular, noctwdy 
in the ni^t-time; diuy interdiuy in the day-time ; promptuy in readiness ; natUy by ImtH ? 
infussuy widiout conunand or leave ; ergSy for the sake, as, ergo iUiuSy Virg. Ambig'^j 
f. with a winding or a tedious story ; comp^dey m. with a fetter ; casscy m. with a neC ; 
vepremy m. a brier : Plur. ambdgesy -ihusy compedesy -ibusy cassesy -ivm ; vepresy -turn, d^^* 

3. Some are used in two cases only, and therefore called diptota ; as, 'necessCy 
•rumy necessity ; vdlupCy or volup% pleas^ure ; UistOTy likeness, bigness y astUy a town ; 
the palm of the hand ; in the nom. and ace. singular : vespery ra« abl. vesp^ey or 
piiri^ f he f^yening ; sirempsy the same, ail alike, abl. strempse ; spontisy f, in the genitiir^y 
and sponte in the ablative, of its own accord : so impetisy m. and impetCy force.; ve^^ 
hirisy n. gen. and verhirey abl. a stripe : in the plursu jentire ; verberoy verberumy v^^^ 
bejribusy &c. — ripetundarumy abl. repetundisy sc. pecuniisy money unjustly taken in ik^c 
time <tf one's office, extortion; supp^tioBy nom. plur. supp^tiasy in the ace. help; infirt^ 
inferiasy sacrifices to the dead. 

4. Several nouns are only used in three cases, and therefore called triptqtQ,; 
priciy precemy precey f. a prayer, frompreVy which is pot used : in the plural it is enUjr^? 
precesy precumy precibusy &c. Fcmimsy gen. from the obsolete femcny the thigh; if 
the dat. and abl. sing. ; in the nom. ace. and voc. plur. femina. Dtcay a process, a<^^' 
sipg. dicam 9 plf dicas, Tantundemy in the nom. and ace. tantidetny in the gen. ev^<^ 
as mucbt Several nouns In tl^ plural want the ^nitive, dative, and ablative ; as, hier^t^^ 
ruSy thusy mitusy met, foFy and most nouns of tne fifth declension. 




songs 

beautiful 

thanks. 

^. Tl^e follpwing noung want the nominative, and of consequence the vocative, ettid 
therefore are called tetraptota.: vidSy f. of the place or stead of another ;p^ciidiSf f- ^^ 
a beast ; sordisy f. of filtli ; dftwnisy f. of dominion, power ; dpis, f. of help. Of tb^^e 
pScudis and sordis have ^e plur. entire ; ditidnis wants it altogether ; vicis is not used 
m the genitive phural ; opts in the plural, generally signifies wealth, or power, seldonj 
^help. To these add hexy slaughter; dapSy a dish of meat; apd/ncc, com ; hardly ased 
m the nominative singular, but in the plural mostly entire. 

(6. Some nouns only want one case, and are called pentaptota; thus, osy the mouth ; 
Inxy light yfaxy a torch, together with some others, want the genitive plural. Ckaasy "• 
a confused mass, wants the genitive singular, and the plural entirely; dative singular? 
chao. So sdHa^y J. e. satietasy a glut ot full of any thing. SttuSy a situation, nas^*" 
ness, of the fourth declension, wants the genitive, and perhaps the dative singular; e^ 
the genitive, dative^ and ablative plural. 

Of nouns defective in number there ara ^rarious sorts. 

1. Several nouns want the plural, firom the nattue of the things which they ezpre^' 
Such are the names of virtues and vices, of arts, herbs, metals, liquors, difierent kinds 
of com, most abstract nouns, j&c as, justtHoy justice; amlaiusy ambition; «f^f 
cunning ; mwncoy munc ; opitim, parsley ; argentumy silver ; awnmiy gold : top, nculk ? 
trtdamj wheat ; hordeumy b^ey ; dvenay oats ; JuventuSy youth, &c. But of these 
we 0nd siByeral sometimes used In ^e plural. j 



IiUUi:GULAR NOUNS. $7 

Z. Tbe fcdlowing auuculinei are hardly ever found in die plural : 

Mr, 'afttf, the air, NCmo, -luii, na body. 

JEthar, -A4i, (he ttjr. PAiui, -i, or -ili, aU manntr of prmiiittu. 

rtmuB, -i, dun^. PoDtw, -i, Ihc ua, 

Hoapfirm, -i, (/u eteniTtg-ttnr. Pulrii, ^fri*, ilutf. 

I^mua. -i, ilime. Sangui*, -inii, frlnoc'. 

Meridies, -ifi, tntrf-fbji. . Sapor, -Orb, lUtp. 

Mtindm, a iceniaii'i ofiiamcnii. Viiciu, -i, bird4imt. 

S. The following fenuninei are scarcely used in the plural : 

AncUla, ■«. poHer'i earlh. SUiu, -filii, taftl}/. 

Ffcma, -B, /nme. Sllig, -ia, thirl. 

HOiniu, -i,' lit ii^auiul. Rapellex, -cctllii, hoiUthoU fiimtlurf, 

haem, -ii, aplai^ut. Tibci, -i(, a coJitut^itiim. 

neb», pVbin, Iht common pzopU. Tellai, -urn, the cni-fA. 

Mbes, -ii, Ihe soalli. Veapfni, -a, Iht erining. 

Koics, 4lis, reif. 

4. These neuters are seldom used in the plural : 

AUkho, -i, a till of natna. Nihil, nihlluQi, ar oil, nathing. 

lOctUiim, -ij lla datming of daf/. Ptltpit, -i, tlit tta. 

- -ttiii, ivoty. FfnuRi, -i, and penui, &ri>, all Hndt ofpna- 

.'-i, Uie black aptdc of a bean, atri/U. ShI, aUis, »ff. 

.- . -i| a vacalion, Ihi Itnti uAcn rourti SSaiiim, -ii, oldage. 

, <!• nsl lil. Ver, verii, (A< qmnc'. 

[ L««haiii, dtalh. I'irus, -i, poiion, 
I Latum, -i, c£iji. 

I 5. Many nouns want the sir^ular ; as, tlie names of feasts, books, games, and Bcveral 
^ cities } thus, 

' ApoDlDiTH, -UuD, gataa ut honour of .^poUD. SyrnciJie, -arum, SsTIKUK. 

^•tcddmiliBi -lunii u 'iorum,(/ie/EaWt a/BaccAu>. HieroaolyniH, -onim, Jcnaelim; or HlKraiolriiia, 

"a«lllca, •oruin, a toot of pailoTali. a, of Ihe jSrrf dtcletuion. 
(•^yiBpia, -onim, (/i« Olympic gama. 

6. The following mmculines are hardly uaed in the Bingulor ; 

'^ancclli, laiticei, or uiinifiivi made mlh crou- FCri, tkt gimgwayi of a iliip, nati in Iht eirmi, 
*«i Ulctaiat; a rail or Imhalrade rnutid any or Ihe celli of a bee-hter. 

]>l»et; beurulior InniVi. Fiirfdrei, -um, icaluinlht head. 

^Aa>t pw hair*. iafti'i, Iht godt beUne. 

*^1>M8I, 4UD>, <i hanltr'i ncl. lAtaOnt, -oni, AoieoUiiu, or ipiriti in Iht dM 

C:*9«n«, -am, Iht tighl-hort. LiMri, ehUdrm. 

^•OMUi, toriling$. Majarei, -ium, artcelori. 

t^rMm, -ma, Iht Dniiili, prieilioflht onrieU Mludret, -mn, tuccenori. 

AtfMHIKii GauJj. NalalcB, -uin. j^orenfoge. 

***tM««, ^um, a Inatdle of rodi earned before the Foiltri, patlmlji. 

tkitf mBgulralf of Rame. FrOOna, -um, (Ac nob/cj. 

''•tfl, .onua,w fMtui,-iniin,ca/«iAin, in uhi'rh Pir^lUm, •iam, tBriling-laKtt. 

*tnwiarked fuiivid day, the nanta of tuagii- Seiiie^ -iuin, Ihbnu. 

- inta^ lu. SapM, the godi aboce. 

Pisa, -iuii, ihe borderi of a country, or a coun- Vepret, -ium, brieri. 
ftj. 

7. the following femiiiines want the singular number : 

Alpcf, Hum, Iht Alps. Kitcabis, watcha. UpIcidlaB, lient ftMrriM^ 

AiVMliC) t^lfieaSUe: Eiiequitc, flmaali. LIUtb, an epalle. 

il/nm, gatgmct. EiOtIb, ipoiti. Lacto, •ium, (Ac moUpdh 

AcgUia, ntinb, widirintu. FiiciliK, pieaunf uymgi. MinflbiK, ipOTli (olren m war. 

"In, « mviol, drawn 61/ (iro F^uhates, -luin,oiu'i£MifaAn(I ADaee, lAreiili. 

I liarKi. ehoKeft. Mlaatis, liUlt tiiaHgM 

I TriKs,— 6y f/irfi^. FC-riie, holidom. Iftigti, trxflf. 

^•aJri^K, —by fatir. Gftdes, -Ium, Cadit. NuDdlna, a moricr. 

I Braccffi, bretcliei. Gerrm, triftti, Nuptia, a marriage, 

I ^»BchiiE, Ihe gilU of a fiih. H^Uen, -ma, the levfa Hart. OSteat, ehtati. 

'^''tt'iici, -im, (Ac three graciM. Iivdodig, a (nice. Cpftn, ttorkmtn, 

^^, a cnuife. iDdQvle, eiolhti to jml orr. ncvtuUiiB, nrinout waUc 

WdiBB, |i[Aei. Ineptia, tiUgiloriei. Partn, -lumt apartji. 

5**i iamtcaiiont, Iht fitriei. laildia, mora. Ph«l*i», trofpingi. 

wn^B, ricAu. KMendee, Nome, liia, -uum, Flics, netc 

"Viit*,-um,lhensiop^Hflhe naaiftthiehlhe Eomaiugan PIriUca, 'iim, lAejsrAiAw 

*naA. (0 cerfsin di^ in eadi monlh. PreaH|i«, tnchantnutUr, 



BS 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 



7) a ijtnfig. 
Scdpe, a botom. 
Tignebne« darkness. 
Thennas, kot baths. 
TbermSpyUB, siraiis 
Otta. 



l^iinYtiei ^*/ ftmls. 
Quisqulliie, «treeptng<. 
R^liquuBy a remair^er. 
S&lebne, ru^ed places. 
S&iinae, satt-pUs. 
Scala» o ladder. 

8. The following neuter nouns want the singular : 

ActA, public iuUs, or recor<if. 

^tfva, se, castra^ sumtner quarters. 

Armaf arms. 

3eUaria, -oruDD, sweetmeats. 

Bonay goods. 

Br£yia, -iaiOi Aelves. 

C^tra^ a camp, 

CtdbnBlM, -oniiB, a peaee-feait. 

Clbiria, victuals. 

Cdmitia, an assesnUy of the people to make laws, 

tUet fnagistrates, or hold trials. 
CrSpcndiay ehUdrerCs baubles. 
Cdnftbdla, a cradiOf on origin, 
Dktdrim MCt(ffs, witticisms. 
Exta, the entrails. 
Febnia, -orum, purifying saerifiees. 
Flaimiy blads of wind. 
Frftga, strawberries. 
HytMsrn&, 8C. castra, winter quarters. 
Jlia^ -iiun, the entraUs. 
Inc&nfibQlai, a cradlfi. 
lasecta, inseets. 
Justa, funeral rites. 
LiaMnta, lamentations. 



Trkw, tojfs. 
Valvsy foUmg doors. 
' Vergllie> the seven stars. 
Viu&iaB, a cUnm of lUtrigf « 
of mount defeskse. 



Mflenia, -ium, the walls of a eily. 

.Munia« -ionim, qffices. 

Orgia« the satred rites of Bacekus. 

Ovilia, -ium, an endosure wher$ ihepeepUwmi 

to give their votes. 
F&le£ia, ^um, the dew-lap of a bead. 
Fia&[iihemat all things the wife brings the hubmii 

except her dowry. 
Pftrent&lia, -ium, solemniiies at the funend sf 

parents. 
Philtiti, lore potions. 
PrKcordia, tne bowels. 
PrincYpia, the place in the camp where thegaurjff 

tent stood. '*\ 

Pythia^ games in honour of Apollo. ■. 

J^ostrn, a place in Rome made of the ba&s nL 



shipSf from which orators used to make onlt 

to the people, 
Scruta, old clothes. ' 

Spons&lia, -iuin, espousals. ^ 

St&tiva, 8c. castra, a landing camp. i .' 

SuSv^aur^a, •ium, a sa/orijice o/fl swine,aAetp,% 

and an ox. 
Tfil&ria, -ium, winged shoes. 



tMali&9 provisions for the entertainment of foreign Tesqua, rough places. 

etmbiusadors. Tranitra, the seats where the rowers sU in ddpi. 

Lmtn, dens of wild beatts. Utensdia, -ium, utensils. 
ilBgilia, -him, cottages. 

Several nouns in each of the abpve iiitf lu« lomid abo in the singular, but in a different iflBse ; 
thus, castrum, a castle ; litera, a Ictt^ of the alphabet* iu, 

in. Redundant Nouns. 

Nouns are redundant in different wa3rs : 1. In termination only ; as, arbos and ar6«r, a tree. S. h 
ilecleosion imiy; as, tourus, gen. lawi and laurHs, a laurel-tree ; sfqtlester, -lr», or ^ris, a mediator. 
3. Only in gender ; as, hie or hoc vulgus, the rabble. 4. Both in termination and deehmiioo ; •>! 
nUUfriOf -m^ or tnateries, 'iih matter ; plebs, -is, the common people, or plebes, -isy -ei, or coatractedi 
plebi. 5. In termination and gender ; as, tdnflrusp -tU, masc. tonitns, nenter, thunder. 4. In dc* 
clcnsion and gender ; as, pinus, -t, and -^f m, or f. or penuSf -ifris, neut. all kinds of provision^' 

7. In termination, gender, and declension ; as, aether, -iris, masc. and setkra, -«, feminine, the t^- , 

8. Sereral nouns in the same declension are differently varied ; as, tigriSf 'is, or -idis, a tignr ; ^^ 
which mapr be added nouns which have the same sfgniftcatioo in different numbers ; as, ttd^^t 
'iB ; or Ftdemej -arum, the name of a city. 

The most numerous class of redun/dant nouns consists of those which ex{)fess the 
same meaning by different terminations; as, mendaj -ce; and mendvm, 4^ afiiuh; 
atmsy -idis; andcassidaf -^^ a helmet. So, 

AcTnqs, aiid -uon; a grape^stone. CabTtus, and -urn, a cubit. 

Alvear, and -e, and -ium, a bee-hive. Dfldvium, and -es, a deluge. 

Am&r&cu8,.an^ -um, sweet marjoram. . fj^phantos, and £lephas, -antis, an elephant' 

Anclle« and -ium, an oval shield. $l£gusy and -f ia, an elegy. 

AngYporluSy -^9 and -i, and -om^ a narrow lane. Es^o* and -um, a chariot. 



Aphractus, and -amr an open ship. 
Aplustre, and -um, the fiag^ eolours. 
B&cOlus, Htad -um, a staqf. 
Battens, and -urn, a belt, 
B&tiUus, and -am, a Jare-shoveL 
C&pOlus, and -um, a mt. 
CftpuSf and -Of a capon. 
C^pa, and <-e» jn^iec. (m onion. 
Clypeus^ (imd -um, a shield. 
CoUOvics, and -lo, JUth, d^, 
<^onfitW^md-go, ajovAiM 
<>«i^gex,m!d rgruBf a lirgfi eeL 
CrOcus^ and -um, saffron 



firenlusj and -um, an event. 

Fulgetra, and -um, lig^ning. 

Gftlenis, and »um« a liat. 

Gibbus, and -a, and -er, {^ris, or -£ri, a bm£f*t ^ 

eweUittg, 
^ftttliaimi, and -en, glue. 
J9ebd5mas, and -ftda, a week, 
^Btrita, and -um, fine mortar, minced meat> 
L^Mcirium, and -a, a book-case. 
Mic^ria, and -es, -iei, a wall. 
MiHiAre, and -ium, a mile. 
IMlOi^um, and -us, -4s, an admonition 
Marls, and -es, ici, ftrtne or pickle. 



ADJECTIVE. 89 

w§, mid -oin, the no$e. S«gmen, and -mentimii afUu or pmrmg. 

ad»yand'vaak,anege. SnMwj and -um; m kimng, 

itxm, and -tun, a gad-be: SIdiw, and -am, a milk-pSil. 

tttL, and -am, an artier, SpurcItU, and •«•« nadmem. 

tlw, and -nm, a vet/, a rebe, Strftmen, and •turn, draw. 

irtu, and -mn, a bake^houae. 8«iffiiiien« and -tuin, a perfume. 

itutiu, -ike, and -am, a preiext, Tignms, and -am, a plank. 

«, md -urn, a twmip. Tdral, and -ile, a bed-covering. 

aa, aiul 'men, 1^ cud. Torcdlar, and -are, a wne-prete. 

cot, otuf -am, a brush. Viscaf, etnd -um, bird-lime. 

h md Bfipet, f. a hedge. VHeraut, and -om, a letkargjf. 

'ole. The oowns which are called variable and defective, scero originally to have been rednodaiit ; 

« vdtOf -arum^ properlv comet from vanim, and not from vae ; but custom, which givet laws to 

anguages, has dropt the singular and retained the plural ;. and so of others. 

Division of Nouns according to their signification and derivation. 

. A substantive which signifies many in the singular number, is called a Collective 
n ; as, pdpHUuSf a people } exerdUus, an army. 

. A substantive derived from another substantive proper, signifying one's extraction, 
illed a Patronymic noun ; as, PridmtdeSy the son of Priamus ; .Metiasy the dai^ter 
Cetes ; Nerine^ the daughter of Nereus. Patronymics are generally derived from 
name of the father ; but the poets, by whom they are chiefly used, derive them 
' from the grandfather, or from some other remarkable person of the family ; some- 
is Ukewise from the* founder of a nation or people ; as, JEacides^ the schi, grandson. 
It-grandson, or one of the posterity of iEacus ; R6milidtBy the Romans, from theor 
: king, Romulus. 

^atronymic names of men end in des ; of women in 2>, as, or ne. Those In dcs 
lie, are of the first declension, and those in is and as^ of the third ; as, PrianddeSf 
, See. pi. dcs, -darum^ &c, NertnCy -e«; Tynddrisy -idis^ or <dos; AiletiaSf -Hdis, Sk. 
. A noun derived from a substantive proper, signifying one's country, is called s 
'tial or Gentile noun; as, Tros^ Trois^ a man born at Troy; Troas^ '■adis^ ( 
nan bom at Troy : Sicuhis, -t, a Sicilian man ; SicHiSy 'idis, a Sicilian woman : 
Mdcedoy -dnis ; Arpinasy -dtisy a man bom in Macedonia, Arpinum ; from TV^'o, 
'Moy Macedonia^ Arpinum. But partials, for the most part, are to be considered as 
natives having a substantive understood ; as, RomdnuSy AthiniensiSy &c. 
. A substantive derived from an adjective, expressing simply the quality of the 
xtive, without regard to the thing in which the quality exists, is called an Abstract; 
fustUiOf justice ; bdnitasy goodness ; dukedoy sweetness : from Justus, just ; bonus, 
d ; dulcis, sweet« The adjectives from which these abstracts come, are called 
icretes ; because, besides the quality, they also suppose something to which it be- 
^ Abstracts commonly end m a, as, or do, and are very numerous, being derived 
Q most adjectives In the Latin tongue. 

. A substantive derived from another substantive, signifyirig a diminution or lessen- 
of its signification, is called a Diminutive ; as, ItheUus, a little book ; chartSdaf 
:tle paper; opucsulum, a little work; corc&lumj a little heart; re^cif/ufit,. a unafl 
; s^ihellum, a small form ; IdpiUus, a little stone ; cuUeUus, a little knife ; pdgdim, 
tie page ; from liber, charta, opus, cor, rite, scamnum, lapis, cuUer, pdgkuu 
end diminutives are sometimes formed from the same primitive ; as, (rompuer, 
ridus, pueUus, puellulus; from cista, cistula, cisteDa, cisteUula; from hSmo, 
tuncio, hdmunadus. Diminutives for the most part end in hi8, la, him, and sxe 
erally of the same gender with their primitives. When the signification of the pri- 
ve is increased, it is called an Amplificative, and ends in o; as, Cdpito, -onis, 
ing a large head ; so, ndso, labeo, tucco, having a large nose, lips, cheeks. 
. A substantive derived from a verb is called a Verbal noun ; as, dnu>r, love ; doo- 
«, learning ; from dnuo, and diiceo. Verbal nouns are very numerous, and com- 
ply end m io, or, us, and vra; as, lectio, a lesson ; amator, a lover ; luctus, grief; 

^ra, a creature. 

ADJECTIVE. 

^ adjective is a word added to a substantive, to express its quality; as, hard^ soft. 

• know things by their qoalities only. Every quality must belong to some subjeet An ai^jeo- 
^erefow always implies a substantive expressed or understood, and cannot make fan tease 

otrt It. 



90 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives in Latin are varied by gender, number, and case, to agree with substu- 
lives in all diese accidents. 

An adjective properly hath neitKer genders, numbers, nor cases; but certain temiioafioii 
answering to the gender^ number, and •'^*^' the substantive with uhich it is Joined. 

Adjectives are varied like three substantives of the same termination and decknm. 

All adjectives are either of the fifst and second declension, or of the third onty. 

Adjectives of three terminations are of the first and second declension^ but adjecthrei 
of one or two terminations ar.e of the third. 

Exc. The following adjectives, thougli they have three terminations, are of the 
third declension : 

Acer, tharp. Cflcr, swift. SSlu!)er, wholesome. 

Al&cer, cheerful. Equester, 6d!ewging to a horMe. Sylvester, woody. 

Camptiter^betongingioaplain. P&liister, mar^. VdlQcer, swift. 

C€i&}er^ famous. Pedester, on foot. 

ADJECTIVES OF THE FiRST AMD SECOND DECLENSION. 

Adjectives of the first and second declension have their masculine in us or fr, their 
feminine always in a, and their neuter always in urn ; as, bdnuSy for the maMiiliiie; 
bonay for the feminine ; bonum, for tlie neuter, good. See declension of bonus^ pagell 

Tener, tenera, tenerum, tender. See declension of tener, pagell. 

Like tener^ decline, 
Aiper, rough. LUcor, torn. MYser, tcretdied. 

CflDter, (hardly used,) tJu rest. Liber, free. Prosper, prosperous. 

Gibberi crook-backed. 

Abo the compounds of gero and fero ; as, Idnlgerf bearing wool ; Splfer, bringing belpi &«. 
Likewise sOtur, satiira, saturum, full. But most adjectives in er drop the e -, as, ater^ alrOj atnmh 
blade; genitive o/rt, atns, atri; dative atro, atrce, alroj &:r. 

See declension of pukhevj page 1 1 . So, 
JEger, sick. Mteer, lean. SScer, sacred. 

Creber, frequent. Niger, blcuk. ScJiber, rough. 

Gl&ber, smooth. PTgcr, slow. Teter, ugly. 

Intliger, entire. Ruber, red. Vfifer, crajly. 

LadTcer, ludicrous. 

Dcziter, riglU, has -tra, -trum, or -tSra, -U^rum. 

Obs. 1. The following adjectives have their genitive singular in itui, and the dative ; 
in tV through all their genders : in the other cases like bonus and tener, 
lJnu8| -Ry -urn, genitive unius, dative xxnu one. Alter, alt^rTus, one of two, the other. 
Aliusy -ius, one of many, another. Neuter, -trius, neither, 

Nullus, nullius, none. Uter« utnus, whetfter of the two. 

Solus, -ius, alone, ttterque, utriusque, both. 

Totus, -ius, whole. tTterlYbet, -triusllbet, K which of the two you 

Ullusy -iuS) any. Ctervis,-triu8vis, ( please. 

AlterQter, the one or the other, nlterutrius, alterutri, atid sometimes nlterius utriusi alteri utri, &c. 

These adjectives, except tot its, are called ParlHives ; and seem to resemble, In their signification 
as well as declension, what are called pronominal adjectives. In ancient writers we find them dedined 
like bonus, pa^^e 11. 

Obs. 2. To decline an adjective properly, it should always be joined with a sub- 
stantive in the different genders ; as, bonus libera a good book j bona penna^ a good 
pen ; bonum sedUe^ a good seat. But as the adjective in Latin is often found wiwout 
its substantive joined with jt, we therefore, in declining bonuSy for instance, commonly 
say bonusy a good man, understanding vir or honut / bona^ a good woman, under* 
standing fcemina ; and bonumy a good thing, understanding negotium, 

ADJECTIVES OP THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

1. Adjectives of one termination ; as, felixy for the masculine, felix for the fe 
mlnine, jelix for the neuter, Iiappy. 
See declension of felixy page 1 1. 

In like manner decline, 

AmcnSy -Us, mad. Contamax, stubborn. Frequeng, frequent. 

Atroz, -6cig, cruel. Deniens, mad. Ingens, huge. 

Andaz, -ftcis, and -ens, -tis, bold. £dax, gluttonous. ' Iners, -tis, sluggish 

Bllix, -Ids, woven with a double Efflcax, (effectual. Insons, guiUlSs. 

thread. £l««ait, handsome. Mendaz, Mng. ' 

SL^'iSf"^; Ir^'!!^^^' l^ordBx, bitingrsaiyrieal. 

Cfcur, *ari^ tame. Fgrax, fertile. Pemix, -IcU, iwiftr 

Ctenwi*!, -tis, merciful. Ferox, fierce. PcrvTcax, wilfui: 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 



91 



eithehUd. 
udent, 

den. 



flOsz, -Mil, butful, 
Sttpi«nsy wise. 

ftlll«»-M afcir am J 

Tteax, teniaeunu. 



TtmKgAldBf cruel. 
tbcr, -«rb, firiiie. 
VfAMBoteBM^vdiemeiU, 
Vilox, -Ads, jwt/). 
Vfiraxy cfeoourtng. 



»«agaetoiif. 

ictives of two tenninaiions ; as, lenisy for the masculine and feminiiie ; lene, 
Iter, mid; so, lemoTy lenior^ lenimy milder. See dedensioii of lemsy pagell 

In like manner decline, 

mttris, eftcer/ii/. 
Ig;n6bllis, of mean parentage. 
Imm&nis, huge, cruel. 
In&nis, empty. 



e. 

vely. 

two yean 

t. 

ieoua. 

•avtnly. 

If affable. 

uel. 

tk. 



iQcOiamU, tafe. 
lufkoM, vtfamaus. 
ipsip^ifl, remarkable. 
Jdgis, perpetwaL 
|j«Bvu, mnooik. 
Levis,- lif^. 
M^diocns, middling. 
Mir&bilis, wonderful. 
Alitis, meek. 
Mollisy toft. 
Omnisy dU. 
Putrifly rotten. 
Finguifl, fajt. 
Qu&Us, ojr t^Aof kind. 



ROdis, raw. 

Soiennis, annual^ tqtemn, 
SUbrllls, 6arren. 
Saivis, eweet. 
Subllinisy lofty. 
Sabtilis, Mubtlej fine. 

T&niisy imoff. 
Terrettria, earthly. 
Terrlbtlis, dreadful. 
Tristis, tad. 
Turpis, bate, 
t^ttih, utefvl. 
Vilis, worthlett. 
VfrWi*, green. 
Vltflis, pliant. 



r or acris, 

is. 



^m 



or acris, 



acris, 
-cris, 
-cri, 

-creip, 
-cris, 
-cri, ' 



acre, 

-crisj 

-cri; 

-ere, 

-ere, 

-cri 5 



Phir. 
-cres, 
-crium, 
•cribus, 
-cres, 
-cres, 
-cribus, 



-cna, 

-crimp, 

-cribus, 

-cria, 

-cria, 

-cribus* 



ble. 
i in taste. 
\er. 

bloodless, 
e. 

ttle. 
iat. 

lension of hniovy page 11. In Uke manner all comparatives are declined, 
jctives of three terminations ; as, deer or acrisy for the masculine; acrisy for 
le ; currcy for the neuter, sharp ; thus, 

Sing. 

N. a-crcs, 
G. a-crium, 
D. a-cnbusy 
j4, a-cres, 
V. arcres, 
A, a-cribus, 

manner dldcer or alacrisy ciler or ceUriSy dUh^ or celebrisy sdUtber or 
'olucer or volucrisy &c. 

RULES. 

*ctives of the third declension have e or t in the ablative singular; but if the 
in e, the ablative has i only. 

genitive plural ends in ti/m, and the neuter of the nominative, accmative, and 
) ia : except comparatives, which have um and a. 

EXCEPTIONS. 

Hves, kospesj sospesj supersieSf j&oinis, s^nex, and pauper^ have e only in the ablative 
id consequently um in the genitive pliural. 

lie following have also e in the ablative singular, and um, not ium, in the gen. plural : 
is, ma i^ter of, that hath obtained his desire ; impot, 'Otit, unable ; inopt, Spitf poor ', 
i, suppliant, humble ; uber, -frit, fertile ; consors, -tis, sharing, a partner ; deghUrf -ihris, 
(fr degenerating ; vfgU, watchful ( pUber, 'iris, of age, marriageable ; and uUr. Also com- 
ips, sex, pes, and corpor; as, parHceps, partaking of: ojit/ea;, -ieu, cunning, an artist; 
, two-footed ; bicorpor, -Sris, two-bodied, &ic. All Uiese have seldom the neuter singular, 
never the neuter plural in the nominative and accusative. To which add mimor, mmdftilf 
lemSri, memdrum : also, dises, rises, hebes, perpes, prtepet, tiret, conefikfrf verMHor, which 
the most part want the ^nitivie plural. 

^ar, equal, has only pOn : but its compounds have either e or t; as, eompiire, or -ft. 
has vetira, and vetirum : plus, more, which is only used in the neuter smgdUur, has 
in the plural, pliares, plura or pluria, plurium. • ^ 

Ixspes, hopeless -, and pdH^, -^, able, are only used in the iiomiiiatife. PUit has also 
>otis in the neuter. 

BBMABXS. 

ratives and adjectives in us, have e more frequently than t; and particifdolir^a ablatire 
lUe have gonerally e ; as, Tiberio regnante, not regnan^t, in the rcigii of libiilMli 



92 



NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 



2. A^jcctivw. joined WiA- inlMteDtires neuter for the most part have t; u, tkirUiftmt mc 

3. Diffennt worit Me ■MWfimei used to expresg tlio dHlenat genders ; as, vittOTf wkiiomm, Ar 
the mascaline ; ndrvif for tlia feminine. Viclrix, in the plunil, has likewise the neuter Mate; 
thus, vtdrieesj vietriaa; so aAar, and uUrix, revengefuL Vietrix is also neuter in the siBfnnr. 

4. Several adjectives compounded of eliviUf frennm, baeillumt armaf j&gumt touf, 9omKHM,i^ 
anim^tSf end in u or ta; and therefore are either of the first and second. declensioui or of thetiyrd;8i, 
decifviM, -ir, -e ; and deethnuy -a, -um, steep ; imbeeillisy and imbcdlltUf weak ; temitonmiSf and Mmi tt m 
ntUf half asleep; exanXmit, and ez/n^iTrui, (ifeieas. But several of them do not adroit of this w u - in be; 
thus we say, magiiitr&mu&, JUxanimiu^ ^rimu^ leait^mnwt; not maetULnimUy &c. On the contmyy 
we say, punllanimis, injtiuisy iUhitiSf intomnisi exMnntiu; not pusillanimuSf &ec. So jemtORMHi} ill 
ermit, siiblimisj aedivit, dedici», proclieis; rarely teinianhnus, iic. 

6. Adjectives derived from nouns are called DeHotninatives ; as, eorddius, nidrdtvut oeiuUtfMit- 
maniinttty eorpdrgutt agrtdUf mativuM^ &£c. from cor, mot, OB/um, adamas, kjc. Those which dU- 
nish the signification of their primitives, are called DimintUivet ; as, miselltu, parv&liUt dSri v Ktimi 
&c. Those which signify a great deal of a thing, are called Amptificatires, and end in oiWi sr 
en/Ms; as, vU^sut, vfndUnius, given to much wine; 9pir6tu$, laborious; plumJfdtuSf full of M; 
ndddtutf knotty, full of knots ; eorpUleniuSf corpulent, iic. Some end in tut; as, oitrtfvf,' bafiig 
long or large ears ; tuuutus, having a large nose ; UlenUiu, learned, &c. 

6. An adjective derived from a substantive, or from another adjective, signifying posseasioB or 
property, is called a Potumve Adjtclivt ; as, ScoHeus, patermu, heriiitf tUiemu, of or bekngiog 
to Scotland, a father, a master, another ; from Scotia, pater, herus, and aliui. 

7. Adjectives derived fVora verbs are called yerbaU; as, amaJMU, amiable ; capax, capable; dtMi 
teachable : from avio, capio, doeeo. 

8. When participles become adjectives, they arc called Partidpials ; as, sapient, wise ; aotfvt; 
sharp ; disertus, eloquent Of these many also'become substantives ; as, adoleteens, onimaM, nrtfotf, 
terpens, adrocaius, sponsiu, ttatus, legatus ; sponsa, naia, lerta, sc. corona^ a garland ; prmtexU,K. 
Testis; debitum, de'eretum, praeeptum, solum, tectum, votum, &c. 

9. Adjectives derived from adverbs, are called Adrerbials ; as, hodiemut, from hodie ; eradJMit, 
from eras ; binus, from bis ; iuc. There are alto adjectives derived from prepositions ; as, emUrmivh 
from contra; antfcuSf from atUe; posticus, trompost. 

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives which signify number, are divided into four classes, Cardinal, Ordinalj 
Distributive y and MtMiplicative. 

1. The Cardinal or Principal numbers are : 

Triginta, 
Quadr&ginta, 



Onus, 

Duo, 

TVes, 

Qiultiior, 

Qninqae, 

Sea, 

Septem, 

Octo, 

Nttvemy 



Undecim, 

DnSdfcim, 

TrikiCcim, 

Quatuordecim, 

Quindecim, 

Sexdecim, 

Septendecim, 

Octddteim, 

rifi'reiiidecnn , 

VIglnrt, 

Vigintivnns,ar 

Unas et Tiginti, . 

Vigiiiti duo, or 

Doo et viginti. 



one. 

two. 

three. 

four. 

Jwe. 

six. 

seven* 

eight. 

nine. 

ten. 

eleven. 

twelve. 

thirteen. 

fourteen. 

fifteen. 

sixteen. 

seventeen. 

ei^een. 

nineteen. 

twenty. 

twenty-one. 
tweniy-two. 



Quinqufiginta, 

Sez&ginta, 

SeptuAginta, 

OctAginta, 

NOnftginta, 

Centum, 

DOcenti, 

Trteenti, 

Quadringenti, 

Quingenti, 

Sezcenti, 

Septingenti, 

Octingenti, 

Nongenti, 

Mille, 

Duo millia, or 

bis mille. 
Decern millia, or 

dficies mille, 
Viginti millia, or 

vicies mille, 



thirty, 
forty. 

sixty, 
seventy, 
eighty, 
ninety, 
a hundred, 
two hundred, 
three hundred, 
four hundred, 
five hundred, 
six hundred, 
seven hundred, 
eight hundred, 
nine hundred, 
a thousand. 

two thousand, 
ten^outand. 
twenty Aoutand* 



re which wants the tdaofd^t', 
i, Id. Aid. ir. 1. 61. Ml** 
idered as one whole : aSi f 



The cardmal numbers, exirept unus and mille, want the skigular. 
Umu h not used in the p^ur^, unless when jojned with a subslantive 
as, inwds^bus, m one house, Terent, Eun. U. a 75. Vnm nupHse, L«. „.^ .,. .. «,. ,„ 
mmma eomfentre, Sallust. Cat. 6 : or when seyeral p^fticu^rs are considered as one whole ; u» 
vofmienla, one suit of clothes, Cie. Flape- ?9. 

Du9 and tres are declined, page tl* 

Id the same manner with cftfOy decline am6o, both. 

AU the cardinal numbers from ^uatuor to cmImm, indnding them boA, are indedfaMbtoi **^ 
fransMntai to mtUe, are declined like the plural of 6ont»; thus, dueenti, -trn, -ta; dmeninmr 
'tarum, ^torwn, 4cc. ' 



NUMKKiJL ADJECTIVES. 



J8 



In 



lied dthwr aim h j Ib b Hh wr adjccdTe -, -hnr liliia <ifclftgtiiib_ ii ji 

mmnber; mod kH^ fkani kn maHa, mOiium, miiH^ km, 

1 adjective, is comMBlj Indeclinablei and to express men thw ooa liioiiiaiid. ham the 

Iec. BUfmllsAmnaMfy tare tlioasaiid men; ler flNO/e Aomtnei, &c. Boi wllh atOI;, a 
I we say, attlfe komkmm, a thousand men ; thm miUia homimumt trim mtiUimt qmmhm^ 
urn, or etnUna wuiHm Aomtmim ; dedet eenUna miUiat a uiilUon ; vkiet cenUmm'wvUHm, 
I, be. 

Ordinal numbers are, prtmusy first; sicundug, second, &c declined like 

DiHrihuHne numbers are, nnguH, one by one; friiit, two by two, &c de- 
^ the plural of 6ofiiw. 

i^g Table contains a list of the Ordinal and Distribiitiire Nmnbersi together with the 
Iverbs, which are often joined fKth tlie Numeral Adjectives. 

J^l^imeral 4dv€rbi. 
Semel, once. 
bis, twice. 
teri tkriu, 
quftter, four tim€9 
quinquies, 4^. 
sexies. 
septies. 
octies. 
nAries. 
dfcies. 
andecies. 
duodedes. 
tredecies. 
qoatuordecies. 
quindecies. 
sezdedes. 
decies ae cepties. 
dedes ac octies. 
decies et Bovies. 
vicies. 

▼iciessemel. 
tricias. 
qnadrf^iei. 
qahi^uagies. 



ffdinmi. 


Dittrilnaive. 


■f a) nm. 


SingUii »! a. 


Ins« 


■ -^. 


1. 


temi« 


a. 


qaatemi. 


s. 


quini. 


• 


8€ni. 


NIB. 


septfol. 


S. 


odAni. 




n6v&ii. 


18. 


d&ai. 


mus. 


undtei. 


amus. 


doodtoi. 


IS tertius. 


tredfoi, temideni. 


IS quartus. 


quatemi deni. 


IS qointus. 


qnindeni. 


18 sextos. 


seni deni. 


IS Septimus. 


septeni deni. 


IS octavos. 


octoni deni 


18 nonos. 


noveni deni. 


saSf vicesisius. 


vic^ni. 


mus prfmns. 


victoi singuli 


■us, tricesimtis. 


triceni. 


igesimus. 


qnadrigtoi. 


lagessinnis. 


quinqtiftgeni. 


SHmiB. 


sexftgieni. 


g^esimtis. 


septo^feni. 


simus. 


octog^eni. 


»imu8. 


nonagenl. 


mus. 


ccntenl. 


Miraus. 


diicdni. 


esimus. 


trCcenteni. 


agentSshnus. 


quftter centeni. 


ntesimiis. 


quinquies centeni. 


tesinms. 


sexies centeni. 


^entesimus. 


septies centeni. 


intteYknu8. 


octies centeni. 


itesimus. 


novies centeni. 


mis. 


mill^ni. 


lestmus. 


bis milleni. 



septnagies. 

octOgies. 

nonagies. 

centies. 

dOcenties. 

trteenties. 

quadringenties. 

quingenties. 

sezcenties. 

teptingenties. 

octingenttes. 

ndningenties. 

miUies. 

bis millies. 

MtdtipliciUioe numbers are nmpkXf simple ; diipfex, double, or two-lbld ; 
pie, or three-fold ; quadn/plexy fcyir-fold, &c. all of them declined like 
•i mmplexy 4cts, &c. ' 

■ rnig rtive words to which the above numerals answer, are gneof, fitdiut, 
tStieSf and guotuphx. 

ym many ? is indeclinable : So taty so many ; toUdem^ just so many; jwof- 
;, how many soever ; dttquotj some. 



lumeral adjectives may be added such as express division, pro|>ortion, time, wefght, 
fttiM, tripartUus, &c. duplwt trivhUf &c. bimui, IrlNWt, lie. btenmtf triamu^ be. fttaas- 
, &c. bil&rist trilibris, &c. butdnusj temariutf kc. wUdi last are api>Ued to the miaalMr 
of tilings whatever ; as, versus sinOriui, a verse of six Aet ; dindnus nummuit a oein 
; octogenttriue tenex, an old man dghty years old ; gnx eentenariui, a flock of a 



■i" 



S^4 COMPARISON OF A1>J£CTIY£S. 

The comparifRm of adjectives ezpressesr die quality in different degrees; asi hatd, 
harder f hardegt. 

Those adjectives only are compared, wliose signification admits tiie distinction of 
more and less. 

The degrees of comparison are tiiree, the Positive^ Ckrtitpafaiitey find SuperlaHve. 

The PutUive secnu improperly to be called a deg^ree. It siroplv gi^ifies the quality ; ai, iunuy 
hard : aitd serves only as a foundation for the other degrees. By it we express the r^ialtoa of 
equality ; as, Ae u as Utll tu I. 

The Comparative aitpresses a greater degree of the quality, and has always a reference to a ku 
degree of the same ; as, ttrongoTf wter. 

The SuptrUUiife exiffesses the quality carried fo the greatest degree ; as, itrongestf wittd. 

The comparative degree is formed from the first case of the positive in iy by adding 
the syllable or<, for the masculine and feminine; and us for the neuter. The superialife 
is formed from the .same case, by adding ssimus; as, aAus, higli, gen. aUi: compaisr 
tive, aUioTy for the masc aitior for the fem. dUius for the neuter, higher ; superla^e, 
aUissimuSy -a, -t/m, highest. So mUiSy meek ; dative, wdti ; mitioTf "Wy -tis, medur; 
mitissimuSy -a, -kir, meekest. 

If the positive end in er, the superlative is formed by adding rimus; as, patfer^ 
poor; pauperrimuSy poorest. 

The comparative b always of the third declension, the superlative of the firft and 
second ; as, aUuSy altioTy aittssimits; aUoy afttor, aUissima; aUumy aUiuSy aHisiimiim$ 
genitive, aUiy dUioriSy aUissimiy &c. 

IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE CQBfPARISON. 

1. Bonus, raC'Kor, optTmus, Kood^ btHeVf hai. 
MaluH, pejor, pessTmus, bad^ t^orse, Vforit. 
Magnus, migor, mazTmus, f^^^^t greater, fgrtoM. 
Parrus, minor, mlnVmus, tmailt lesi, iMut. 
Mnltus, —'— plurlmus, muchf more, wiMf. 

Feminine, Multa, plurima; neuter, multum, plus, plurimum; plural, muki, plurci, pMaii 
multee, plures, plurinrae, Lc. 

In several of these, both in English and Latin, the comparative and superlative seem lo be Ibraed 
from some other adjective, whidi in the positive has fallen into disuse ; in others, the regular ftm 
.is contracted ; as, maximtu, for magniuinnu; mott, for morest ; least, for leMtett ; VMural, forwtntd. 

2. These five haVe their superlative in Umus: 

Ficllis, facilior, facilllmus, taxy. Imbteillis, imbecillior, imberilllmusy twdb. 

CMcllis, f racilior, gracillimus, lean. Simllis, similior, similUmus, Ukt, 

Httmllis, humilior, humiUimus, low. 

S. The following adjectives have regular comparatives, but form the sup crl a l hr c 
differently ; 

Citer, citerior, citimus, near, M&tOrus, -ior, maturrVmus, wr Matoriniiraif 

Dexter, dcxterior, dextimus, r'^ht. ripe, 

STnister, sinisterior, sinistVmus^ left. Fost&rus, posterior, postremus, behind. 

Extnr, -erior, extimus, or extremus, outward. Sdp^rus, -rior, suprOmuH, or summus, AigA. 

Iiii^nis, -ior, infrmus, or imus, helou). Vdtus, v£t^or, v^terrlmus, old. 

latSruK, interior, intlmus, inward. 

4. Compounds in dicus, IdquuSy Jicus, and volus, have enftor, and eniissimuif 
as, m&UdicuSy railing, mdlidicentiory maledicentissimus : So magmldqmtSy one that 
boasteth; 6^it^ct», beneficent ^ ma/et^d/t/^, malevolent, mfn/?ct/8, wonderfid; -enfwr, 
'enHssimuSy or mirijicissimus. Nequaniy indeclinable, worthless, vicious, lias ntquknf: 
nemnssimus. 

There are a great many adjectives, which, though capable of having their significa* 
tion increased 5 yet eitiier want one of the degrees of comparison, or are not compalri 
at all. 

1» The following adjectives are not used in the positive : 

D«terior, worse, detcrrimus. Prttpior, nearer, proxtons, nearest or fi«*. 

Odor, Bwifter, ocissTmus. Ulterior, farther, ultYmus. 

rnoT, former, primus. 

2. The following want the comparative: 

Jnclytnsy inclytissimos, renowned. Ni&p^rus, nuperrYmus, late. 

Merftus, meritissiraus, deterring. I^air, pftrissimus, equal. 

XV0VU8, ilovissfmus, new. Sftcer, sacerriraus. saered 



PRONOUN. 9S 

S. The following uNmt the superlatite : 

ddfeflceiif, adolescentHMTy ^fnmg, opimiif y bpimior, rich, 

ifthgmiii dmtamior, lakmg. PrAnuti prooior, vncHned dowmoardt. 

igns, ingciitior, huge. Situr, tatarior) full, 

ivMt, jwBuor, young. Steei, lenior) m. 

TosoppljT the superlative of jUvgnis, or dddletcerUf we say, minlmuM natUf the yoinigest; soAof 
inex, moxiima na(u, the oldest. 

Adjeetircs in ilis, dlitf and bUlit, also want the superlative ; aS| civtiiSf eiviliorf civil ; rf| 
^Caiwr, regal ; fluMu, -tor, lamentable. So, juvenilUt youthful; exilit, small ; &c. 
To these add several others of different terminations : Thus, aredtiuMt -tor, secret ; decllmt, 
ending downwards ; lon^inquusy -tor, far off; prdpinquusy -tor, near. 
.AUfrior^ fwmer ; j^qmuw, worse ; MdHor, better ; are only found in the comparative. 
4 Mtoy adjectives are not compared at all ; such are those Compounded with nouns or verbs , aiy 
trtUiHorf of divers colours ; petRferf poisonous : also adjectives in ta pure, in iwtUf inia, orii«| or 
■ w ^ iid diminutives ; as, dOfrtiM, doubtful ; vdewu, empty ; f&gUivuM, that flieth away ; mdiiUfntu, 
n^r) eUnifrusy shrill ; UgHtlmut, lawful ; UnelltUf somewlmt tender ; majutculiu, &c. together with 
atik many others of various termhiations ; as, almuSf gracious ; prttcox^ -deisf soon or early ripe ; 
wM^ fginuti Idcer, mifmorf totpet, &c. 

Tfaib cwfect or comparison is supplied by putting the adverb magis before the adjective, for the 
on^uative degree ; and vidfU or maximi for the superlative ; thus, egaiia, needy ; fnagis egemu* 
vn needy ; vmd6 or maximi egenuty very or most needy. Which form of comparison is also used 
1 ftose adjectives which are regularly compared. 

PRONOUN. ^^ 

A Prdnoun is a word which stands instead of a Nairn. 

Thus, / stands for the name of the person who speaks ; thou for the name of the person addressed. 

Pronouns serve to point out objects, whose names we either do not know, or do not want to 
lemioa. They also serve to shorten discourse, and prevent the too frequMit repetition of the same 
'ord ; thtis, instead of sdying. When Cketar had conquered (raul, Caaar turned desar'sarms againH 
^•mw't eouniryf we say, When Csesar had conquered Craul, ^e turned his arms ag€unst his country.. 

The simple pronouns in Latin are eighteen; ego, tu, mi; iUe, ipse, iste, htc^ is 
^^; meusy tuus, stmsy noster, tester; nostras, vestras, and cujas. 
Tme of them are substantives, lego, tu, sui; the other fifteen are adjectives. 

Obi. I. £^0 wants the vocative, because one cannot call upon himself, except as a second person ; 
m, we cannot say, O ego, O I; nos, O we. 

Ois. S. Mihi in the dative is sometimes by the poets contk^cted into mi. 

Ob8. 8. The genitive plural of ego was anciently nostrorum and nottratwn; of /u, vtUrorum 
■d ttdrmvm, which were afterwards contracted into nottrUm and veslHim. 

Wecomihonly use nottrOan and veHrUm after partitives, numerals, comparatives, or superlatifVi; 
Dd nodri and veitri after other words. 

tlie En^h substantive pronouns, he, she, it, are expressed in Latin by these pro> 
lomtnal adjectives, ille, iste, hie or is. lUe, iste, hie, and is, express he, &c. with this 
lifierence : Ate is nearest to ^e speaker ; iste, next ; and ille, farthest off. Is generally 
lenotes a person absent. 

lUe usually implies respect, and iste contempt or aversion; as, Alexander ille 
Mgnus, Alexander the great. Tarquinius iste Superbus, Tarquin the Proud, 

Ipse is often joined to ego, tu, sui; and has in Latin the same force with seff' in 
English, when joined with a possessive pronoun ; as, ego ipse, I myself. 
), tu, sui, ille, ipse, iste, hie, is, quis, qui, are declined in page 12. 
ie other pronouns are derivatives, coming from ego, tu, and sui. Mens, my or 
i^e *, tints, thy or thine; suits, his own, her own, its own, their own, are declined fike 
^ow», *aj -urn : and noster, our ; vester, your ; like ptdcTier, 'chra, -chrum, of the first 
iod second declension. 

Nostras, of our country ; vestras, of your country ; cujas, of what or which country^ 
^ dedined like felix, of the third declension : gen. nostrdtis, dat. nostrdti, &c. 

IVoDouns as well as nouns, that signify things which cannot be addressed or called 
?x», want the vocative. 

Meiw hath mi, and sometimes mens, in the vocative singular, masculine. 

The relative qui has frequently qtil in the ablative ; and that, which is remarkable, in all genders 
^ numbers. 

W b sometimes used for ^i* ; and instead of cujw, the genitive of qai», we find an adjediva 

**omi, eujuiy •a, 'Um. * ,i - t 

«*ple pronouns, with respect to their signification, are divided mto the following classes : 
}pmonttralivet, which point out any person or thing present, or as if present: ego, tu, 
•*! itte, and sometimes ille, is, ipse^. 



96 PRONOUN. 

2. Bettttives, which refer to •omethin; goinf before : tZfe, ipM, itte, fuct ik, qui 
8. Pc»»esnve»t which signify possession : mem, tutu, nnu, notter, voter. 
4. PalriaU pr GentUeM, which signify one's country : no^rat, restrat, cujat. 
6. Inierrogativei, hj which we ask a question : quu f eujiu f When th^ do not ask a (|uestiOD, 
they are called indeJinUea, like other words of the same nature. 
6, Rteiprocalt, which again call back or represent the same object to the mind : sui and twu. 

^ COMrOUlVD rSOROUNS. 

Pronouns atV ^M^Mmnded variously : 

1. With other pronouiM ; as, isthicj tsthme, tMthoe, i$lhue, or istue. Ace. Itthunc, isthsuc, iMlne, or 
ittkue, Abl. itth^e, iUkMef itthoe. Nom. and accusative plural, neuter, itikmc, of ide and Ate. So tUic, 

of iUe and hk. 

2. With some other parts of speech ; as, hujutmddi, ewjvMmddi, he. micum, tecum, t&umf nehU- 
ctmn, volnteum, quaeum or quteum, aiid ^6u«!iiin .* eeetun, eecam; aeeot, eeeas^ and somcdnes eeeHj 
in the nominative singular, of ecec and u. So eihun, of eeee and tUc. 

8. With some syllable added ; as, tide, of tu, and te, used only in the nom. egSmMt, tmtimeti 
nOmei, through ali the cases, thus, meimei, tuknet, &c. of ego, tu, mi, and met. Instead of h«iM<» 
in tbc nom. we say, tutHmet : hieeuU, hmeaau, &c. in aD tlie cases that end in c; of Im and erne : 
MeapU, tuapte, tuapte, ruutrapte, vestrapte, in the abl. fem. and sometimes meepte, ttu^e, &c. of nncSr 
he, and pte : hiece, hmeee, httOie; kuiusee; hSee, hixe, hoace ; of hie, and ce : wheoMce hujtucifwiddi, tjuB- 
eemddi, eujuteemddL So IDEM, the same, compounded of is. and dem, which is thus dedined: 

Sing, 

A*. Idem, eftdero, 

O. ejusdem, ejusdero, 

D. eldemi eidem, 

j|. eundem, eandem, 

V. idem, eadem, 

Jl, eodem^ elUlem, 

The pronouns which we find most frequently compounded, are quis and qui. 
Qiiif in composition is sometimes the first, sometimes the last, wad sometimes likewise the middle 
part of the word compounded : but qui is always the first 

1. The compounds of quis, in which it is put first, are, quisnamt who.' quispiam, quisquam, any 
one ; quisque, every one ; quisquis, whosoever ; which are thus dedioed : 

JVbm. Gen. DsU. 

Quifnam, qussnam, quodnam or quidnam; cujusnami cuinani. 

Qjoifpiam, quepiam, quodpiara or quidplam ; cujuspiam, cuipiam. 

Quisquam, quaequam, quodquaro, or quidquam ; cujusquam, • cuiquam. 

Quisque, quaeque, quodque, or quidque ; cuiusque, cuique. 

Quisquis, quidquid or quicquid; cigusciyus, cuicui. 

And so in the other cases, according to the simple quis. But quisquis has not the femmine at aO; 
and the neuter <»nly in the nominative and accusative. Q^isquam has also qmcqutan for quidquam. 
Accusative qiunquam, without the feminine. The plural is scarcely used. 

2. The compounds of quis, in which quis is put last, have qiM in the nom. sing. fem. and in the 
nominative and accusative phiral, neuter ; as, ahquis some ; eequis, who .' of ef and quis; alsofie^tiiS) 
nouw, ffuff^fuw, which for the most part are read separately thus, * * 
Tbey are thus declined : 

JCom. 







Phtr. 




Idem, 


A*, ifdem. 




eSdem, 


ejusdem. 


G. eorundem. 


earundem. 


eorundem, 


eldem. 


D. eisdem, or 


iisdem, &c. 




idem, 


,i. eosdemy 


eas<iemy 


c&dem. 


Idem, 


V. iidem. 


eaedem, 


e&dem. 


eOdem; 


Ji. eisdem, or 


iisdem, kc. 





AUquis, oliqua. 


aliquod or 


aliquid ; 


£cquis, ecqua or ecque. 


ecquod or 


ecquid; 


Si quis, si qua. 


si quod or 


si quid ', 


Ne quis, ne qua, 


ne quod or 


ne quid ; 


Num quis, num qua. 


num quod or 


num quid ; 



1, ne qms, st 


qws, num quu 


Gen. 


Dat. 


alicujus, 


alicui. 


eccujus. 


eccui. 


si cujus. 


si cui. 


ne cujus. 


ne cui. 


num cujus. 


num cuL 



8. The compounds which have quis in the middle, are ecquisMtm, who ? unusqutsque, gen. tttini'* 
ei^fusaue, every one. The former is used only in the nom. sing, and the latter wants the plural 

4. The compounds of ^itt are quicunque, whosoever ; qiddam, some ; qidH^bet, quivis, any one 
whom you please , which are thus declined : 

J^om. Gen. Dot. 

Quicunque, quKcunque, quodcunquc; cujuscunque, cuicnnqu^. 

Quidam, qwedam, -quaddam or quiddam; cujusdam, cuidam. 

Qul!n>et» quvlibet, quodlibet or quidlibet; cujuslibet, cuilibet. 

Qnlvis, qusBvis, quodvis or quidvis; cujusvis, cuivis. 

Obs. 1. All these compounds have seldom or never qutis, but quibus, m their dative and ablative 
plural; thus, aliqtAbtu, &c. 

Obs. 2. Quts and its compounds, in comic writers have sometimes quis in the feminine geader. 

Ou. 8. (fjuidam has qxiendmm, quondam, quoddam or quiddam, in the accusative singular } tf^ 
quorundam, qutmmdam, qitorundam, in the genitive plurali n being put instead of m. for the better 
sQiuid. ' 

Obs. 4. Q^od, with its compounds, aliquod, quodvis, quoddam, &c. are used when they agf^* 
with a substantive in the same case; quid, with its compounds, aliquui, quidvis, &c. for theffflit 
part, have either no substantive expressed, or govern one in the genitive. For this reason. tfc«y 
are by tome reckoned substantives. 



97 

is a word which expresses what is affirmed of diii^^ as, the boy readi. 

kine^. The man loves* 

wrb is that part of speech which signifies to be^ to do^ or to sufer^ 

d Verb or Word, by way of eminence ; because it is llie most etMDtial word in a sen' 
»iit which the other parts of speech can form do complete sense. Thus, the diHgehi boy 
ton with caret is a perfect sentence ; but if we take away the wtbrnmAmf or we woid 
rendered imperfect, or rather becomes no sentence at all ; thus, the ^Hgeni boy his 
zetre. 

srefore may be thus distinguished from any other part of speech : Whataver word expresses 
on or tfssertion, is a verb ; or thus. Whatever word,' with a substantiTO noun or pronoun 
ler it, makes full aense, is a verb ; aa» siones faU, / walk, walk thou. Here faU and 
:bs, because they contain an affirmation ; but when we say, a hmg watkt a dm^erous 
m no affirmation expressed ; and tlie same words weUk and fcUt become substantives or 
! oiften find likewise in Latin the same word used as a verb, and ako as some other part 
thus, amoTf "oris, love, a substantive ; and amor, I am loved, a rerb. 

with respect to their signification, are divided into three different classes, 
assivey and Neuter; because we consider things either as acting, or being 
I : or as neither acting, nor being acted upon ; but simply existing, or exist- 
rtain state or condition, as in a state of motion or rest, &c« 
4ctive verb expresses an action, and necessarily supposes an agent, and an 
id upon ; as, amarej to love ; amo te^ I love thee. 

rb Passive expresses a passion or sufTerin^, or the receiving of an action; 
arily implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon ; 
to be loved ; tu cundris a me, thou art loved By me. 
uter verb properly expresses neither action nor passion, but simply the being, 
rndition of things ; as, dtninioy I sleep ; sedeo, I sit. 
b Active is also called TVansitive, when the action pnsseth over to the object, 
effect on some other thing ; as, scribo lit^raSy I write letters ; but when the 
)nfined within the agent, and passeth not over to any object, it is called 
)e ; as, ambulo^ I walk ; a/rro^ I run ; which are likewise called Nether 
any verbs in L^tin and English are used both in a transitive and in an in* 
>r neuter sense; as, sistire, to stop; indpere, to begin; dura/re^ to endure, 
m, &c. 

'liich simply signify beings are likewise called Substantive verbs; as, esse^ 
', to be or to exist. The notion of existence is implied in the signification 
erb ; thus, J /ore, may be resolved into, I am loving, 
le meaning of a verb is expressed without any affirmation, or in such a fcHrm 
ined to a substantive noun, partaking thereby of the nature of an adjective, 
a Participle; as, amansy loving; amattis, loved. But when it has the 
substantive, it is caUcd a Gerund or a Supine; as, amandttniy loving; 
o love ; amatu^ to love, or to be loved. 

is varied or declined by Voices, Modes, Tenses, JVumbers, and 

are two voices ; the Active and Passive. 

ofdes are four ; Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive. 

nses are five ; the Present, the Preter-imperfeet, the Preter-perfect^ 

'•'pluperfect, and the Future. 

imbers are two ;- Singular and Plural. 

rsons are three ; First, Second, Third, 

xpresses the difi^rent circumstances in which we consider an object ; whether as acting*^ 

id upon. The ^etwe voice signifies action ; as, &mo, I love ; the Pamve, suffering, or 

ject of an action ; as, amor, I am loved. 

jr Moodt are the various manners of expressing the signification of the verb. 

itive declares or affirms positively ; as, amo, I love } amdho, I shall love : or asks a 

i, an /u am£u f dost thou love ^ 

inctioe is usually joined to soinc other verbs, and cannot make a full meaning by itself 

iScret redibo, if he erUreat me, I will return. Ter. 

'Olive commands, exhorts, or entreats ; as, ama, love thou. 

live simply expresses the signification of the verb, without limiting it to any person or 

, amdre, to love. 

or Timet express the time wtien any H^ is supposed to be, to act, or to suffer. 

eneral is divided into three parts, the present, past, and future. 

n 



»8 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



Pas time is expressed three different wayg. When we speak of a thiDgy which was doings but not 
finished at some former time, we use the Prtter-imperftct, or past tune not completed } as, taibibam^ 
I was writing. 

When we speak of a tiding now finished, wc use the Prcter-perfectf or past time completed ; as; 
Mcripsi, I wrote, or have written. 

When we speak of a thing finished at or before some past time, we use the Preter-pluperfed, or 
past time more than completed ; as, teriptlhramt 1 had written. 

Future time is expressed two different ways. A thing may be considered either as simply about 
to be done, or as actually finished, at some future time; as, «m6am, 1 shall write, or, I shall [then} 
be writing; scripsgro, I shall ha\<^ written. 

4. KumbtT marks how many we suppose to be> to act, or to suffer. 

5. Person shows to what the meaning of the verb is applied, whether to the person speaking, to 
the person addressed, or to some other person or thing. 

Verbs have two numbers and three persons, to agree with substantive nouns and pronouns, in 
these respects : for a verb properly halh neither numbers nor persons, but certain terminations 
answering to the person and number of its nominative. 

A verb is properly said to be conjugated, when all its parts are properly claued, or as it were, 
yoked together, according to Voice, Mode, Tense, Number, and Person. 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

The Latins have four different ways of varying verbs, called the Firsf^ the Second, 
the TIttrd, and the Fourth ConfugcUion. 

The Conjugations are thus distinguished : 

The First has a long before re of the Infinitive j the Second has e long, the Thircfl 
lias e short, and the Fourth has i long, before re of the Infinitive. 

£xcept Jdfe, to give, which has d short, and also its compounds ; thus^ CircundOre, to surround. 
cireundhmm, -iidlisy -dUbam, -d&bo, he. 

The different conjugations are likewise distinguished fix>m one another by the differe 
terminations of the following tenses. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

INDICATIVE MODE, 

PRESENT TENSE. 



. 




Singular. 




■ 




Plural. 








Persons. 










Persons. 






1. 




2. 




«. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


i-ii- 


-o. 




•as, 




-at; 


-fimus, 


-fitis, 


•«nt 


Ca;2. 


-eo, 


• 


-eg. 




-et ; 


-emus, 


-etib, 


-eoC 


?s ) ?• 


-o, 




-is, 




-it; 


-Ymus, 


-Uis, 


-ont. 


(S (4. 


-io, 




-is, 




-it; 


-tnms, 


-Itrs, 


-iunt. 












IMPERFECT. 






1. -abani, 




-abas, 




-abat ; 




-ftbanuis. 


•aLatis, 


-ftbatv^- 


2< -Sbam, 




-€biM, 




•«bat; 




-tibamus, 


-eb&tis, 


-Sbai*^- 


3. •£bam, 




-£bas, 




-ebat ; 




-t'bftmus. 


-£l>&ti8. 


•QmA'^' 


4. -iebam, 




•iebas, 




-iebat ; 




-iCb&u:us, 


-iebdtis, 


-iebarat 












FUTURE. 






' 1. -abo, 


• 


'Ubis/ 




-abit ; 




-&birmus, 


•fibnix, 


-abuo^* 


2. -€bo, 




-gbis, 




-ebit ; 




-ebTmus, 


-dbftis. 


-€bOTCB*' 


3. -am, 




-es. 




-et; 




-emus. 


-etis. 


-ent. 


4. -lami 




-ies, 




-iet; 




•iemus. 


-ietis 


•ient. 










SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 






9 








PRESENT TENSE. 






1. -emy • 




-es, 




-et; 




-emus. 


-«tis. 


Hent. 


2. -e&m, 




•eas, 




-eat; 




-eamus. 


-e&tis, 


•eAiBt. 


Oi -am,' 




-as. 


• 


-at; 




-&mus, 


-&tis, 


•anf. 


4< -Mun, 




-ias^ 




-iat; 




-iomus 


-ifitis, 


-lant. 












lAlPERFECT. 






i, -&remV 




'kreif 




-siret; 




-fir€mus> 


•&r€tis. 


^Lreo^' 


2. .iSrem, 




-€res. 




-eret ; 




-€r&nus, 


-er£tis, 


.ftrent. 


3. "Srem^ 




-gres. 




-€ret ; 




-Sr€mu8, 


-^r&iSf 


.&«pt« 


^ "J^MI/ 




'ires. 




-Iret; 


.• 


-.irSmus, 


-Iretis, 


.{rent 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 
niPERATIFE MOOD^ 



^ 



\ 





2. 




8. 


1. •« 


or 


•ato» 


-ato ; 


2. -e 


or 


-Mo, 


-do', 


3. -e 


4tr 


-ItOy 


-Ito; 


4. -i 


or 


'ItOy 


-2to; 





2. 




S. 


-ftte 


or 


-atdte, 


•aato. 


•fite 


w 


-etdtc, 


-ento 


•rte 


or 


-ItOte, 


-onto. 


'lie 


or 


-itote, 


-iunto. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
INDICATIVE MODE: 

PRESENT TENSE. 



1. -OFi 


-aris 


or 


-arc 


-§tur ; 


-ftnuir, 


-Hniiiii, 


-aiitur. 


2.-eor, 


-€ri8 


or 


•€re 


-€tur; 


-eraur, 


-euilui, 


-entiir. 


8. -OTj 


-8rig 


or 


-€re 


-Wur ; 


-Yiour, 


-hnini, 


•uutur. 


4. -ior. 


-iris. 


or 


-ire 


-itur; 
liMPERFECX. 


-iinur, 


-imliii, 


% 


1. -abar. 


-aliaris 


or 


•abare. 


-&b&tur; 


-abftmur, 


-abamini, 


-abaatur'. 


2. -€bar» 


-ebaris 


or 


-^bftre, 


-ebatur ; 


-ebamur, 


-eb&ffilui, 


-ebantur. 


3. -«bar, 


-Sb&rts 


or 


-ebftre, 


-eb&tur; 


-tibftmur. 


•€b&inYnJ, 


-('bantur. 


4. -Ubar> 


-iibaris 


or 


-iebftre. 


-ieb&tur ; 
i'UTURfe. 


-i^b&mar, 


•ieb&mYni, 


-iebantur. 

• 


1. -«bor, 


-abSris 


or 


-Sb«re, 


-&bYtur ; 


•abtraur, 


-ftblmliii. 


-abuntbr 


2. -€bbr, 


-^Mris 


or 


-«b€re, 


-ebKur ; 


-^Ymur, 


-ebimYni, 


-ftbontur 


3. -ar, 


-€ris 


or 


-ere,. 


-etur J 


-emur. 


-£mYni, 


-entor. 


4. -iai*, 


-icris 


&r 


-iSre, 


-ictur ; 


•iemur, 


-ifimlni, 


-ienAir. 








SUKTUNCTiyE MODE. 


, 












PRESENT TENSE. 






1. -€r, 


-&» 


or 


-ere,' 


-Ilur ; 


-€mur, 


. -^uijfni. 


-eutur. 


2. -car, 


-eftris 


or 


-e&re,. 


-efttur ; 


-eamur, 


-carnVni, 


-eantai 


3 -ar, 


-ftris 


or 


-*rc, 


-fttiir; 


-imur, 


-&mYni, 


-antur. 


4. -iar, 


-iftris 


or 


-iare, 


-iatur ; 
IMPERI'ECT. 


-iamur, 


-UUnVDi, 


'iaiitiit- 


1- -ftrer, 


-areris 


or 


-ar€re, 


-iretor; 


-ftreniur, 


-ar£iAftii, 


-ftrentiir. 


2. Hgrtr^ 


-«r£ni 


0r 


-er€rc, 


-€r€ttir; 


-Cremur, 


-Srimarni, 


-€raittir« 


3. -«re, 


-«i«ris 


or 


-^rfirc, 


-6r6tur ; 


-(T^mnr, 


-erfittinii; 


WSrentuf. 


4. -iWjTi 


4r§rii 


or 


-Ircre, 


*Iretur ; 


-iremur, 


-ir^mlTni, 


-Irentur. 




« 




IMPERATiyE MODE. 




- 






2. 




3. 


2 


8. 






1. -are 


or 


-ator, 


-ator ; 


•amtoi. 


•antor. 






2. -«ra 


or 


-ftor, 


-et6r ; 


-Smhni, 


-entor. 






3. Hire 


Of 


• -ttorj 


-nof; 


-rmlni, 


-Viito/ir, 




,. 


4. -Ire 


Of 


• -ttor, 


-Iter ; 


-imiiii, 


-iimtor 





Oboerve, Verbs in to' of the. third ^pnju^ation have tun/ in the third person plural of the present 
^^dic adive) and iuntur. in the passire -, and so in the impevative, iurUo ma^fmtor. In the imper- 
^ aad future of the indicative, they have always the terminations of tfe fourth coiyugation^ 
tfAon and iam ; iibar and tar, &c. 

..The tenninations' of tile other tenses are the same through afl tne Conjugatioiub 
Tliui, 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 



■ 1. 


. Sing. 
2. • 
-irti, 
-^ras, 


3. 1 

-it ; -lAius, 
-Srat ; -IMmusi 

SVlUVNCTlVE MODE. 


P/i 
2. 
-istis, 
-Sr&tisy 


vr, 

3. 
-Smnt-^r £rcf. 
-Sranti ■ 


«». -isscm, 
J^. -€ro. 


-^ris, 

.-isses, 

-«ri8, 


-grit ; -SrYmus, 
-isset ; -iss&nus, 
-Srit ; -Srlknusy 


-ftrltis, 

-rssetis, 

-Sritis', 


-ferint. 

-issent. 

-Srint. 



/ 



These Tenses, in the Passive Voicey up formed by the Participle Perfect^ and the 
aoxUiaiy verb mmy which is also used tAxpress the Future of the Infinitive Active* 
^ conjugation of the verb «/m, in page 9- 



IM FOSMATIQN OF VERBS. 



Obs. 1. Tbe personal pronouns, whidi ip Eisi^ish are, for th^ most part, added to the verb, in 
Latin are commonly onderstood ; because Ae several persons are suiliciently distinguished from one 
another by the different termmations of the verb,. thoup;h the persons themselves be not expressed 
The learner, howerer, at first may be a<Huistomed to join them with the verb; thus, ego Jum, I am ] 
iu etf thou art, or you vce; itteettf he is ; not iumust we are, &c. So, ego Hmo, I love; tu amoi. 
tbou lovest, or you iove ; tile amatf he knveth or loves ; nos amamtUf we love, &c. 

Obs. 2. In the second persim singular in Engligh, we commonly use the plural Amn, except in 
solemn discom-se; as. In e$, then art, or much ofteneri you are ; trntrast thou wast, or you were : 
iu fif, thou mayest be, or you may be, Sic. So, tm annoMj thou lovest, or you love ', tu amabatj thoc 
lovedst, or you loved, &.c. 

For examples of the variation of regular verbs in the difll^rent conjugations, 8e« 
pages 18, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, & 98— IIS. 

FORMATION OF VERBS. 

There are four principal parts of a verb, from which all the rest are fcMrmed; namdy 

of tibe present, t of the perfect, um of the supine, and re of the infinitive ; accord 
ing to the fc^owing rhyme : 

1« From o are fonaed am and em, 
2. From t; rcMi, rtm, ro, ctCy and ««e»t. 
5« Uy ttf. and ntf,. are lorm'd from um. 

4. All ouer parts from re do come ; as, bamy ho^ rem ; a, e, and i ; ns and du9 
dumf dOf and<n; as, 

AarOy -edi ; Am-avi, -eram, •erim, -issem, -ero, 'isse ; Amat>um, -u, -urus, -us ; Am-are, -abam 

-abOy Hurem, -a, -ans,' andum, di, do, -audus. 
0oc-eDy -earn ; Doc-ui, -ueram, &c. Doct-um, -u, -urus, -us; Doc-ere, -ebam, -ebo, -erem, -e, -ens 

•eBdom, di, do, -endns. 
Ltr-o, -am ; Le^-i, -eraA, inc. Lect-um, -n, -urus, -us ; Leg«-^re, -ebam, erem, -e, -ens,-endum, Szc 
AiM-io, -iam ; Aud-ivi, -iveram, tic. Audit-um, -u, -urus, -us; Aud-ire, iebam, -irem, -i, -iens. 

-iendum, di, do, -iendus. — So verbs of the third conjugation in io ; as, Cap-io, -iam ; Ccp-i, -eram; 

&c. Capt-um, -u, &ic. Cap-£re, -iebam, -drem, -e, -iens, -ienduni, di, do, -iendus. 

The passive voice is formcKd from the active, by adding r to o, or changing m into r. 

But it is much more easy and natural to form all the parts of a verb from the pte^ 
tent and perfect of th^ indicative, and from the supine ; thus, 

Am-o, -ibam, -&bo, -era, -&rem, -a or -ftto, -Are, .-ans, •andum, di, do, k.c, -andus : 

Amav-i, -Cram, -£riip, -issem, -Cro, -isse : Am&t-um, -us, -dros. 

So Doc*eo, -ebam, -ebo, -cam, -drem, -e or -eto, -ere, -ens, -endam, di, &lc. -endus ; Docu-i, -drani, 

^rim, -issem, -^o, -isse : Doct-um, -us, -unis. 
Ti£g-o, -€bam, -am, -esi -et, &c. -am, -as, -at, &c. i^rem, -e or -tto, -^-e, -ens, -cndum, &c. endus : 
Leg-i, -Cram, &c. Lect-nm, -us, -urus : 
Cftp-lo, -i^bam, -iam, -ies, -iet, &c. -iam, -ias, &c. £rem, -e -or Ito, -Cre, -iens, -iendom, -iendus : 

Cep-i, -^ram, &c Capt-uni, -us, -Arus. 
Aud-io, i€bam, &c. Audlv-i, -^ram, kjc. 

A verb is cosnmoi^ said to be conjugated, when only its principal parts are men- 
tioned, because from them all the rest are derived. 

The first perscm of the Present of the indicative is caUed the Theme or the Root oi 
the verb, because from it the other three principal parts are fcNrroed. 

The letters of a verb which always remain the same, are called Radical letters ; as, 
am in am^. The rest are called the Termtnaiion ; as, abamMs in ami-ahaimu». 

All the letters which come before -are, -ere, -^re, or ^re, of the infinitive, are radical 
letters. By putting these before the terminations, all the parts of any regular verb 
may be reaidily formed, except the compound tenses. 

SIGNIFICATION OF THE TENSES IN THE VARIOUS fliODES. 

Tbe tenses formed from the present of the indicative or infinldve signify in general the continu- 
ance of an action or passion, or represent them as present at some particular time : the other 
tenses express an action or passion completed; but not always so absolutely, as entirely to exclude 
the continuance of the same action or passion ; thus, j^mo, I love, do love, or am loving ; amab/mf 

1 loved, did love, or was loving, &c. 

Jhnavi, I loved, >iid love, or have loved, fhatiSf have done with loving, &c. 
In like manner m the passive voice ; Amor, I va loved^ I am in loving, or in being loved, &c. 
Past tinie in the passive voice is expressed several ouRereht ways, by means of the auxiliary 
veih turn, and the participle perfect ; thus, 

IndUtttwe Mode. 

Bnfect. Amalua tunif I ami or have been loved, or oflenerf 1 was loved. 

AmOhif fid, I bave been loved, or I nas loyed. 
Plh-pforiect Am0hu eram, I was, or had been lovA. ji 

Jhhahu fueram, I had been loved. "^ ' 



SIGNIFICATION OF THE DIFFERENT TENSES. lOl 

SitbJHnetirt Mtde. 

Perfect jSmattu am, I may be, «r nay hav« teen loved. 

^nuUus fuerim, 1 majr. have been loved. 
Pin-perfect. JhntUus essem, I might, could, would, Mr duuld be, or have been loved. 

,Amalw fnissem, 1 might, could, wouM^ tr gho^ld have beeo loved, or had been loved. 
Future. AmcUus futro, I shall liave been loved. 

The verb nan is aliM> employed to express future time in the indicative mode, both, artivc and 
passive; thus, 

Jmaiurus tunif I am about to love, I am to love, I am going to love, or I will In\r. 
We chiefly use this form when some purpose or intention is signified. 

JinuU%u ero» I shall be loved. 

Ob8. 1. The partiniples anuUtu and amaturut are put before the auxiliary verb, because we cum- 
monly find them so placed iu the classics. 

Obs. 2. In these compound tenses the learner should be taught to vary the participle like an 
adjective noun, acconling to the gender and number of the di&rent substantives to which it is 
ajjilied ; thus, aauUus est, he is ;or was loved, when applied to a man ; amata estt she was loved, 
when applied to a woman ; amattim est, it was loved, when applied to a thing ; amaii tuntf they 
were loved, when applied to men, &c. The connecting of syntax, so far as is ne^essacyy with 
the inflection of nouns and verbs, seems to be the most proper method of teaching both. 

Obs. 3. The past time and participle perfect in English are taken in difi'erent nie«nin«» •eoord' 
ing to the diflerent tenses in Latin \%hich they are used to express. Thus, ** I loved," when pot for 
amabamy is taken in a sense diflerent from what it has when pot for amavi; so anwr^ and 
QMohu tunif I am loved ; mnabor and anuitut eram, I was loved ; am«r and amatUM tim, ht. In the 
one, loved is taken iu a present, iu the other in a past sense. This ambiguity arises from the 
defective nature of the English verb. 

Obs. 4. The tenses of the subjimctive mode may be variously rendered, according to their con- 
nexioa with the other parts of a sentence. They are often expressed in iUiglish as the same tenses 
of the indicative, and sometimes one tense apparently put for anotlier. 

Thus, Qnim inteUiganty qiiidU rity As if they understood* what kind of person he is, Cic. In 
faebmu iurdtses pules, Tou would think, kc. Ov. Eioauar an nUam t Shall I speak out, or be 
sBeat? Jvee ros «^mm, Teucri, for At;giMtm, Virg. Si quid te fitgerity egoperierimy for perilo, 
Ter. Avne ego » potid Ionium tpermre dobrem ; Et frefvre^ soror, poiero : for poiuiMtem and 
gweia , Virg. Singyla quid referam f Why should I mention every thing ? Id. Pnediure* mihiy 
xon sboold have t^ me before hand, Ter. Jit tu diclia, Mbane, manerety (hight to have stood 
to your word, Vii^^. Cititti erediderimy I should sooner iMslieve, Juv. Htmmit entiiy The sword 
^^<Mld have destroyed, Virg. Fnerint troft*. Grant or suppose they were angiy. Si id feeistity If 
he did or sboold dio that, Cic. The same promiscuous use of the tenses seems also to take place* 
sonoetiaies in the indicative and infinitive ; and the indicative to be put for the subjunctive ; as, 
Mmus meminisse horrety hictuque ref&gU, for refiigiiy Virg. Fuerat meliusy {or fuiuet, Id. Invidut 
diUipm ersUy for fuissei, &aU. ^emdiu in porlum renia f for vetdtliy Plant. Qudm mox ncxigfi 
^pnentmy for naiMgo^o, Id. Tu si hie sis, aiiter strUioMy Ter. for esses and sentires, Colo affirmat, 
it tfiooy Uliun non triumphMret for triumphaiurum esse, Cic. Pentiodet Casiicoy ut oecvparet, for 
occupel, Cm. 

Obs. & The future of the subjunctive, and also of the indicative, is often rendered by the present 
of the subjunctive in English ; as, nisi hoc faciei, or fecerii, unless he do this, Ter. 

Obs. 6. Instead of the imperative we often use the present of the sid>junctive ; as, valeat, fare- 
w^; kuevenias, come hither, kc. And also tlte future both of the indicative and subjunctive; 
^t non oecidts, do not kill ; tie feciris, do not do it ', talebis, meque aniabis, farewell, and love 
tte, Cic. 

The present time and the prctcr-imperfcct of the infinitive arc both expressed under tiie tame 
^orsB. All the varieties of past and foture time are exprened by the odier two tenses. But in 
<>nier propeHy to exemplifv the tensrs of the infinitive mode, we must pot an accusative, and 
•onie other verb, before each of them ; thus, 

•^w^ me serihifre ; he says thvt I write, do write, or am writing. 

^^ me seribere ; he snid thoi I wrote, did write, or was writmg. 

^^ me scrinsisse ; he says thai I wrote, did write, or have written. 

^^^ me senpsisse; he said tfiat I had written. 

■^6^ me seri^^titrum esse ; he says Ihnt I will yvrite. 

^^ nos scnpluros esu ; he said thai we would write. 

'^^ nos scripluros fuisse ; he says that we would have written. 

^^/tferot scribi; he says that tetters are written, writing, a writing, or in writing. 

^^ Ulentt Bcribi ; he said thsd letters were writing, or written. 

^Pf ^^o* serijptas esse ; he says that letters are, or were written. 

^^ UUras scnptas fuisse; he says that letters have been written. 

*^ Kterasy saiptas fuisse ; he said that letters had been written. 

-^^ fskras seriptum iri ; he says that letters will be written. 

%d HUroM scnptum iri; he said thai letters would be written. 

% future, seriptum tn, is made up of the former supine) and die hifinilive passive of the vaib 
^f tUMl therefore never admits of any variation. 

^ future of the infinitive is sometimes expressed hf 9l penphrHm^tift drcnmlocatkMi ; thm, icfo 
t^-nSL futwnm em ut scribanty-'^U Hterm wrikmOur; I knowdiif <hqrwffl wrIter-thatletlMs 
*ffl be written. Smvi fore vel futurum esse uf fflWerwif,— t«f Hter^ terikeroniur ; I know that ttey 



f 



102 PRETERITES AND SUPINES. 

t ."•■•■ 

frould write^ he. Seivifuturum fuUst, vf liters Krjhtrtniur ; I kpew that letten would have been 
ivritten. This form is necessary in verbs which want the supine. 

Obs. 7. The different tenses, when joined with any expediency or necessityi are thus ezprwised 
Scribvndum est mihi, pueroy nobitt inc.. literas ; I, the boy, we, &c. roust write fetters. 
Scribtndwn fmt mihi, pueroy n&bUy &c. I must have written, &c. 
Seribendum erit mihi ; 1 shall be obliged to write. 
^do iciibendum este mihi lUenu; I know that I must write letters. 

ttAbtiidhan fume rnnhi \ .t hat I must have written. 

Dixit Kribpndum fore mihi ; He said that I should be obliged to write. 

Or w^h the participle in dm. 
Literm tunt serUtendcR mihi, puerg, h4nninUnu, &c. or a meypuero, &c. ^ Letters are to be, ar must bt 

written by me, by the boy, by men, &c. So Uterte teribendcB erunty fwrimt, erunty kc. Si 

liieriB scribendtB tint, fitsenty forerUx &c. Seio Httrat seribendat ent ; I know that letters are to 

be, or mifst be written. Scici Ultras scribendas ftiisse ; I knew that letters ought to have been, or 

must have been written. 

J^ote, Most of the simple tenses of a verb in Latin may be expressed, as in English by the par- 
ticiple and the aiixiliary verb swn ; as^ $um amansj for amo, I am loving ; eram amansj for arndbanu 
&c. Fui te ear^nsy iot cofuiy Plaiit. Ut tis tdensy fqr lU tetasy Ter. Only tlie tenses in the active 
which come from the preterite, and those in the passive which come from the present, cannot be 
properly expressed in this manner : because the Latins have no participle perfect active, nor pnr- 
tiiciple present passive. This manner of expression, however, does not' oft^n occur. 

FORMATION OF THE PRETERITE AND SUPINE. 

/GENERAL RJULES. 

1. Compound ^nd simple verbs form the preterite and supine in the same manner^ fs, 

VocOy vdcddf vdedlumy to (»dl : so, rivdco, reodcuvi, revdcdtumy to recall. 

Exc. 1* When the simple yterb in the preterite doubles the first syllable of the p»- 
qfent, the compounds lose the fonpejr syllable ; as, peUoypepxli, to beat ; repcllo^ rlMtH^ 
never repkpuli^ to beat back. But the compounds of doj sto^ disco, and posco, foAow 
the general rule ; thus, edisco, edidtci, to get by heart ', depoaco, depoposci, to de- 
mand : so, preecurroy prcecucurri ; rtipungo, ripupugi. 

Exc. 2. Compounds which change a of the snnple verb faitp t, have e in the supine : 
as, fcLciOjfecijfactumj to make; perficio, perfedy perfectum, to perfect. But com- 
pound verbs ending in dq an^ go; also the compowids of kabeo, pldceoj sdpio, salio. 
and statuoy observe the general rule. 

2. Verbs which want the preterjtjB, iy.ant likewise the supine. 

SPECIAL RULES. 

First Confvgaiion. 

Verbs of the first conjugation have dvi in the preterite, and dtupi ip the supine ; a^ 
CreOy eredviy crediumf to create ; pdroy p&rdviy pdrdtum, to prep^ne. 

Exc. 1. Do, dedi, dd,tum, dare, to give: so, venundo, to sell; drcundo, tosu:* 
round; pessundo, to overthrow; satisdo, to give surety; venundedi, venunddtnr^* 
venunddre, &c. The other compoupds of do are of the third conjpgadpp. 

Sto, stek, statum, to stand. Its compounds have sttti, siiium, and oftener stdttarM' 
as, prcBSto, prcesHti, prcBStttum, or presidium, to excel, to perform. So ad'^ anttJ- 
con-, ex-, in-, oh-, pep-, pro-, re-sto, 

Exc. 2. Ldvo, Idvi, lot urn, faiifum, Idvdtum, t^ wash. 

Poto, potavi, potum, or patitutfi., to 4r,ink. 

Juvo, juvi, jutum, to help ; fut. pail, juvaturus. So ojdjuvo* 

Exc. 3. Cubo, cubui, cubit um, to lie. So, ac-, ca>, pc-, ri-cubo. The other cor«^ 
pounds insert an m, and are of the third conjugation. 

JD^^o, ddrntfi, ddnfittm, to subdue. So e^yper^dprno. 

Sono, sdnui, sonittm, tq sound. . Sp 09-, circum', con-y dis^, ea>, tn-, P^'^y prc^ 
re^dno* 

Tdno, tonui, tdmttm, to thundier. So at', drcf'^i 'V^ fnipefin-, r^-4dno, Iforace 
has intonatus. 

Veto, vetui, vetUum, to forbid. 

' Cr^, eripui, aH^pUum, to make i^ noise. So cofn^, it^, per*, re^crepo : discri^ 
has rather discrepfivi. 

Exc 4. Fflco, frfcui, frictmn, to mfe. go af-, circum-, con-, de-, ef-, irir, per-i 
ri^rico. put some of ^hese have also o^tffii. 



PRETERITES AND SUPINES. 103 

Seco, secuiy sectumy to cut. So rirmm^, coiirj de-'y c/i »-, err-, in-, inter-, per^, prcP'^ 
re-, iubseco. 

NecOy necuiy or necaviy necdtuniy to kill. So inter-, f-neco : but these have oftener 
ectttm^ enectum, intemectum. 

Mtcoy micui, to glitter, to shine. So inter-, pro^nco. Emtco, has emtcui, 

mlcatum ; dimico, dimicdvi, dimtcdtum, rarely dimtcui, to fight. 

Exc. 5. These three want both preterite and supine ; laho, to fall or faint; nexo^ to 
bind ) and plico, to fold. 

Pttco, compounded with a noun, or with the prepositions, re-, sub-, has dvi, dtum; 
as, duplico, dupticavi, dupUcatum, to double. So nmlti-, svp-y re-pUco. 

The other compounds oi plico have either dvi and dtum, or ui and itum ; as, appUco, 
appUcui, applicitum, or -dvi, dfiim, to apply. So im-, com-plico. ExpRco, to unfold, 
Ims commonly expUcui, expUtitum ; but when it signifies to explain or interpret, 
f^^pUcdvi, expHcdtwn, 

'Second Conjugation. 

Verbs of the second conjugation have ui and ttvm ; as, hdbeo, habui, habitum^ to 

have. So, 

AdhlbeO) to admit, to use. R^dliYbeo, to return, or take back Mdileo, to admonish : Ad-, con-, 

Ci^ibeo, Ynhibeo, /o re.f/ra/f). a thing that was sold for prse-mdiuro. 

Eihibeo, to show, to pve. sgrne fault. Terreo, to terrify: Abf-, con-, 

PMilbeo, to. say, to give out, , D<*beo, to owe. de-, ex-, per-terreo. 

Fknlubeoy to hinder. M^reo, to deserve : Com-, de-, Diribco, to count ov^r, to distri 

BaiAibeo, to vafuc less, e-, per-, pro-m^reo, or me- bute. 

faAto, to afford. reor. 

Neuter verbs which have ui want the supine ', as, dreo, and, to be dry. So, . 

Aceo, mut -SCO, to be sovr. HOmeo, to be wet. Ranceo, to be mouldy. 

AX^, to be while. Immtneo, to hang over. ^^^o,' to be stiff . 

Candeo, to be iohUe. Langoeo, to languish. Rabeo, to be red. 

Calleo, to be hard. LYqueo, licui, to melt to be clear. Squaleo, to be foul. 

C&oeo, to be lioary. Bl&ceo, to be lean. Sordeo^ to be nasty. 

plftreo, to be brtg/U. Mftdeo, to be wet. StOdeo, to favour. 

£geo, indYgeo, to want. Marceo, to wither. StOpco, to be amazed. 

£inTneo, to stand above others. Muceo, to be mouldy. Splendeo, to shine. 

Flacceo, to wither. Niteo, to shine. Tdpeo, to be warm. 

FlOreo, to flourish. Palleo, to be pale. Torpeo, to be benumbed. 

Foeteo, to slink. Pateo, to be open. Tilmco, to ncell. 

Frendeo, to gnash the teeth. Pfiteo, to stink. ^'^Yffeo, to be strong. 

Froodeq, to 6cflr leaves. Futreo, to rot. Vireo, to be green. 
Horreo, to be roftgh. . 

B«t the neuter verbs which follow, together with their compounds, have the supine, 
and are regularly conjugated : Vdleo, to be in health ; and (Bqui-, con-, e-, in-, pras^ 
^flfco : Pldceo, to please ; and com-, per-piaceo : DispUceo, to displease : Cdreo, to 
^nt: Pdreo, to appear, to obey 5 and ap-, contrpdreo: Jdceo, to lie ; and ad-, cir-. 
^^Mw-, inter-, ob-, prw-, 9ii1}-, super-jdceo : Caleo, to be warm ; and con-, in-, ob-,per-,^ 
^^"citeo: Ndceo, to hurt; Doleo, to be grieved; and cow-, de-, in-, per-doleo : Codleo, 
to grow together ; Iacco, wliich in the active signifies, to be lawful, to be valued ; and 
^hat.is singular, in the passive, to bid a price : Ldteo, to lurk, the compounds of which 
^ant the supine, deUteo, inter-, mb-lateo, as likewise do those of Tdceo, -cui, -dtum, 
*o b^ sil^it, con-, ob-, re-ticso. 

These three active verbs likewise want the supine: Timeo, -ui, to fear; Stleo, -ui, to 
conceal ; Arceo, -cut, to drive away : But the compounds of arceo have the supine; 
**> exerceo, exercui, eacercitum, to exercise. So coerceo, to restrain. 

Exc. 1. The following verbs in BEO «nd CEO : 

Jubeo, jussi, jussum, to order. So jide-jubeo, to bail, or be surety for. 
' Bdrbeo, sorim, sorptitm, to sup. ^o absorbeo, to suck in; eoc-, resorbeo. We 
*^ find absorpn, exsorpsi ; Eocsorptum, resorptum, are not in use. 

DSceo, ddcui, doctum, to teach. So, dd-, con-, de-, e-, per-, sub-doceb. 

Miiceo, miscm, nustum, or mixtum, to mix. So ad-, com-, im-, inter-, per-, ri-miaceo. 

Midceo, mulsi, mml8mi,J.o stroke, to soothe. So ad-^ circum^, com-, de-, per-, rS- 



X(H PRETERITES AND SUPINES. 

LuceOf luxiy to shine. So a^, drcumr^ col-, di^ e-, i^, inUr' par, ^^i 

proBr, pro-f re-, sm6-, tran94uceo, 

Exc. 2. The following verbs in DEO : 

Prandeoy prandi, prcauumy to dine. 

Video, vidi, msuMf to see, So in-, per-, prcB', pro-, r&-video. 

Sedeo, sedi, ses'sum, to sit So a«-, con-, de^, diM-, in^, oIh, per-^ pos; pra^, re^ 
svh-ndeo: Circuvmdeo, or circumsBdeo, supersedeo. Bat'di', dis-, per',pr€>,re^ 
$ub^deo, seem to want the supine. 

Strideo, stridi, ^ to make a noise. 

Pendeo, pependi, penaum, to hang. So de-, imr, pro-, tuper-pendeo* 

Mordeo, momordi, morsum, to bite. So ad-, comr, de-, A',prtb', re^mordeo, 

Spondeo, apdpondi, sponsum, to promise. So d^, respoideop 

Tondeo, tdtondi, tonsum, to clip. So o^-^ circum-, dekondeo. 

But the compounds of these verbs do not double the first syllable ; thus, dependi, 
remordi, respondi, attondi, &c. 

Rideo, risi, riswh, to laugh. So or-, de-, ir-, suh-rideop 

Suddeo, 9UMi, sudsttm, to advise. So diS', per^^uddeo. 

Ardeo, arsi, arsum, to burn. So eo;-, inr, oS-ardeo, 

Exc. 3. The following verbs in GEO: 

AugBO, attad, auctum^ to increase. So ad-y ex-augeo. 

Jjugeo, luxi, to mourn. So e-, pro-, mdhhigeo, 

Frigeo, frixi, ■ ■■ to be cold. So per-, re-frigeo* 

Tergeo, ierui, tersum, to wipe. So at*-, circumr, de-, ea^, per^tergeo. 

Mulgeo, mtdsi, muhum, or mulctum, to milk. So e-, im^fi^dgeo. 

Indtdgeo, indtdsi, indultum, to grant, to indulge. 

Urgto, wrsi, to press. So ctd-, ex-, inr, per-, suIh, super-ttrgeo. 

Fvdgeo,fMki, r to shine. So o/^ circumr^ conr, ef-, inter',prcB-, re-, miper-fiilgeo. 

Turgto, turn, |to swell. Algeo, aUi, tp be cokL 

Exc. 4. The Mowing verbs in lEO and LEO: 

Vieo, vihn, vUtum, to bind with twigs, to. hoop a vessel. 

Cieo, (cinij cUum, to stir up, to rouse. So ac-, con-f ex-, in-,per-cieo, Cwi comes 
from cio of the fourth conjugation. 

Fleo, flivi, fietvm, to weep. So af-^ de-fleo. 

Compleo, compkm, completum, to iill. So the other compounds of pleo; de-^ex-^ 
imr, adimr, op-, re-, sup-pleo. 

Dileo, delevi, diUtum, to destroy, to blot out. 

Oleo, to smell, has dlui, oUtnm, So likewise its compounds, which have a mm\\«t 
signidcation ; o6-, jper-, redr, sub-oko. But such of the compounds as have a 0kKVi 
kiignification make evi and etwn ; thus, eocoUo, exdlevif exdletum, to fade. So uMtOf 
-evi, -etum, or Mum, to grow into use ; obadleo, -evi, -^tum, to grow out of use. MSkOf 
to abolish, has dbolevi, ahoUtum ; and dddleo, to grow up, to bum, adiiHevi, adidtum, 

Exc. 5, Several verbs in NEO, QUEO, REO, md SEO. 

ManeOf mansi, mansum^ to stay. So per-, re-mdneo* 

Neo, nevif tietum, to spin, Soper-neo. 

T^neo, tenuis tentum, to hold. So con-, de-, di9-, 6b-, re-, 9U9-iineo. But atiweOf 
pcrttneo, are not used in the supine ; and seldom abattneo. 

Torqueo, torsi, tortuMy to throw, to whirl, to twist. TJius, conr, de-, di»-, ex-, inrt 
ob-f re-torqueo, 

Hcereo, hcesi^ hcesum, to stick. Thus, adr, conr, in-, ob-, sub-hcereo. 

Torreo, torrut, tostum, to roast. So extorreo, 

Cemeo, censui, censum, to judge. So €tc-,per-, re-censeo, to review j 9UCcenteo,to 
be angry. 

Ej^c. 6. Verbs in VEO have vi, turn; as, nUfpeo, mavi, motum, to move; FdofOf 
fom, fotum, to cherish. So cow-, ri-foveo. So vdveo, to Vow or wish, and dewiM^' 

Favco, tpfaypurj has fdvi, faufum ; and caoeo, to beware of ; cdt>i, cauUtm. So 
proe-cdveOf 

Neuter verbs in veo want the supine ; as, p&veo, pdvi, to be afrs^d. 

Perveo, to boil, to be hot, makes ferbni. So de-, ef-, in-, per-, ri-ferveo. 



FBETERITES AND SUftNES. 10^ 

Ommveoj <o wink, has oowiiot and am$dxi. 

Exc 7. The foUowing verlw want both preterite and supine: Xodeo, to sock milk\ 
MO, to be black and blue; foAfeo, to abound ; remdto, to shine; mcareo^ to be aor- 
nviiil; Aceo^ to desire; jmSco, to be able; /ooeo^ to beyeUow; dmteOf to ^w thkk; 
labreOf to be smooth or bare. To these add caheoy to be bald ; o^^oeo, to wag ifae 
^ as dogs do when they iKwn on otte; iUffteo^ to be doll; liveo, to be meist; «id 
MM osheis* 

Verbs of the third conjugation form their pneterite and supine variously, according 
the termination of the present. 

H). 

1. PadOffecif/aciMmf to do, to make. So the compounds whidi retain a.« fticrik 
lifiii-, dri-^ em-, mddi", ti^^ bini-^ mdU^, ^iHB-flcio^ dec But those wUch 
ttngeaintot haveedwii/ as, qficioy afedy n^echtnu Soam^de^ef'fm^^mitr^ 
\fer'jpras^fpro'jre',ntf^^ficio* Noie; Facio, compounded inth a noun, vcrb| or 
Irerfo, retains a; but when compounded irith a preporition, it changes a uito i. 
Some compounds offudo are of the first coi^ugation; as, AmfHJicOj mariicOf 
ni^l0eop mgigtvykpi graHficor^ to gratify, or da a good turn, to give up^ UuSykoTj 

Jdctb, ^ect, jadrnKf to throw. So ii6*, a«^, dramk-, eomt^ db>, iKa-, e^, m-^ inier^ 

•, prO'f re-, mc^, tuper-y superm^j trafido; in the supine, "tcham. 

The compoutMis of tpMo and Ificio, which themselves are not used, have exi, and 

hm ; as, ospScto, aspexif oMpedumj to behold* So circum^j ant', i/e-, dU^, tn-, tiilro-, 

fS}m>-, IT*, rdro-, stf^Milcto. 

AMdo, eJkxi, aOectumy to alhire. So i^, fel4icio; but e2)fcto, to draw oii^ has 

Seal, eftciteai. 

2. FikUOf fkU^ fo98itmj to dig, to delve. So <u^, circtmi-, an^ rf», in^ hUer*, 
T'j jmB'j re-, n^, trwu^bdio* 

PugiOyfS^yJugUum, to fly. So «»-, (for aft^) con-, db>, iK^, rf'$jfei^fprihp re-, 
/-, tubtet-f trotuhfi^o. 

3. Cfl^pto, dhi^, oyliciii, to take. So ae"^ am^, i2e-, ea>, tii-> tn^er-^ oc^j per-, jprc^, 
-, «tc»<tjiio, (m the supine -cevten ;) and anie-c&pio. 

R&pioy rdpm^ rvfium^ to puU or snatch. So a6-, nr-, cor-, ils^ ifi-> e-,|ir0-^ j»t>-, 
r-ftpto, -r^Ktt, -r^p^mn. 

Sopto, Bopudj, ■ to iavour, to be wise. So conslpto, to be well in one's wits; 
!«i^, to be fodish ; resl|iio, to come to one's wits. 
Ci^mo, ciQwm, cifpiftcm, to desire. So con-, cfi»-,per-ctmo. 

4. Pario, pipiriy paritumf or jwtr<twt,to bring forth a child, to get Itscompounds 
e of the fourth conjugation. 

Q^iMio J quastij quaswmy to sAake; but ^teiifst is hardly used. Its compound^ have 
mifOusum; as, condiHof concuuij concuasunu Sodfe-, cfia-y ea>, tit-,.perii^ re-^ 
par^f mu>cutio. 

UOhasiftViitea; as, 

v^t^g'ifo,ar^,iirgtififfN, to show, to prove, or argue, to rejnrove. So co-, ree^^iro, 
cooifute^ So, 

110) Eitteuo, <• Monien. StStub, toxef or j^/oce, /oorrinm. 

itii», «ie/ battttOy (0 beait to j|ffA/» to /cnee wUh Cob-» de*, m-, prs-, pro-, re-, tub-iUtno. 

/oti!f. Sternuoa^to must. 

duo, to ptU vn dothes, Suo, to tew or jfifeft, to ^4M*Jk together: jIs-, cir« 

Kin, to jml <{/f ehthet. cuni-, coo-, dis-, prs-, rS-, soo. 

ibuo, to foe/ or imfrue, to seiupfi or vuintct. Trlboo, to give, to dtoieto : At-, coo-, dif-, re- 

iiwo, to Utten: .Com-, de-, dfi-, im-miDuo. tribuo. 
Hw, to 4pftf ; Con^, de-, ex-, in-spiio. 

Ckc. 1. PhtOyftuxiyfuxum, to flow. So o/^, ctrcmn-, coi»-, dSe^, dif^ e^, m-^ in^er-f 

iS6iM,slrtcan,slrifcfMi,toputmot«ler,tob^ SoAii-,arcti«i^coi|i^dfe-^e»^«i-, 
KpttB-, tBi^, niper^l^tfo. 
I^xc. 2. jSco, nit\ Mtumy to pay, to wash awsy^ to sofler punishment. Its eonr 



106 PRETE WTES AND SUPINES. 

pounds have utum ; as, ahluoy -ui, -iitum^ . to wash away, to purify. So a/-, circum-. 
colr^ ifc-, dt-, C-, inter-j per^y pol-y jiro'^ tuMuo, 

Ruo, mt, ruitum^ to nish, to fall. Its compounds have utum ; as, diruoy dinii, di" 
rutuniy to overthrow. So e,- ob-yprO'^ sub-ruo, Corruo and trrtco, want the supine; 
as likewise do me^t/o, to feai*; pluo^ to rain; ingrvOy to assail; congruo^ to agree; 
respuoy to reject, to slight ; unnuOy to assent ; and the other compounds of the obsolete 
verb nuo; abnuoy to refuse ; innuo^ to nod, or beckon with the hand ; renuo^ to deny; 
all of which have jii in the preterite, * 

BO has biy Mtum >* as, 

Bibo, bibi, bibttumy to drink. So ad-y com-y e-, it/iry per^y prce-Mbo. 

Exc. 1. Scriboy scripsiy scriptumy to write. So cw?-, circumry con-y c/e-, ea>, i«-, 
inteT'y pev'y ppst'y prct-, prO'y re-, sub^y super-y sttpra^y trans^crtbo. 

Nuboy nupsiy nuptwny to veil, to be married. So c/e-, e-, irtry ob-nubo. Instead of 
nup9iy we often find nnpta sum. 

Exc. 2. The compounds of cubo in this conjugation insert an m before the last syl- 
lable ; as, accumboy accubui, accubUumy to recline at table. So co7i-, c/e-, dis-y tV, oc-^ 
pro-^ re^y suc^y sfiperitMntmbOy "Cubuiy -cubiftun, 

TTiese two verl*s want the supine ; scdboy scabiy to scratch ; lambo, Iambi, to lick. 
So ad'y circum-y </c-, pra>lambo. 

Glubo and degluboy to strip, to flay, want both preterite and supine 

CO. 

i. DlcOy dixiy dictuMy to say. So a6-, ad'y an^, contrary c-, iw-, inter'y j^ra^^ 
pro^icQ, 

DucOy duxiy ductuniy to lead. So a6-, adr, circvni-, covry dc'y dUy c-, «w-, mtro^ ob-, 
per-y proRTy pro-y re-, «f-, sub-y trchy or trans-duco, 

2. rV«cc;, ir7( 7, i?/c^i//7i, to overcome. So coti'y de^y e-y per^y re-vtnco, . 

Par CO y peperciy par^uMy sejdom pfirsiy parsituniy to spare. So compiorcoy or cow- 
percoy which is seldom used. 

IcOy iciy ictuniy to strike. 

SCO has viy turn; as, 

Noscoy noviy nctumy to know ; future participle, noscihans. So, 

Dignwcojtodistinguhh.'iguosco J to pardon; also ScUco, -Ivi, itum, to ordain; ad-, or ascisco, 

inter-, per-f pru-uQsco. . . <o takt, to. astodate; concitco, to tottj to 

Cresco, -i^v'u -*ium, to grow: Con-, dc-, ex-, re-, eomfnU ; oUq pr»-, , re-Rcisco ; descisco, to 

and wilhout the supintj ac-, in-, per-, pro-, sue-, revolt, 

super-cresco. Suesco, to be accustomed; ns-, coii-, dc-, ha-suesfo, 

Quiesco, -evi, -gtuui, to re^ : Ac-, con-, inter-, -fivi, -ftum. 
•re-quiesco. 

Exc. 1. Jgnoacoy agnoviyagnltumyXo own ; eognoscOy cognovty cognitwHy to know 
So recognoscoy to- review. 

Pasco, pdvly pastiwiy to feed. So comry de-iyasco, 

Exc. 2. The following verbs want the supine: 

Di^coy didiciy to learn. So ad-y coiiry de-, e-yper^yprcB^iscOy -dutici. 

PoscOy poposciy to demand. So ap-, de-y ea>, re^osco. 

Compescoy comjwsati, to stop, to restrain. So dispescoy dispescuiy to sq}arate. 

Exc. 3. Giiscoy to gvovi 'y fatiscoy to be weary; and likewise inceptive verbs want 
both preterite and supine : as, ara/scoy to become dry. But these verbs borrow the 
preterite and supine from ihcir primitives; as, a/tltsiOy to grow hot, argiy arsim, from 
ardeo. 

DO has diy sum; as, 

Scandoy scqndiy scansumy to climb; edoy idiyem^y to eat. So, 

Ascendo, to moim*. Ciido,/o/bf:^,fo«f«np,orratVi.-. Mando, to ehete: Vrti-, re- 

Deicendp, to jgo down. !;»., in», per-, pro-, re-cOdo. mando. 

Con-, e-, ex-, in-, tran-sc^ndo. Defendo, to defend. Preheodo, to take hpld of: Ap-* 

Accendo, to kindle: In-, sue- Offendo, to strike against, to com-, de-prehendo. 

c«ndo- offend, to Jmd. ^ 



PRETERITES AND SUPINES. 107 

Cxc. 1. Dhndo, dimsty divinan, to divide. 

?afo, rd«, rdsumj to shave. So a&-, circumry cor-^ ifo-, ^, tn^er-, |Mf9-^ m6t 

IbuMlo, c^oiwt, c2tiiwi(m, to c)o«je. So arctcm-y con-, clitf-, ea>, tn^ hUer'^pret-f re-, 

^mdo, plawiy platt9umj te dap bands for joy. So op-, circttm^hmdo : also coiii-y 

•, eav, mtpylddo, -plosi, ^losum, 

judoy lusi, lusum, to play. So oft-, o^, co^, de-, e-, t7-, tnfe?^, ob-^prfB-^ pro-f 

udo. 

!VM(fo, ^rii^f, trusum^ to thrust. So a6*-, con-, cfe-, eoo-y inr^ ob-yprO'y re^rudo, 

4Bd0y kesif kesuniy to hurt. So al-j colr^ e-, H^ido-y -Hsiy -Usum. 

lodoy rosiy rosum^ to gnaw. So ab-y ar-, ctrci^m-, cor-y de-y c-, 06-, ycr-, proB-rodo. 

^ddoy to go, wants both prieterite and supine ; l^ut its compounds have sty wmj as, 

Idoy invdsiy invdsumy, to invade, or fkl) upon. So cifcum-y 6-, sttper-vddo. 

''idoy cessiy cessumy to.3rield. 3o alfg-y ac'y anti'y conry de-y c&-, ea?-, tw-, inter-y 

•, pro-y r^-y retro-y «v, suiocedo. 

Izc. 2. Pandoy pandiy passuniy and sometimes pansumy to open^ to spread. So nfoV-, 

op-yprcs-y r^-pando* - 

%nOm>y comeaiy comesum or comeftviHy to eat. But ^ciSo itself, and the rest of its 

■pounds, have always esum; as, od-, andhy ex-y per-, «Mi-, sttper^doy -ediy 

m, ' . 

^undoy fudiy fusumy to pour forth. So af-y drcum-^ con-y cfe-, dif-y c/-, tn-, infer-, 

]wr-, pro-^, re-, suf-y mtper^ supcrin-y tram-fundo. 

'cindoy 9cidiy scissumy to cut. So o^, circum-y con-, epp-y inter^y per-y prcs-y pro-y 

tran^cindo, 

^indoy fidiy Jtssuniy to cleave. So con-, dif-y in-JindQ, 

Ixc. 3. TnndOy tutudiy tunsumy and sometimes tusumy to beat. The compounds 

e tudiy tuswn ; as, contundoy contudiy contusuniy to bruise. So ex-, o5-, per-y 

vndo, 

/Ocfo, c^dTc^, cdsuMy to fall. The compounds want the supine; as, ac-y con-y de-y 

inter^y prchfSuc-ctdOy -ctdi: except, incido^ incidiy incdsumy to fall in 5 recUiOy 

diy recdnaHy tp fall back ; and occldoy ocadiy occdswny to fall down. 
^^(Bdoy eik:idiy c(esumy to cut, to kill. The compounds change ce info i long; as, 
Idoy aeddiy accisuniy to cut about. So abs-y conry circum-y de-y ea>, in-y inter-y oc-y 
yproB-y ri'y guc-cido, 

^h^doy tHendiy tensum or tentumy to stretch out. So at-y cof^y de^ disy ea>, 06-, 
■'y pro-tendo-y "tendi^ -tensuniy or tentum. But the compounds have rather tentumy 
?pt ostendoy to show ; which has commonly ostensum. 
^edo, pepediy pedituniy to break wind backward. So op^do* 
^endoy pependiy pensuniy to weigh. So cp-, rfe-, dis-y ex-y tm-, per-y re-, aus^endoy 
idty 'pensum, 

^xc. 4. The compounds of do have dtdiy and dxtum; as, a5<fo, abdidiy ahdUumy 
lidc. So ac^, ro/i-, <?c-, rf?-, c-, 06-, |?er-, jwo-, rc(^, sub-y tra-do : also, decon-y 
wido : and eoad-y superadrdo; and deper-y disper-do. To tliese add cridoy 
jidiy criditum, to believe ; vendoy vendimy vendttumy to sell. Abscondoy to hide, 
abscondiy ahscondituniy rarely dbscandidu 

ixc. 5. These three want the supine : stridoy stridiy to creak ; rud4)y rudiy to bray 
an ass; and «f«jfo, sidiy to sink down. The compounds of 9tdo borrow the pre- 
te aud supine from sedeo ; as, considoy consediy^consessumy to sit down. So a*-, 
*«-, de-y in-y o/»-, perr, re-y eubsido. . 

toe. Several compounds of verbs in do and deOy in some respects resemble one 
ther, aud therefore should be carefully distinguished ; as, cotidldoy concedo, con- 
^; consido and constdeo; conscindoy conscendoy &c. 

GO, GUO, haso^V ctum; as, 

l%o, rca», rectumy to rule, to govern ; dhigOy -eat, -edvni; to direct; arigo and 
roj -ea^i, -ectuniy to raise up ; corHgOy to correct 5. jiorf%«>, to stretch out; wM^, 

'tise up. So, 



108^ I^ETERITES AND SUPINES. 

Cingo, cinxi, cinctum, to gird, to ntrround : Ac-,' fimungo, to wft^ to dual. 

auht circum-y in-y pnD-, re-, suc-cingo. Plango, to beMi, to UanenL 

Ftteo, to datk, or beat upon: Af-, cou-, ia-fligo; Stiugo, or SUnguo, to dath out, to extingmA. 

m»o pro-dlgo, to rout, of the first conjugatiou. Di-, ex-, in-, inter-| pr«-, re-stioguo. 

Jmigo, to join: abyimgot to tepwmte : Ad-, con-, T^, to cover : Cirom-, con-, de-, in-, «^per-, 

de-, dis-, in-, inUtr-, gc-, sub-jongo. prac, pro-, re-, sub-, super-ti^. 



Lingo, tolick: de.» d-Ungo^ aiu< poUingo, to Tingo^pr Tioguo, toi^p»or A^: Con-, hHhigo. 
anoint a dead body. Ungo, or UngiM, to anoint : Ex-, in-, pe?-,!^'- 

Mungo, to wipe, or dfeon t^ nose. * ungo. 

Exc. 1. SurgOy to rise, has surrexi, surredum. So a»-, drctrnt-, cotif-, <fe-, ea»-, tn*, 
re-eurgo* 

PergOf porrexij perredum, to go forward. 

StringOj stnnxL stridumj to bind, to strain^ to lop. So ad-^ con^y dSe-, du'^ib-f 
per^ pnB'f rC'.f 9uMriugo, 

rittgOy^fiimf^ficiumjtoM^. So qf-, cofirf ef^^ rejingo. 

PtngOfpinxifpictuMy to ]p9mL So tm-j deptwo. 

Exc. 2. Frai^, fi^9 Jractumy to oreak. So con-, i2e-, i^y e/^, tftr^ per-fpra-f 
re'f SHffririgQ, ^igif factum. 

^Of igif actimf to «>, to drive. So a&-, <u^, ea^-, re<f-, suIhj trana-j iranaad4ff^ 
and e2rci0»-y jier^e; cagOf for om^q, co^*, coadumy to bring together^ to force. 

Tbene Am conpounds <^ «^o want the supine : s&tdgOj aatigij to be busy abeota 
thing; grdtRfo^prodegi^ to lavish, or spend riotously ; &go^ for de&go; digiy to live 
or dveli. jmtHgOf to doubt, to depute, also wants thie preterite. 

I^k^^9 ^^9 kdum^ to gather, to read. So o^, per^^ pras, re-, aulhKgo : also, co/-] 
€fe-, ^, recoil, «e<^)(£t>, which change { into e. 

D£2^o, to love, has dilexi^ diiedum. So negUgo, to neglect ; and vnteUSgo^ to on* 
derstand ; but negUgo has sometimes negUgi^ Sail. Jug. 40. 

Exc. 3. Toii^o, <e/l^', tactum^ to touch. So o^-, conr^olh^ per4ingo ; thus a(<u^: 
at^gt^ attactumf &c. 

fungo, p&p&giy punduBif to prick, or sting. The compounds have pmud; u 
compungOy compunxi^ ctmpimctum. So i2m*, ea>, inter'pungo ; but repim^ by 
repunxiy or repup&gi, 

PangOy panxiy padum^ to fix, to drive in, to compose : or p^gigiy which comes fioo 
the ob^lete verb pagOy to bargain, for which we-use paciscor. The compoondio 
pango hsLYtpegi; as, compingOy compegi^ compactumy to jnit together. So im^ o^ 
suppingo, 

Exc. 4. SpargOf uparstj ^parstem, to spread. So oi^, ctrctcm-, co»-, (^t-^ m-^ titfer 
per'f prth, respergo^ • 

Mergo, mersiy menwn^ to dip, or plunge. So efe-^ e-, imry sulhmergo. 

TergOf tersij tersum, to wipe, or clean. So a^, de-f ea>y per^ergo* 

PigOf Jixiy Jiocumy to ^x^ or fasten. So o/^, co»-, «fe-, i»-, of-^ per^^ prc^» re-, «/• 
trans^fige. 

FrigOy frixiy frixum or frictuMy to fry. 

Exc. 5. These three want the supine : dangOy cJanxiy to sound a trumpet ; nxngt 
or mnguoy ninxiy to snow ; angOy anxiy to vex. VergOy to incline, or lie outws^ 
wants both preterite and supine. So e-, de-y inrvergo, 

HO, JO. 

1. TriUiOj traxiy tradumy to draw. So db9-^ o^, circumry con-, db-, i2w-, ea>>, jmt 
pro-y re-y 9itb4rdho, 

VehOy vexiy veduniy to carry. So o^, <u^, ctraii»> con-, <2r-, e-, tV, |)er-, prm 
prmUr-y j»ro-, re> «ti5-, wper-y troM-^ho. 

2. Ms/o^ or mingOy minady nddwuy to make water. So immefo, 

LO. 

1. Coloy cobdy adhimy to adorn, to mhabit, to honour, to dll. So oc-, drcumr^ t» 
utyner^ »r0»-, re^oMo .* and^ikewise occftlo, occmM, wxukhmy to hide. 
Cmuim, cpit w r fia, coMicftiMi, to adviit or coosak. 
^fo, ^nhft, alihcm, or contracted, olftifii, to nourish. 



«iteTSWT£8 AMP aUflNES. iw 

ifPwIjitimftOMPoA. So €om^ e-» per in Hb b TlMeMi^p«tt<&or odfci 
self is not ift use^ want tbe supine^ as, mUe-^ ex^^prtt-cdhfH^eibdflomfL 
, to strike^ to a«toniA,h»8/cridtf, jiirciifciiai. 

> |i^|mfi^ jNi&iMiy to t^nift. So iq^) a§^ oom-, ife-^ cSt-y c9p> t»-^ Jwr^Jino-» 
r apnuUj t»pulmmf Sfc 

tfi/elKffatnimy to deceive. But rifeOOf refdky to cooftrte, #am8 the nyiiie. 
&, veZ&' or ott^^ tftdsum, to pull^ or pincb. So a-, oem-, e*, tn/^r-, jmv-, 

But lie-, c^y per-^oeUof hftye rs^ier vei». 
•aZZi, Mtlnon, to salt. FdmBo^ pmUi ^ ^ f to play oa a musical imlnment, 
e supine. 

to lift up, to take ^way, ia at timampet^&a- to ilseU; wak^wMUy aad 
t; extcUoj extuU, eldtum; but atioQo, to take up, has neither pretoiie war 

MO has lit 9 Uum; bs^ 

y genrni, gemtwny to groan. So ad^^ or ag-,, circum^^ totk'^ in-^ re-gtmo. 
^jfrenrniyfremkumy to rage or roar, to make a great noise* So q^ circwmr^ 

, et)dmo, ^t, -f^um, to vonrit or spew, to cast up. 
I. Dem&y den^Hy demptuMy to take away. 
>, prompsiy promptumy to bring out. So cfe-, ex-promo. 
, sumpeij mmptmny to take. §o ab", 08-^ con-y <fe-, inr^prm^ re-, tranywmo* 
, eompsiy comptmny to deck or dress. 

verfa« are also used without thep^ as, demsij denUwn; mmriy BumiumjS&c 
I. Emoy endy emptum or emfirni, to buy. So ml*, dtr^, ea>^ itUer^per'f red" 
cth^moy "endy "empium or eMhoii. 
ty pressiy pressum^ to press. So u^, com^^ de-y ea>>j tinh, op-> Jfr^, re-^ tfgi- 

», tremuiy to tremUe, to quake for fear, wants the supine. So a^>, drcton-, 
*,pemo, 

NO. 

no, |io9ti2, podiuniy to put, or place. So isp-y <iiile-, ctrctim-, com-^ d(e-> iKa-, 
inter-y o6-,|io9f-, pne-, /to-, re-, «e-, s«p-, twper^y ntperiim'y tran§-pimo. 
»,. gemdy ghdtumy to beget. So cof»-, e-, m-yper^ypro-j re^gigno, 
cedniy caniumy to sing. But die compooncu have cmin and cetUtm ; as, 
accmuiy accentumy to sing in concert So eon-, /n^prce-, <tco-dbio; oo<iiio, 
XRo; re-c»ito, and re-cano. Butoccanut, recmitft, are not in use. 
}y to despise, wants both preterite and supine ; but its compouBd cowtjcipo, 
se, to scorn, has. contempsiy conten^tum; or without tne p^ coikemmf 
wi, 

emoy spreviy spreivmy to disdain or slight. Soifespemo. 
)y gtrdviy strdtunty to lay flat, to strow. So ad^, con^f iU'j prub^ p^^o^^ mA* 

mm OT siiy sUuMy to permit. So casino, detwiy oftener deriiy-deHiumy to 

I • 

liviy or leviy lUuniy to anoint or daub. So o^, ctrctim-, colry de-, t^ titler-, 
, pra^y re-, mdhy mbter-y «ttper-, nrpertUfno. 
, creviy seldom cretuMy to see, to decree, to enter upon an inheritance. So 

ea>^ in-y se^cemo. 

PO, QUO. 

in po have psi and pium ; as, CarpOy carptiy cwrpiumy to pluck or pull, to 
b]ame. So con-y de-y dis^y ejhy pr€M:erpOy -ceiyst, cerptunu 

liy -ptum, to tleal. Scalpo, to lentfcA or cngmot s So dreum-, es- 

creep: Ad-, ». ar-, aM>, de-, di-, e-, ai»Ipo. 

■0-, ob-, per-, pro-, tub-repo, -psi, Scolpo, to Jrooe or carve. So ex-, in-scnlpo. 

9»po, t9 erup at a terpent, 

I. Strepoy strepuiy strepUum, to ma^EC a noise. So aif> drcam-^im^iaier'. 






It 
a 

■k 
In 
i 



110 PRETERITES AND StJP£N£S. 

Exc.2.Rmt^pOfrvpijrvpimmjtohreak. So 06-, cor-jil^e*/«ii<ef^,titfrtf-,tf-,o6-, 

Tiiere are only two simple verbs ending in QUOf vis. 

C&quoj co^y coctmm, to boiL So ccmr^ cfc-, A*»-, e»-, ti»- j j^er^^ re-coquo, 

Idnquoy liquij , to leave* The compounds have Uetum; as, riUnqm^Tf^qui, 

reUdtuMy to forsntke. So dSe-^ and deri-UnquOi 

RO. 

!• Qnueroy makes qtujssiviy guiBsitum, to seek. So ac', Onry ctm^y di9^ es>-j v/^^per-j 
re-otftro, '■quiaiviy -quisituin, 

T&roy trwif tritumy to Wear, to bruise. So «*-, taftry de-^ dU^ ea?-, tn-^ db-^f^'t 

Verroy verriy versuMj to sweep, brush, or make clean. So d-, co»-, dc-, e-jprO'f 

Oroy ussiy tistumf to burn. So 06^, amb-j Qomb'y de-y eo^-, «n^ per-, «tfMro« 
Gero, ^e^', ge^tiany to carry. So £^-, con-, dv-y tn-, pr&^ri'y ^g'giro. 

2. CurrOf cucurrij cursumy to run. So ac-, con*, i2e-, c^tV, ea>, tit-, 00-^ per> pne-^ ^ 
pro-currOf which sometimes doubles the first syllable, and sometimes not ; as, wxMrrif g^, 
or accucurri, &c. Circum-y r^-, sue-, trcms-curroj hardly ever redouble the first [^ 
syllable. 

3. S^roy sevi, sdtuniy 16 sow. The compounds which signify planting or mniing 
have sevif sUuni ; as, consiroj conseviy conMuniy to. plant together. So a^, ctretm^ 
de-f dis-y in-y titter-, 06-, pro-^ r^-, ^6-, tran^iro. ^ 

o^ro, , to kni^ had anciently airuiy sertumy which its compounds still retain; j^ 

as, asairoy asseruiy asaertumy to claim. So con-y circum^ di'y di^y ediw-, ^ vh ik 
inter-aero. 

4. Furdy t6 be mad, wants both preterite and supiiie. 

SO tias aiviy ntwn; as, 

ArcesaOy arceasiviy arcessUuniy to call, or send for. So cdpessoy to take ; facessoj 
to do, to go away ; Idcessoy to provoke. 

Exc. 1. Visoy viaiy — =— , io go' to see, to visit. So m-, re-vieo. Ince»90y uifieft^ 
, to attack, to seize. 

Exc. 2. Depsoy depsuiy dep^tuniy to knead. So cou'y per-depso* 

Pinsoy pinttui or ^^iiMt, pinsumy piatum or pinffUurUy to bake. 

TO. 

1. FlectOy h^ jlexip fiectumy to bow. So circnimry de^y ittry re-, retnhfiedo* 
PlectOy jflexi and pfexuiy plexuniy to plait. So hnptecto, * 
NectOy next and nexuiy nexuniy to tie, or knit. So ai^, vel an-, coit-, ctrcirlti-, tn-^ 

sub^necto, 

PectOy pexi and pcocuiy pexuiUy to dress, or comb. So de-y pav, re^cto. 

2. M^to, messuiy messumy to reap, mow, or cut down. So £2e-, e-, proMnetot 

3. JPcto, petiviy petit uniy to seek, to . pursue. So op-, com-, ca>, tin-, op, re^ 
suppeto* 

MittOy misiy missuMy to s6nd. So a-, adry comry drcufn-y de-y di'y e-, im^ inUh 
intrO'yO'yper'yproByprateryprd'yri'ySuh'ySuper'ytram'mitto. - 

VertOy verity versuniy to turn. So a-, adry animad-y antC'y drcuvi-y arn^ cfeS ^ 
en-, in-y inter-, 06-, per-, prce-y prceter-y re-y sub-y trans-verto. 

StfirtOy stertuiy , to snore. So desterto. 

4. SiatOy an active verb, to stop, has stitiy stdtum ; but aiatOy a neuter vfer6, to 
stand still, has stetiy stdtum^ like ato. The compounds have stitty and sHtum'y a8»' 
aaaistOy astttiy astUum, . to stand by. So ab-y drcum-y con-y ifc-, eaj-, tn-, tnfer^ Jh 
per-y re-, aub-^sto^ But the compounds are sd^om used iii the supine. 

VO, XO. 

There are three verbs in »o, which are thus conjugatied : 

1. VivOy vijciy victinuy to live. So ad-y con-, per-, pro-, re-, ^uper-vivo. 



I 

r 

L. 

F. 
:« 
Fi 
E: 



•■5 

i 



DEPONENT AND COMMON VEREft. Ill 

^voy solviy solutitmf to loose. So ahsoho^ to acquit^ di^'jCX'fper'f v-«oivo. 

hjOf volviy vdlutumj to roll. So ad', ctVcum-, co»-, di^ i', m-, oihj j^er^ P^i 

dhvoloo. 

Texoy to weave^ (the only veib of this coojugation ending in xo,) has texui, 

n. So ai'y circum-y conr, de^j m-j inter-y olhyper^pra^prfhj re-, 8ub4exo. 

Fourth CofijugaitoHi 

rbs of the fourth conjugation make the preterite in fvt, ahd the supme in Uum ; as, 

mioy muniviy munttum, to fortify. 

c. 1. SingidtiOy singuittviy singnUuniy to -sob. 

^lioy^ sepeliviy sepuUumy to bury. 

lioy veniy ventuniy to come. So (id-, ante-y circum'y conr, cotUror, de-^ e-y 

ier-y intro-y ob-y per-y post-y prcB-y sub', super-vimo. 

leoy veniiy y to be sold. 

ioy sdluiy and adliiy sattumy to leap. The compounds have commonly sUuiy 
imes siliiy or sHUvi and sultum ; as, traimlioy trantHbd, transUii and tramiUviy 
ittiiniy to leap ovei*. So a5-, as-y circmn-y con-, dc-, dU^, ea>, if^, re-^ suJhy 
•silio. 

c. 2. AmiciOy has anuaiiy amictumy seldom amiady to cover or clothe. 
why vinxiy vinctuniy to tie. So ctrctim-, <2e-, e-, re-^incio* 
idoy sanociy sanctum ; and sancimy scmcituniy to establish or ratify. 
c. 3. Cainbioy cchnpsiy cmnpsumy to change money. 

noy sepsiy aeptuniy to hedge or enclose. So circum-y <&V, inter-y oh-y pfw^pio. 
urioy hausiy hauainmy rarely hausuniy to draw out, to empty, to drink. So <fe-, 
ttrio, 

itioysensiy sensuniy to feel, to perceive, to think. Soa«-, coit^, <it9-yjper-,jpn;^, 
ntio» 

ucioy rdusiy rausmny to bo hoarse. 

c. 4. Sarcioy sarsiy sartuniy to mend or repair. So ea>-, re-mxtcio, 
rcioy farsiy fartumy to cram. So con^erdo ; efforciOy or ef^farcio; in^ercio, 
farcio; re-jercio* 

fdo, fulsiy fuUumy to prop or uphold. So cof»-, ef'y in-y per-y tHf-jvlcio. 
3. 5. The compounds ofpario have p^ruiy pertum ; as j Spkrio, c^iruiy dpeHuMy 
■n. So dpirioy to shtit, to cover. But compirio has compM, compertum, to 
a thing for certain. RspiriOy reptri^ reperiurtty to find. 

c. 6. The following verbs want the supine. CwcutiOy cwcutiviy to be dim-sighted. 
7, gestiviy to show one's joy by the gesture of his body. GldciOy gldciviy to cluck 
kle as a hen. Demeittioy demeniiviy to be mad. IneptiOy ineptivi, to play the 
Prosilioy prosihiiy to leyp forth. FerociOy ferdrivi, to be fierce. 
'iOy to strike, wants both preterite and supine. So riferioy to strike again. 

DEPONENT AND <K>]HMON VEBBS. 

leponent verb is that which, under a passive form, has an active or neuter signi- 

n ; as, Loquor, I speak 5 morior, I die. ... 

ommon verb, under a passive form, has either an active or passive signification ; 

rimmory I accuse, or I am accused. 

5t deponent verbs of old, were the same with common verbs. They are called 

lenty because they have laid aside the passive setise. 

K)nent and common verbs form the participle perfect in the same manner as if 

ad the active voice ; thus, I^toVy IcBtdtuSy lastdriy to rejoice; verear, veriiugy 

y to fesvy Jwngoryfunctwfyfungty to discharge an office; pdtioTy pdtUuSy pottri, 

)y, to be master of. 

learner should be tan^bt to go tlirough all the parts of deponent and coromon verbs, by 
examples in the several conjugations ; thus, fofor, of the first conjugation, like auwr 

Xndicativ& Mode. ' 

Present. LatiWy I rejoice ; Utdris, vel -tfre, thou rejoicest, S;^ 
mperfect. Litlabary I rejoiced, or did rejoice ; lestabarU, &c. 



lu 



il£PON£NT V£BBS. 



&c. 



F^riect LgttUus.nm vd/ftf,* I ktn reioieed, &c. 
PIv-perf. Ltffafitf irtfM w^fitermh I luia i^oictd, Ite. 
rirtvre. irfetaftw*, 1 ahim or wm raJok» ; lieMftartf, or -4itor^ 

Lmiidwrm turn, I am about to rejoice, or I ain to r^foice, &c 

M^'iouMm JKMte. 

FraMnt. I«l«r> I bh^ rejoice ; <clAit» or -A«, ke. 
Inperfeet JL«f«r«r, 1 ■dghC rejoice; Imidriris, or -rOney ke. 
pBTfect. LtBtmhunmwtA fumm^ I may kave r^Joksed^ Ik. 
Fki-peff£ LmUUut eneiii vel /uuteMi I ni^t Ihave njowed, 
nave. LtftaMi /verv, I shall bare rejoiced, &c. 

Ml^ ^^ ^mT irf# ^M ■ 

Pkvaaot Ic^ar^ vel ^0r, r^otoe tiMa : lietofer, lei him rejoice, &c 

ftaienl. Lteimi, to rejoice. 

Perfect. IdeUShu uk ttH fidttef to have rejoiced. 

t^uture. Lmititmiu eae, to be about to rejoice. 

LmUHunu fiUsn, to have been about to rejoice. 

Partieiplei. 
Preient LmUm$t leaking. 
Perfect LxtahUy harfaig rejoiced. 
Futore. LtekUwrWi Aaat to rejoice. 
LtRttmdMi to be rejoiced at. 

In like moiinei' cotyagate in the First Conjugation, 

Grfittklor, to rejoice^ /• wisk one Palpor, or -o, to stroke or too 



AbOmTnor, to abhor. 
Adulor, to JUUter. 
iGmiklor, to trie IM<A« to enrif, 
Altereor, to (Utputti to MttCe a 

Aprloor, to &mI m CAc Jim. 
Aibritror, to think, 
Aqpemor, to fUnUt, 
Avenor, to^Mfice. 
AnctiOaor, to M by audion, 
AncApor, and -o, to huni after. 
AugOror, and -o, tofonboaOf or Indigaior, to 
yrtMogt by aupury. laf Icior, to deny. 



Gravor, to grud^, 
Mftrittlor^ to eonjedure, 
HelhiOTj to puttt orgormmidise, 

to ioatitt, 
Hortor, to encofirffge. 
HallOcinor, to tpiak at rawlMR, PttpOlori tund ^-o^ to lay wm^ 

to €rr, PnedoT) to plunder. 

Imftf bior, to cumeetve. Prslior, to figfd. 

imitor, to tmttate. Pneftdlor, to «MRt for. 

Pneviricor, to go cumM 
ehv^ o€ prevaricate. 



PKtrOdnor, to pdrfnmtiw. 
Peroontor, to tn^^inre. 
P&regrinori to go a6road. 
PAricHtor, to 6e m danger. 
PignCror^ to pledge. 
PhcoTy tofiii. 



Ausplcori to to&e «• omen, to Iiuector, to pursue f to inveigh PrCcor, to pray. 



begin. agaisist. 

Attxuiori to assist* IniMior, to lie m wait. 

Bacchor , to rage, to reoel, to riot, InleriNrMori to esepUdn. 
GdiuBnior, to occiife faisely. JlcflkNTi to dart. 
OLrillor, to meff. JAooti to jest. 

Caupteor, 1o huekstetf to retail* Limentor, to bewail. 
Oaaior, to jilead m «xeaiie» to Lucror, to gam. 

6laifie. 
€!irdllor» to 'Mtf/ «i eMi/Nuitef , 

to ilraA, to tett. 
COroetftOfy to reve/. '^ 

COmllor, to ae e om p an y . 



Luctor, to wrestle. 
Mflchbior, to eonlrive. 
Mfidlcor, to cure, 
M<!dIlori to muse, or ponder 
filercor, to purekase. 



Coinmentor, to meilt<a<e on^ or Metor, to meanir«. 



tmf e tohat one is to say. 
Concidoor, to hsaaneue. 
(>>iiflictor, to struggfe. 
Cdiior, to endeavour. 
Coii^rircor, to i^^ to Me. 
Contemplor, to mew. 
Convivor, to /eiuf . 



Mruor, to threaten. 
Miror, to wonder. 
Miitror, to pity. 
BlAdAror, to ru/e. 
MfldOlor, to J9lc^ a <tine. 
Mortgeror, to Awaour. 
Mdror, to delay. 



Conlcor, to chatter like a crow* ManSror, to jN^efen/. 



Crimlnor, to 6tome 
Cunctor, to ifetoy. 
D€testor, to oftAor. 
OOoOtaor, to tale. 
fipOtor, to feast. 
Cxsecror, to curse. 
P&mOlor, to serve* 
h^&noTf to keep hotyflay. 
Frostror, to disappoint. 
Fftrur, to t^eol. 
Gkhrior* to 6oa«^ 



MAtuor, to 6orrotff. 
VULgoTf to trifle. 
Obtestor, to beseedi. 
OdAror, tomnell* 
Op^ror, to #«rAr. 
OpinoTi to Mtfii^. 
Opitdlor, to Ae/j9. 
Oacalor, to.&ur. 
Otior, to 6e of feiiure. 
Palor, to jfrotf or ifn^(e. 



DeprCcor, to entreaty to p 

against* 
PrOcoTf to aA, to <0oe. 
RCcordbri to remetnber. 
Refrtgor, to be against. 
Rlmor, to tewts/b. 
Rlzor, to scold or 6rair/. 
thutlcor, to ibMll m <Ae e0 

ScrOior, to search. 
86lor, to comfort* 
SpitioTj to walk abroad. 
SpteOlor, to rietr, to spy. 
StlpOlor, to stipulate or tfgrt 
Stdmicbon to fre angry. 
Su&vior, to kiss. 
Suffrftgor, to vote for on€t 

favour. 
SuapYcor, to suspect. 
Terglvenor, to boggle f to put 
Testbr, to witness. 
TOtor, to defend. 
VSdor, to gtve 6ai/, to ybrtt 

give Imii. 
Vagor, to wander^ 
VatlcYuor, to prophesy. 
Vslltor, to darmxsh. 
V€n€ror, to wors/iip. 
Venor, to hunt. 
Venor, to 6e employed. 
VActtSror, to 6rau^/. 



* FSii,yiur«ih Itc. are wMom Joioed to the pwticiiilef of dcpoaentTerbs; aiid not w often to those of paMiw^er 



DEPONENT VERBS. 118 

In the Second Ccmji:^tion^ 

Mireor, wXaAtnB, to deserve. PolUc^or, polllcltus, Upnmite. 

Taeor) tuttns, or tutus, to defend. Llceor, Ucltus, to bid at m^ oueHon. 

In the Third Conjugation, 

Auni hi ttor » amplcfxus ; md complector, complezus, to embrace. 
Bmrtori reyenug, to return. 

In the Fourth Conjugation, 

Blandior, to toothe, to flatter. Partior, to divide. 

Mentiorj to Kt. Sortior, to draw or east lots. 

MflSkNTf. lb pUmHfi aameihing difficult. Largior, to give libertdlw, 

JtM^ffit Perfect, BlandituSf merUHus, fnolUus, partthu, sortUusy largUus. 

There are no exceptions in the First Conjugatiom* 

BXCEFnONS IN THE SECOND CONJUGATIOlT* 

Beor^ ritiusy to think. 

MU^reoTj misertu8y or not contracted, nmeriiusy to pity. 

fatewj jfduu9y to confess. The compounds o( f&teor have feseus; ea^pr^etfr^ 
profetwiy to profess. So cof^teor^ to confess, to own or acknowledge. 

EXCEPTIONS IN THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 

IjdboTf ikywtur, to slide. So ol-, colr^ efe-, cfo-, e-, t7-, inter-y per^^ prceter^^ P^^y ^> 
«tt^, ni&ler-y nq^er-j trans^ahor, 
VkitcoTf uausy to revenge. 
^^, MMW, to use. So a6-, de4Uor, 
I^^pfWj Uiquutusy or locutttSj to speak. So o^, co^, drcum^y e-, inter'^ ob-yfr^ 

SeguoTj sequutusy or s^cutusj to follow. So <»-, con-, ea>, tit-, 06-, j>er-, jpro-, r^, 

Qttcror, questuSy to complain. So con-, inter'y prcB-^tieror. 

NftoTy nUuSy ^or niocusy to endeavour, to lean upon. So a<^, vel an^y con^y e-, tn-, 
^'9 ^, wb^itor : but the compounds nave oftener mxus. 

Pociscory pactuSy to bargain. So de^eciscor. 

('f&tSary fressttSy to go. So a^-, ante-y circumry con-y de-y di^^ e-, in-, intr(hf jpr«-, 
P^'^ryprthy re-, retro-y 9ug-y super^y trans-gredior, 

^^fioBcoTy profectusy to go a journey. 

Naneiscory nactusy toget. 

Poiiorf pa89U9y to sufler. So per-petior. 

'^niCotj (jfpttiSy toget. So a(Rpi8cory (ideptus; and indipiscory indeptmtu 

^naini9Cor^c(nHmtMiu8y to devise or invent 
: Pfuor y fnntus or fructus y to eTk]oy. Soperfruor* 

O^fitviscory obRtuSy to forget. 

^^^pergiscoTy eocperrectusy to awake. 

^(uriory mort^^y to die. So com-, de-y e-, im-, inter'y proMnorior. 

Wwcor, ndtuSy to be bom. So ad-, circumry de-y c-, tn^, inter-y re-, sub^ruucor. 

Wor, or^t£«, ortrt, to rise. So ofr-, ad-y co-y ex'y 06-, suh-orior. 
I ^ The three last form the future participle in Hvrus; thus, mdritumsy noidliurus^ 

' EXCEPTIONS IN THE FOURTH CONJUGATION* 

^^^^^j nien$usy to measure. So ad-, com^y di-y e-j prce-y re-mitiof. 

ft'^Sew, OTMtf, to begin. So ex-y redordior. 

^^9^hiory expertvsy to try. 

Qp^'^^^r opp^rtusy to wait or tarry for one. 

The following verbs want the participle perfect : 

»2j*r, vesci, to feed. Ringor, rin^, to grin like a dog. 

j2J*i Uqoi, to melt or be dissolved. Praevertor, prsRverti, to get befim^ to outrun. 

SjW, mederi, to keal. Diflfitcor, Difflteri, to deny. 

iJ^''''^**'** remmlsci, to remember. Divertor, divert!, to tufn aside, to take lodging. 

^*^^^t iraaciy to 6t angry. ^ D^i^tiscor, defetisci, to be weary or faint. 

The vMs which do not fall under any of the foregoing rules are called Jrr^^far. 

H 



114 



XRREOULAB VERBS. 



The irregular verbs are cooiiiiodIj reckoned eight: wm, eo, gueo, tMo, tidio^mdlo, 
firoj wad fiOf with their compounds. 

But piropefir there are onlj ihc : nolo and malo being compoonds of vaJo. 

SUM has akeady been conjugatad. After the lame manner are formed its mapmmdii ad-, ab-f 
de^t tn/er-, pr^-, ob-f tub-, ntper^maih and in-mmt which wants the preterite ; thuiy «inM| ffj/*^ 
adeMsty kc. 

PROSUMj to do good, has a d where sum begins with e / as, 

Ind. Pr. Pr6-sum, prod-es, prod-est; pro-siimasy kc 

Im, PrOd-^ram, prod-eras, prod-erat ; prod-eranias» be 

Siib./f>i. Prod-essem, prod-esses, prod-esset; prod-etse-i^* 

Imperat. Ph>d-esto, prod-este. In6nit. Pret. Frod-esse. 

In the other parts it is like turn: iVa-nm, -jm, &c. Fro-fui, •/ueram, Ik. 

POSSUM is compounded of pdiUf able, and turn ; and is thus conji]^ed : 

Possum, ptttui, possei To be able. 



I 



■ m 



Pr. 


FoittunY 


p5tes, 


pdtest; 


possOmiis, 


potestis. 


possont 


Jm. 


Put iiamy 


-eras, 


-erat; 




-eratis, 


-erant 


Per. 


Pot-oj, 


-uisti, 


•uit; 


-uimus, 


-ttistis. 


-uerunt 
-uere. 


Plu. 


Pot-uliram, 


-ueras, 


-uerat ; 


•ueramus, 


-ueratis, 


-uerant 


Fui. 


Pot^iro, 


-eris, 


-erit ; 


-erimus. 


*eritis. 


-erunt. 








Subjunctive Mode. 






Pr. 


Pof-shn, 


-sis, 


"t; 


•simus. 


•sitis, 


-sint. 


Im. 


Poa-aem, 


-ses, 


-»et; 


-staias, 


-s«tb, 


-sent 


Per. 


Pot-oerim, 


-ueris, 


-uerit; 


-uerimosy 


-ueritisy 


-uerint. 


Phi. 


Fo^aisMm, 


•uisses. 


-uisset; 


•uissemusi 


-nissetis, 


•uissent 


Fui. 


Pot-u&o, 


-ueris. 


•nerit; 


•uerimus, 


-ueritis, 


-uerint. 




Infiniiive. 






. 






Pret, Posse. Per. Potuitie. The rett toanting. 












£0, Ivi, 


Itum, ire, 7b go. 












Indicative Mode. 




• 


Pr. 


£o. 


»•> 


it; 


Imus, 


I tig, 


eunt 


Im. 


Ibam, 


ibas. 


ibat; 


ibamus, 


ibatis. 


ibant. 


Per. 


w, 


ivisti. 


ivit; 


ivimus, 


ivistis, 


iveront, ivere 


Plu. 


Iveram, 


iveras. 


iverat , 


iTcramns, 


iveratis. 


irerant 


Fui. 


Ibo, 


ibis, 


ibit; 


ibimus. 


ibitis, 


ibunt. 


m 






Subjunctive Mode. 




<• 


Pr. 


Earn, 


eas, 


eat; 


eamus, 


eatis. 


eant. 


Im, 


Irem, 


Ires, 


iret; 


iremos. 


iretisj 
iveritis. 


irent 


Per. 


Iverim, 


iveris, 


iyerit; 


iverimus. 


iverint. 


Plu. 


Irissem, 


iviiaes. 


ivisset, 


ivissemus. 


ivissetis. 


irissent. 


Atf. 


Irero, 


iveris, 


iverit; 


iverimus. 


iveriti9, 


i\*eriDt. 




ImptrowK. 




Infiniiive, 






'«' {L, 


Ito; 


Jite, 
I itote, 


eunto. p^jr ,^j^g^ 


f 












, Fut. Esse {turns, -a, -ii^. 








# 


• 


Fuisse ituiiM. 






Participles. 
Pr. lens, Gen, euuUs 


'a 


Gerunds. 
Eundum. 


Supmes. 
1. Itum. 






Fui. Itams, 


-a, 'um. 




Eundi. 


2. Itu. 





Eundo, &u:. 

The compounds of £b are conjugated after the same manner; dd-, ah^ ex-j d6-, redr, 
sub-f p^T'y cd-f lttr,pra^f antC'j prod-^o : only in the perfect, and the tenses formed fhun 
It, they are usually contracted ; thus, adeo^ adiiy seldom adivij adittany adirej to go 
to ; perfect, adtt, adOstiy or adisHy &c. adiiraniy adiMtnj &c. So hkewise veneoj 
veniz; ■■ ■ , to be sold, (compounded of venum and eo.) But amhioy 'ivi, 'itum^'irefto 
surround, is a regular verb of the fourth conjugation. 

£p, like other neater verbs, is often rendered in English under a passive form ; dius, ilf ht^ 
going ; j^, he is gone ; iviral, he was gone ; iverit, he may be gone, or shall be gone. So 9Ui^ 
he is coming ; vinu, he it come; vinirati he was come, &c. In the passive voice these veiH A)r 
the most part, are only uied impersonally ; as, Uur ab Ulo, he is going ; venium est ab ilHh they tl9 
We find some of tiK compounds of eo, however, used personidly ; as, perieula (tdeimiurt ^ 
uot Cic LUni SUyllmt inaditi sunt, were looked mto, Liv. Flumen pedtbus irantwipi^f 
Inimdiim 4ti5eanArf Cic. 



\ 



IRREGULAR Y£RBS. 



115 



^£0, 1 csDi sad J(f£qVEO, I cannot, ara conjniated the Ma 
inpeniifv and tiie gerundb ; and the partidplet are feldom ufcd. 

^ VOLO, v61ui, velle, To tnU, or to frc iMtftiiir- 

Tult ; volOmus, 

•ebat ; -ebamus, 

-uit ; -aimiiSy 

oucrat ; -ueraumsy 



w«j ■• <•; o«lj they want the 



ia. Vel-dbam, 

ftr. 



Vel-aer 
Yol-aiBy 



VlSy 

•ebat, 
-uisti, 
-ueras, 
-e«, 



-et 



-emuS] 



vultif, 

•ebatis, 

•uUtiSi 

-ueratif, 

•ctif, 



volunt. 

•ebant 

•ueninty 

-ueraat. 

•ent. 



IV. Velim, 
An. Vellem, 
Per. Vol-iierim, 
Phi. YoMHeai] 



velis, 

VClICSi 

-uerii, 



Arm. VaDe. 



ifiJmUive. 



SubjuneHvt Mode, 
velit ; veUmuK, 

▼ellet ; veUtniui, 

-uerit ', 
•uiiiet; 
-tieriC; 



-uerunus, 

-uiiseinusy 

-ueriinusy 



Porf. Volaute. 
The rett noi used. 



velitis. velint. 

velletis, veUent. 

-ucritis, -uerint. 

-uUsetii, -uissent. 

-ueritis, -uerint. 

PartieuaU, 

Pres. valeM. 



NOLO nolui, nolle, To be unvnllinf^. 
Indicaiive Modt. 



FV. 
Im. 

Per. 

»Ai. 

V 



'er. 



N6lo, 
Nol-elmm, 

Nd-ui, 

Nol-ueram, 
Nolam, 



non-vis, 
•ebai, 

-uisti, 

-ueras, 
nolet, 



non-vult 
•ebat ; 

-uit; 

-uerat ; 
uolet ; 



nolt&inus, 
-ebamu8, 

-uiinus, 

•ueramuS) 
•nolemus. 



Noliai, 

NoUem, 

NolHierim, 

Nol-uissem, 

Nol-uero, 



nolis, 

nolles, 

-ueris, 

•uisses, 

-ueris, 

Imperative, 
2. Sing, 2. Plur. 



Subjunctive Mode. 

nolit ; nolimus, 

iiollet ; noUemus, 

-uerit ; -ueriinus, 

-uisset ; -uissemas, 

•uerit ; -uerimut, 

Infinitive. 



noo'vultis, 
-ebatis, 

-uistis, 

-ueratis, 
noletis, 

nolitis, 

Dolletis, 

-ueritis, 

-uissetis, 

-ueritis, 

Participle, 



nolunt. 

-ebant. 

•ueruat. 

•uere. 

-oerant. 

nolant. 

ndlint. 

noUent. 

•uerint. 

•uissent. 

-uerint. 



n^ 5 Noli,, vel 5 oolite, vel 
^' ^Nolito; ^noUtote. 



Pr. 
Per. 



Nolle. 
Noluisse. 



V. 

M. 

Hu, 

V. 

a. 

•hi. 
u. 



Mftl-o, 
Mal-ebam, 

Mal-uiy 

Mal-oeram, 
Mal-aiBi 

Malira, ' 

Mallem, 

Mal-oerin, 

Blal-uitseni, 

Mal-uero, 



mavis, 
•ebas, 

-uisti, 

-ueras, 
-cs, 



Pr. Nolens. 
The rett wanting, 

MALO, malui, malle, To be more willing. 

Indicative Mode. 

tnavult; ' nialQinus, 

-ebat ; -ebamus, 

-uit ; 



-uimus, 



roaTuhis} 
-ebatis, 

-uistis, 

-ueratis, 



malis, 

malles, 

-ueris, 

•uisses, 

-ueris. 



Pres. Malle. 



•uerat ; -ueramus, 

-et ; inc. this is scarcely in we. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

malit; maiimus, 

mallet ; mallemus, 

•uerit ; 'Uerimus, 

-uisset ; -uissemus, 

-uerit ; -uerimus, 

Infinitive Mode. 
Per. Maluisse. The rest not used* 



malunt.- 

•ebant. 

•uerunt. 

-uere. 

-uerant. 



inalttis, 

mallalis, 

•ueritis, 

•uissetis, 

•ueritis. 



malint. 

mallent. 

-uerint. 

-idssent. 

-uerint. 



Ir. F«ro, 

K. Fer-ebara, 

)r. ToU, 

h, TU-eram, 

il Feram, 

r. Faram, 
^ Fai'ieui, 
tr. TaKerim, 
k. TdiiwiB, 
tf. Tal-ero 



FERO, tuli, l&tum, fcrre, To carry, to bring or staffer. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

IndiccUive Mode, 

fers, fert; ferlmus, fertis, 

-ebas, -ebat ; -ebamus, -ebatis, 

tulisti, tullt; tulimus, tulistis, 

-eras, -erat; -eramus, -eratis, 

feres, feret; feremns, feretis, 

Subjunctive Mode, 
ferat ; feramus, 

ferret; ferremus, • 

-erit ; -erimus, 



oerti 



ferunt. 
•ebant. 
tulenmti 



feras, 
ferres, 
-eris, 
•Uses, 
eris 



•issetj 
•erit* 



-issemos, 
-erimns 



feratis, 

ferrecify 

-eritb, 

•itsetis, 

-eritis, 



lerent* 

ferant. 

ferrent. 

•erint. 

-issent. 

•erint* 



iia 



mBEGULAB VSRBS. 



Pr. 



ImperaUve, 
JPw, - (ferte, 

I Fcrto, '®™ ' \ fertote, 



Participles. 
Prtt. Ferens, 
Fut, Latunui -a) -um. 



Pir. Fcire. 
Per. Tulisse. 
fW. Eiie latams, a, nm. 
Fnine latomsy a, um. 
SunineM, 

1. t&tum. 

2. Latu. 



Gertntdt. 
Ferendum. 
Ferendi. 
Ferendo, Izc. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

F&ror, l&tus, ferri, To fre brought. 
Indicative Mode. 



Pr, ¥6xQr, 

Im. Fer-ebar, 

Per. 
Plu. 



ferris, 
vel fenre, 

•ebaris, 
vel -ebare, 



fertur ; fertanur, ferVmini) feruntor. 
-ebatur ; -ebaiirar, -ebamini, -ebantur 



Latus sum, &c. latus fui, &c. 
Latus eram, be. latus fueram, &4 



Pr. Fcrar, 

Im. Ferrer, 

Per. 
Plu. 
Fut. 

Pr. 

Pr. 

Per. 

Fut. 



feretar ; fereotury feremini) ferentur. 
Subjunctive Mode. 
feratnr ', feramnri feramini) ferantur 

ferretur ; ferremury ferreminiy ferrentur- 



ferarisy 
vel ferare, 
fenerisi 
vel ferrerey 
Latus simi &c. latus ftierim, &c. 
Latus essem, inc. latus fuissenii &c. 
Latus fueroi inc. 

Imperative Mode. 
Ferre vel fertori fertor ; fcrimini) feruntor. 

Infinitive. Participles. 

Ferri. Per. Latus, -a, -um. 

Esse vel fuisse, latus, -Ri -um. Fut. Ferendus, -a, -um. 

Latum iri. 
In 13ce mamier arc conjugated the compounds of fire ; as, qff^roy ali&li, alkUum ; tmfifOi Muhf 
sdflatum ; diff^ro^ distuli, diUUum ; eonfiro, contulif eoUatum ; tnfiro, intuli, iUatum ; q^^^ro, ohtulii 
oblatum ; effiro, extulif elatum. So ctraim-, per-, trans-, de^pro-y ante-, pra-flhro. lia some writen 
we find, ad&ro, adtiUi, adlatum ; eonlatum, inlatum ; otifero, &c. for nJfero, inc. 

Obs. 1. Most part of the above verbs are made irregular by contraction. Thus, nolo is contracted 
for fion volo ; nudo for magis volo ; fero, fers, fert, &c. for feris,ferit, &c. Feror, ferritt v. ferrt 
fertur, for /er^rii, itc. 

Obs. 2. The imperatives of dlco, d&co, and felcio, are contracted in tlie same manner with fef* 
thus we gay, die, due, fac, instead of dice, dice, flee. But these often occur likewise in the regobur 
form. 

FIO, factus, flgri, To he made or done, to become. 

Indicative Mode. 
Pr. PlOy fis, fit; fimus, 

Im. Fiebam, fiebas, fiebat; fiebatig, 

Per. Factns sum, &c. factus fui, &c. 

Factus eram, &c factus fueram, iic. 

Fiam, fiesi fiet; ficmus, 

Subjunctive Mode. 



Plu. 
Fut. 



fitis, 
fiebatis, 



fietis, 



fiunt. 
fiebant 



fient. 



Pr. Fiam, fias, fiat; 

Im. Fi^em, fieres, fieret; 

Per. Factus sim, ice. factus fuerim, &c. 
Plu. Factus essero, &c. factus fuisscm, &c. 
Fnt Factus fiiero, &c. 
Imperative. 

'''• {who. fit»5 



fiauMis, 
fieremus, 



fiatis, 
fieretis, 



fiaat 
ucreni 



Jfite, 
I fitote, 



fiunto. 



htfinitive. 
Pr. Fieri. 

Per, Esse vel fuigge factus, -a, -um 
Fut. Factum iri. 

Supine. 

Factu. 



Partieiples. 
Per. Factus, -a, -um. 

Fut, Fadeodus, -a, -um. 

The ooispoaDdi otfldo which retain a, have also fio in the passive, and fac in the imperath^ 
active ; wuh t^dtfado, to warm, cal^^ calefac: but those which change a into t, fosm the pasgiv^ 
regularly, and lucre, flee in the impcnrative ; as, cof^fido, conflee; conficior, confeetus, conflci. We 
tim, however, conJU, it is done, and eonfleri ; deJU, it is wanting ; infit, he begins. 

To irregular verbs may properly be subjoined what are commonly called Neuter Passive Verbs, 
which like Jio, form the preterite tenses according to the passive voice, and the rest in the active. 
These are, adho, sohtus, toUre^ to use ; cnulMf aasus, audire, to dare ; gaudeOf ga;vlsus, gaudire, to 
jr^ojce; fido,fUus,fidiTe, to trust : So eonfido, to trust ; and diffido, to distrust ; which also have 



DEFECTIVE AND IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



117 



iJUH. Some add nutrto, mtutut, mtarere, to be lad ; but mcuiiu h {generally reckoned 
We likewise saj jkrituM mm and coauUtu mm, for jtirom and cttnam, but these may 
I is a passive sense. 

wj be referred verbs, wholly active In their terminationi and passire in their significa- 
iM, -mii -o/titfi, to be beaten w whipped ; eaiiOi to tie sold ; tx&lot to be banished, &c. 

DKFKCTIVS VXBBS. 

e called Defective, %hich are not used in certain tenses, and mimbers and 

ree, odiT, cce/n, and mimlniy are only used in the preterite tensed; aAd there- 
led Preteritive Verbs ; though they have sometimes likewise a present fiign- 

lUS, 

ate, or have hated, oderam, oderimy odissem, odero, odiase. Participles, 

s ; r.rostis, perosus. 

he^j or have begun, casperam, -erim, -ds^tem, -ero, -isse. Supuie, cceptu. 

cmpiuSj ctepturus, 

I remember, or have remembered, meniineram, -^rim, -isBern, -ero^ -iste* 

, memeniOf niementote. 

odi, we sometimes say, osus sum ; and always exotutf ptrotus turn, and not txodt, 
say, opus cmpit fieri, or eaptum est. 

ome add n&ci, because it frequently has the signification of the present, I know, as well 
npn, though it comes from tuwro, which is complete. 

be mad, dor, to be given, and for, to speak, as also der, and fer^ are not 
first person singular ; thus, we say, darts, datur; but never dor, 
I which want many of their chief parts, the fdlowing most frequently occur : 
; inqtiam, I say ; fbrem, I should be ; austiHf contracted for aums sim, I 
m, I'll see to it, or I will do it; ave, and saJve, save you, hail, good-morrow ; 
lou, or give me ; qucesop I pray. 



ebam, 


ais, 
-ebas, 
aisti; 
Hias, 


ait; 
-ebat: 

aiat : 


• 

quam, 

|ue, inquTto. 


•quig, 

inquisti, 
inquieSi 


•quit : 
inquiebat : 

inquiot : 


rdrem, 


fores, 


forct 



-ebamus, 



>qulimu8| 



-ebatis, 



aiunt. 
-ebant. 



aiatis, aiant. 

Partieip, Pres. AJcns. 
-qultiS; -qaiunt. 

— • inquiebant 



Particip^ Pres. Inquiens. 



foremus, 



forctis, 



forent. 



faxint 
fazintr 

Inf. tLvere, 
— salvere. 



be hereafter, or to be about to be, the same with ettefuturw. 

isim, ausis, ausit: — 

ixim, faxiii, faxit : — — 

ixo, faxig, faxit: — faxYtis, 

im and faxo are used instead of fecerim and feeero. 

el av^to ; plur. avete vel avetote. 

V, salvfto ; — salvCte v. salvetote. 

— Salvebis. 

nd person sing. Cedo, plur, cedite. 

rsi person sing. Qnaeso, plur. qusesumus. 

e other Defective verbs are but single words, and ravely to be found but among the 

^, he begins ; defit, it is wanting. Some are compounded of a verb and the conjunction 

si vis, if thou wilt : sitlfis for si vultis ; sodes for ti audtt: equivalent to qiMUO, I pray ; 

) si vis. 

IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

5 called Impersonal, which has only the terminations of the third penoD 

at does not admit any person or nominative before it. 

lal verbs in English, have before them the neuter pronoim U, wiiidi is not 

as a person; thus, delectat, it delights; decet, it becomeft; amtingU^ it 

Ivinit, it happens : 

Ut Conj. 2d Conj. 3d Conj\ 4ih Cm^. 

^electat, DScet, Contingit, Evfialc, 

^electabat, Decebat, Contimbat, Eveniebat 

»electavit, Decuit, Coatrgk» Evteit, 

»electaverat, Decuerat, Cont^eratf Eireovat, 

»electabit. Decebit. Continget Eveniet. 



lis 



REDUNDANT VERBS. 



fUb, Fr. Deiectet, 
' In. Delectaret, 
jVf. DcKctavcTity 
P/tt. DefectavincC, 
FmI. Delectaverit. 

Isf, Pr. Ddcdire, 
Per. DalectaTisse. 



Dftceat, 



Jjecuartty 
Decniuetf 



Dec^re, 
Decuisse. 



Contin^t, 

ContingAreCi 

Contigerit, 

CootigMtetp 

Cootigerit 

Coatingjhne, 
Contlgisae.- 



Most Latin verbs may be used impersonally in the passive voice, espedaUy Nei 
and Intransitive verbs wMch otherwise have no passive ; dA^pugnalwrj favetury c 
f^UuTj vhntur; from pugnoy to ^^ti faveo, to favour; cwrroy to run; vemioy 
come: 



lad. 



Sub. 



Pr, 


PugD&tar, 


Fay^tur, 


Canftar, 




Im. 


Pagnabatur, 


Favebatur, 


Currebator, 


VenWMlur, 


Per. 


Pngnatum est, 


Fautum est, 


Cumnn est, 


Vantacst, 


Plu. 


Pugnatum erat, 


Fautum erat, 


CnrMnerat, 


Vcntimienl, 


Fui. 


Pugnabitur. 


Favebitur. 


Curretor. 


Veoietiir. 


Pr. 


Piignetur, 


• Fayeatur, 


Cnrratnr, 


Veniatnr, 


Im. 


Pugnaretiir, 


Faveretur, 


Cnrretur, 


Voiiunetnr, 


Per. 


Pagnatum sit, 


Faatum sit, 


Cursum sit. 


Veotnm sit. 


Plu. 


Pngnatum esset, 


Fautam esset. 


Cursum esset, 


VentiuD esset, 


Fui. 


Pugnatum fuerit. 


Fautum fuerit. 


Cursum fuerit. 


Ventnm fuerit, 


Pr. 


Pugnari, 


Faveri. 
Faittum esse. 


Corri, 


Veniri, 


Per. 


Pugnatam esse, 


Cursum esse, 


Ventmn esse, 


Put. 


Pugnatmn iri. 


Fautum jri. 


. Cursum iri. 


Ventum iri. 



Inf. 



Obs. 1. Impersonal verbs are scarcely used in the imperative, but instead of it we take the i 
junctive ; as, deleetet, let it delight, &c. nor in die supines, participles, or gerunds, except a fi 
as, peeniiens, -dturii -dus, &c. Induei ad pudendum et pigendum, Cic. In the preterite tenses of 
passive voice, the pa^ciple perfect is always put in ttie neuter gender.- 

Obs. 2. Grammarians reckon only ten real impersonal verbs, and all in the second conjugati 
dieetf it becomes ; parMety it repents ; oporiety it behoves ; misirety it pities ; pigety it irketh ; pH 
it shameth ; heety it is lawful ; tfbet or lubety it pleaseth ; Uedety it wearieth ; ti^et, it appears, 
which the following have a double preterite ; misereiy miteruity or mitertum ett ; pigety piguit. 
pigitum ett ; pudety puduU, or puditum est ; liett, licuit, or lieitum est ; libfJy lUnnty or Itbilum 
t^dfty tmduity ttetwn est, oOener pdertmsum est. But many other verbs are used impersonally in 
the conjugations. 

In the iirit, JUval, spectat, v&caty slaty ccnslat, prtcstaty restat, &c. 

In the second, Appdrety atttnety pertlnety dibety ddlety ndcety lotety liquet, pUtety pUuet, dispUeety si 
stOetyiLc. 

In the third, AciUdity indlpU, desfnit, sujpcity &c. 

In the fourth, Convinit, expidity &c. 

Also irregnlar verbs. Est, obest, prddesty pdtesly int^estysupifrest ; n/, prtet^rU, neqttit and nequi 
subity eonfaiy riferty &c. 

Obs. 3. Under impersonal verbs may be comprehended those which express the operation] 
appearances of nature ; as, FulgHrat, fulmXnat, tdnaty grandinaiy gflaty pluit, rUngU, Ivceseity ad 
peraseity &c. 

Obs. 4. Impersonal verbs are applied to any persou or number, by putting diat which sta 
before other verbs, after the impersonals, in the cases which they govern ; as, placet mVn, tibi, 
it pleases, me, thee, him ; or I please, thou pleasest, &c. pugnatur a me, a te, ab iUo, I fight, t 
tightest, he fighteth, &c. So Curritur, renitur, a mty a te, &c. I run, thou runnest, &c. Favetur 
a me, Thou art favoured by me, or I favour thoc, iic. 

Obs. 6. Verbs arc used personally or impersonally, according to the particular meaning wl 
they express, or the different import of (he words with which they are joined : thus, we can say, 
pUueo tibi, I please you ; but we cannot say, si places audire, if you please to hear, but si pi 
tibi audire. So we can say, multa homini eontingunt, many things happen to a man : bnt instead 
ego contigi esse domi, we must cither say, me contigit esse domiy or mihi contigit esse domiy I happe 
to be at home. The pro|>er and elegant use of Impersonal verbs can only be acquired by prad 

BEDUITDANT YKRB8. 

Those are called Redundant Verbs which have different forms to express the same sense : tl 
assentio and ussenftor, to agree ; fabfSco and fabfteoTy to frame ; mereo and mereor, to deserve, 
These verbs, however, under the passive form have IDLewise a passive signification. 

Several verbs are used in different conjugations. 

1. Some are usually of the first conjugation, and rarely of the third; as, /oro, larasy laodre; < 
Umo, latis, lavihre, to wash. 

2. Some are usually of the second, and rarely of the third ; as, 
Ferveo, ferves, muc fervo, fervis, to boil. 

Fnlgeo, fttlges, and fulgo, fulgis, to ^dne. 

Strfdeo, strides, and strido, stridis, to make a kissing noise, to creak 

Toeor, tn^ris. and tnor, tui^is, to defend. 



THE OBSOLETE CONJUGAITON. 1J9 

»e add tergmj iergu; and tergo, iergis, to wipe» which are equally contmnii. 

3. Some are eanmooly of the third conjugation, and rarely of the fourth : ai, 

Fodioy Ibdih ijMte, md fodio, ibdls, fodire, to dig, 

SaUoy wOlkt aalMret mud tallio, salUg, sallire, iouUt. 

JUfomm, -If^MiceMerey and arcesgio, arcetsire, to tend for. 

Mnriart ■iirtrii» aori, and morior, moriris, moriri, to die. 

% OrtViMMh «id orior, orlrisj oriri, to riie. 

Potiair^iMieriii and potior, p^^tiris, poUri, to enjoy. 

is likewne a viib» which u ugually of the gecond conjugation, and more rarely of the fourthi 

eta, tiUf tltni wtA aot citf eiref to rouse ; whence, aecirey and aetitut. 

ste wm flMQFMdtbe ?eib EDO, to eat, wbicli though regularly formed, also agrceg in geveral 

It! whk **'"/ ^v*** 

lad. Prea. Bdo, edit or ei, edit or ei< ; — — > edlilu or e<<» 

Bob. Imperf. Ederem or e<fem> ederM or emeg, &lc. 

Ipp. jEw or eg, edito or eato; edite or f«/e, editote or eg/o/e. 
. Ih. Anea. £dere or egie. 

iMve find. Freg. £dt/iir or ei/ur. 

f not be improper here to gidyoin a ligt of thoge verbg which resemble one another in aome 
partly though they differ in gignafication. Of thege gome ag^^e in the present, some in the 
y and dM others in the gupine. 

1. The following agree in the present, but are differently conjugated : 

-ag, to keap np, .... Agg<^ro, -is, to bring together. 

-as, to emu. Appello, -is, to drive, to arrive. 

0, •asy to^ addrest Compello, -is, to drive together. 

-as, to dfwd. CollTgo, -is, to gather together. 

lOy -as, to attonish. .... Congtemo, -is, to strew, 

isy to enrage. Effero, -ferg, to bring out. 

agy to found. Fundo, -ig, to pour out. 

-ag, to eanvmand Mando, -is, to ehew. 

•ag, to lock. .... Obg^ro, -is, to beset. 

!, to Jiy V6lo, vis, to will. 

Of tills class some have a different quantity ] as, 
;, to strain. . . . . • Cdlo, -is, to till. 

s, to dedicate. ' Dlco, -is, to tav. 

as, to train up. .... £daco, -ig, to lead forth. 
g, /o send on an embassy. ^go, -'u, to read. 

g, to wade. Vfido, -ig, to go. 

2. Tlie following Verbs agree in the Preterite : 

uiy to be sour Acuo, acui, to sharpen. 

ctMf to grow Cemo, crdvi, to see. 

Frixi, to be cold. .... Frigo, frixi, to fry. 

fulsi, to Aine Fnlcio, fulsi, to prop. 

uziy to shine JAgeo, luzi, to motim. 

i6Hy to be afraid Pasco, pftvi, to feed. 

pi^pendi, to hang Pendo, p^pendi, to weigh. 

3. The following agree in the Supine : 

Cemo, cretnmy to behold. 
Mando, mangum, to chew. 
Sisto, statum, to stop. 
Succendo, -censum, to kindle. 
Tendo, tentum, to stretch out 
Verto, vergum, to turn. 
Vivo, victum, to live 



cretum, to grotr. 
tnansum, to ^ay. 
um, to gtond. 
M>, -cengum, to be angry. 
entum, to hold.* 
ersum, to sweep. 
ictum, /o overroine. 



THE OBSOLETE COKJUOATION. 

hiefly occurs in old writerg, and only in particular conjugationg and tenses. 
5 ancient Latins made the imperfect of the indicative actire of the fourth Cfmjogation in 
nrithout the e ; as, avdsbam, seibam, for audiibamy sdibam. 

the future of the indicative of the fourth conjugation} ihe^r used ISO in the actiye, and 
le passive voice ; as, dormibot dormHtwr^ for dormiami^dormiair. 
i present of the subjunctive aiiciently ended in JJIf ; «dy edim for e d a w , duim for dbn. 
5 perfect of the subjunctive active sometimes occurs in SSIM, and tiie ftrtore in 880; am, 
livasso, for levaverim, levavero ; capsim, eapso, for caperim, capero. Hienoe the ftrtive 0f 
itive was formed in ^SSSERE ; as, levassercy for levaturus esse. ^ 

the second person of the present of the imperative passive, we find MIJW in te sfalgalary 
or in d}e plural ; as, f amino, for fare ; and progrfdinOnor, for progrtdia^tm. 
t syllable ER wias frequently added to the present of the infinitive passive ; as, farter foBtfmi 
vdiei. 

i participles of the ftitiire time active, and perfect passive, when joined with the veib emo, 
netimes nsed as mdeclinable; thus, credo inimieos dielwvm ette, fin* iktwrtn, Cic 
adwif miasumfaeitn, lor mixms, Cic. ad Attic. -viii. '12. 



120 PARTICIPLE. 

DERIVATION AKD COMF081TI09 OF TSRBS. 

Verbs are denved either from nouns or from othejr verbs. 

Verbs derived from nouns are called Dtfwminativt ; 9A;-0mM} to sup ; UtudtOf to praise ; ftrnJa^ 
to defraud \ lapsdoj to throw stones ; opHror, to work ; frumentorihk forage ; %iiflf> to ^ther fud) 
&c. from ecmoy lam, frans, &lc. But when they express imitation or retetMtmtt^hey are called 
Imitattoe; as, PatriMso, Greecor, Hbtito, corrdeor, &c. I imitate or resemble my fadter, a Grecian) ao 
owl, a crow, &c. from paler, Qrtecusj bubo, eomix. 

Of those derived from other verbs, the following chiefly deserve attention ; namely, FrequfifUaUta, 
JiUtijpt^, and Dtdierativtt. 

1. FREQUEJ^T^TIFES express frequency of actiop, and are all of the first conjugation. They 
arc formed from the last supine, by chunging dtu into ito, in verbs of the first conjugation ; and bj 
changing u into o, in verbs of the other &ree conjugations ; as, damo, to cry, eUuAt9j to cry fre- 
quently ; Urreo, ierrUo ; verlo, verto ; dormio, dormUo, 

In like manner, Deponent verbs form Frequentatires in or ; as, ndnor, to threatpi; fnMor, to 
threaten freauen^ly. j 

Some are formed in an irregular manner ; as, tuUo from no; noteito from noan ; §eUm §4itnAfBt ■ 
seiidUor from 9eio;'pavUo from paveo; tector from aequor ; logrOtor from loquor, Hm qui^iMh 
fundUa, ugltQ, fuko, &c. 

From Freqaentative verbs are also formed other Frequentatives ; as, cwrro, ewnoy eunito ; pdh, 
puUo, puUiUo, or by contraction, piUto; ca^, caplo, capfto; cano, cariio, eantUo ; aefendo, iefenii, 
deJfensUo ; duo, (iicto, didiio ; gwtf g^o, gestito ; jaeio, jaeto, jaetito ; vemo, verUjip ; muiio, mvao, 
(for mutito) musAlo, &x;. 

Verbs of this kind do not always express frequency of action. Many of them have much the 
same sense with their primitives, or express the meaning more strongly. 

2. IM'CEP TIVE Vkrbs mark the beginning or continued increase of any thing. They are foraed 
from the second person singular of the present of the indicative, by adding co ; as, eauo, to be hot, . 
eales, calesco, to grow hot. So in the other conjugations, Idbasco from lAo; tremiteo fromtrem, 
obdormisco from obdormio. IU$eo from hio is contracted for hiaseo. Inceptives are likewise fonoeA 
from substantives and adjectives ; as, pueraaco from puer; dttlcesco A'om duleit; jtufeneteo from 
juvenis. 

AH Inceptives are Neuter verbs, and of the tiiird conjugation. They want both the preteriu 
and supine ; unless very rarely, when they borrow them from their primitives. 

3. DESIDERATIVE Verbs signify a desire or intention of doing a thing. They are formed 
from the latter supine, by adding rio, and shortening the u; as, cosno^iirto, I desire to sup, fron 
ciBnaiu. They are all of the fourth conjugation ; and want both preterite and supine, except these 
three, is&rio, -ivi, -itum, to desire to eat ; partOano, -Hn, — , to be in travail : nupHirio, ivi, ^, to 
desire to be married. 

There are a few verbs in LLO, which are called DiminiUive ; as, earUiUo, sorbUlo, -are, I sing, I 
sup a Ihtle. To these som« add aUOeo, and canAeo, -are,^ to be or to grow whitish ; also, ntgricf, 
fiUeo, and vellico. Some verbs in SSO are called IrUermve; as, Capetto, facetMO, peteUQ orpetimj 
I take, I do, I seek earnestly. 

Verbs are compounded with nouns, with other verbs, with adverbs, and chiefly with prepositions. 
Many of these simple verbs are not in use ; as, Futo, fendo, spedo, grrw, kc. The component 
parts usually remain entire. Sometimes a letter is added ; as, prodeo, for pro-eo : or taken 
away ; as, atporto, omitto, trado, pejfro, pergo, debeo, prabeo, &c. for abiporto, obntiUo, trmtdOf 
perjuro, perrego, dehibeo, prmhiben, kc. So demo, premo, sumo, of de, pro, tub, and em, 
which anciently signified to take, or to take away. Often the vowel or diphthong of the simple ?er1>, 
and the last consonant of the preposition, is changed ; as, damno, condemno ; caleo, eoncuico ; ledo, 
coUtdo; audio, obedio, &c. jjff^ro, mtfiro, eoUaudo, impttco, &c. for adfero, abfero, conlauii, 
inplico, inc. 

PARTICIPLE. 

A Participle is a kind of adjective formed from a verb, which in its ngnification 
implies time. 

It is so called, because it partakes botli of an adjective and of a verb, having gender and de- 
clension from the one, time and signification from the other, and number from both. 

PartiQi^of are decUpned like adjectives ; and their signification is various, according to the nature 
of the verbs from which they come ; only participles in dus, are always passive, and import not 
so much future time, as obJjgatioB or necessity. 

Latin verbs h^ve four Particip^, the present and future active; as, AmanSj loving; 
amdturuSy about to love: and the perfect and future passive; as, amdtvMy loved, 
ameunAus^ to be loved. 

The Latins have xko\ a participle perfect in the active, nor a participle present in the passive 
Toiee ; which defect ipnst be supplied by a circumlocution. Thus, to express the perfect partfciplf! 
active in English, we use a conjunction, and the plu-perfect of tiie subjunctive in Latin, or sooe 
other tense, According to its connexion with the other words of a sentence ; tits, he having love4i 
quum amavissei, &c. 

Neujt^r verbs have coiivaaonly but two Participles ; as, Sidens, aetswrut^ stcmBy 
Mtaturitf. 



AftVERB. 121 

From some iiuuter verbs, are formed Partidples of the perfect tense ; as, ErrahUf fedbuUutf 
iurshiff, lak t r miui^ tigilaiust ceuahu, rudtUut, triumphahuy regnniuit dicumuj deOttUi emenha, 
ncmcf, •Mttu^ pimthttt lueeeitiUf oeedtutf &c. and also of the future in dus; as, Juranduty Hgiltmdut, 
rmmiduSf emrmdiu, dormiendusy erubueendut, &c. Neuter passive verbs are equally various 
Vmm has no inurtidple ; Ftdoj only fident wndjinu; soleo, ioUnt, and toHtut-f vt^alOf tapuUmif 
tnd Pt^mltt/umt; Qiiudeoy gaudent, gannu, and gavuwnu; Audto, auderu, austu, auturutj audendut. 
AnHu M used both in an active and passive sense ; as, ^uri omnu immane rufat, autoqve pMUi. 

Deponent and Common verbs have commonly four Participles ; as^ 

lifveiii^ speakings ; locvUurus, about to speak ; toeuiiuy havings spoken ; loqutndusy to be spoken. 
Hmmh voorhsafiag ; digtiatiirus, about to vouchsafe ; dignatusy having vouchHafed, being vouch- 
tsM, sr kavteg been vouchsafed ; dignapdut, to be vouchsafed. Many participles of the perfect 
ttMe froav Dqpooent verbs have both an active and passive sense ; as, JlbominatuSf eonahu 

. m^mu, «4lirtWf a^/plexus, blandUut, largUvtt merUUiUy oblihu, tetiahUt veneratvt, &c. 

; ■ iMn wi* several Participles compounded with in signifying not, the verba of which do not 
■UfjT Jlm iWHipositSon : as, InteUntf inipiran$t wdieent for nondieerut moplnant, and mco 
ffmt,^iti$Hirm»; HUuiu, imprannu, tneoruuHus, inautoditut, immetatusy impimitus, imparahUi 
niBMdihli^ tHMMjifia, indemruUutf indotatus, incarruphUf inierritut, and imperterrituty irUedqimh 
immu, Iwiyiwflfm, inuHua, ineenstu for rum centus, not registered; infecttu for rum faetuij tnnUM 
ftr NMi vimat mdUtuM for rum dktuSf &c. There is a di£ferent momnu from irueendo ; infeehif firaoi 
tit^; inmiui from intideo ; indietus from indico, &c. 

If from the signification of a Participle we take away time, it becomes an adjective^ 

and admits the tkgrees of comparison ; as, 

JhuBu, loving, ama$Uior, amaiUimmus; doduSf learned, doctior, docUttimut : or a substantive; asy 
Pntftdut, a eonnaoder or governor ; eomonam, f. sc. /tferii, a consonant; eontineru, f. sc. Urrmf a 
coituwilt ; confluenSf m. a place v^here two rivers run together; orieruy m. ec^joI, the east ; Occident, 
m. the west ; AdmR, a saving ; Mcriptumy &c. 

Tliere are many words m ATUS, JTUSy and UTUSy which, although resembling participles, are 
nduMMd adjectivesy because they come from nouns, and not from verbs ; as, tdatut, hmitttUf 
wdahUyCatluiWj eridaiut, awriiut, peUUuSf tunHu»; attuhu, comuttu, ruuutut^ iic. winged, bearded, 
diiereet, Iw. But munthuy tcratua, argentaiuSf ferratiUf plumbatua, gyptatusy caireatnsy djfpttUiUy 
fifeodu, iiadcMivMf UxrvahUy palliaiusy lymphatusy pwrpuraiuty prtdiextaimy iiic. covered with gold, 
bmi, silvor, lie are accounted participles, because they are supposed to come from obsolete 
▼ntM. So perhaps calamitlratuiy frizzled, crisped, or curled ; criniiuiy having long hair ; perUus, 
dulled, kc. 

iWe is a kind of Verbal adjectives in BUJfDUSy formed from the imperfect of the indicativei 
vUdi very much resemble Participles in their signification, but generally express the meaning of 
tbs verb mmna fully, or denote Vn abundance or great deal of the action ; as, vitaJfundusy the same 
^ valdd viiantf avoiding much. Sal. Jug. 60, and 101. Ldv, xzv. 13. So errabundus, ludiburtdiUf 
f9pukbimduay moribundtUy kc. 

GEAUNDS AND SUPINES. 

gerunds' are participial words, which bear the signification of the verb from whicb thcj are 
fonaed y and are declined like a neuter noun of the second declension through all the cases of the 
limlar number, except the vocative. 

fliere are both in Latin and English, substantives derived from the verb, which so much resemble 
tbe Gerand ha their signification, that frequently they may be substituted in its place. They are 
Seaendly used however in a more midetermined sense than the Gerund, and in English have the 
>riicle always ^irefixed to them. Thus, with the Gerund, DeUdor legendo Cieeronenh I ain 
<lelig]ited with reading Cicero. But with Uie substantive. Detector lectione Ciceroniiy I am delighted 
^ the reading of Cicero. 

The Qervnd and Future Participle of verbs in to, and some others, often take ti, instead of e ; 
%faeiimdumy di, do, dus; experiunduMy potiunduniy gerundumy potundumy dtteundumy kc, for 
/acwMbfm, &c. 

SUPINES have ranch the same signification with Gerunds, and may be indifi*erently applied to 
Vijr person or nund>er. They agree m termination with nouns of the fourth declension, having 
oqfy the accusative ^nd ablative cases. 

the former Supine is commonly used in an active, and the latter in a passive sense, but some- 
^ the conlrary ; as, coctum non vapulatum, dudum conduclus fui, i. e. tU vaputaremy v. verberarer, 
to be beaten. Plaut. 

ADVERB. 

An adverb is an indeclinable part of speech, added to a verby adjective, ov other 
^><hperby to express some circumstance, quality, or manner of their signification. 

All adverbs may be divided into two classes, namely, those which denote Ctrcta»* 
^'ttce; 9pd those Y^ich denote QuaUfy, Manner ^ &c. 

L. Adv<ab| denotiog Circumstance are chiefly those of Flace, Timey and Order* 

1* JESlPRbs of Flace^ are flve-fdd, namely, such as signify, 



122 



Ubi? 
Hie, 
lOie, 

InCufi 

FttrU, 

dbhiiie) 

NyMuan* 

Aitoibit 

4W, 

XbfcSetny 



Quo? 
Hoe, 
ninci 

IttllHC, 

Iiitr6, 
F6raai 

m, 

AUquo, 



ADVERE. 

1. MMm or rest in a pUau. 
Where f lUonuniy 

Here, Samm, 

Deommiy 
Thire, Antronmni 

' RctftMniinif 
Dextrortum, 
Sinistronmm, 






Kveiy tf/iere. 

JVb loAere. 

5oiii«if^iere. 

Ettewkere. 

^Kgmkere. 

in the tame place. 



Toward the rigfU. 
TowmrdilheWH- 



2. Motion to aplaee. 



\ 



Whither? 
HUher. 

T/iitfier. 

In. 

Out. 

To that place. 

To another place. 

To tojne place. 

To the tame place. 



3. Motion towardt a place. 



Unde? 

HinCy 

nUnc, 

Isthinc, 

Indei 

IndTdem, 

Alhindei 

AITcundei 

Sicandei 

Utrinqu^, 

Saperne, 

Infernp, 

CasUtugy 

Fiindllug| 



4. Motion from a piaee. 

Whmeof 
Hence. 

2%etir6L 



FramlhemmtfmL 
Fromebewhen, 
From mrntfioee. 
Iffrommvjfftote, 
Onhotkmiu. 
^rom flVMP6* 
Frombdmo. 
urom nowKn* 
From the gromd 



6. Motion throu^ or by a ploc 



Qnomiinf 

VcnNWy 

Honuoii 



Nunc, 

Ilddle, 

Tone, ^ 

Turn, S 

H#ri, 

DOdunii \ 

Frlilcm» 5 

Pridie, 

IfOdiuttertiuSy 

Naper» 

Jnmjami 

M0X9 

StAtim, 

Pr<Mlto09, 

IIIIco, 

Crms, 

Pottrldie, 

P^rendit^i 

Nondunit 

Qiwiido? 

AAqiMUMio, 

Nonnunquam 

iBtardiuDi 

SanpWi 

NnnqiNimi 



Whitherward? 

Towardi. 

Hithtrumrd. 



Qua? 

lUkc, 
Isth^c, 



Whkhwey? 
ThiiWiff. 

> Thai way. 

Another way* 

. Adverbs of Time are three-fold, namely, such as signify, 
1. Some particular timet either presentf pasty fittnre^ or indefinite. 



Xfow. 
To-day. 

Then, 

Yesterdt^. 

Hereiojore. 

Tho doM before, 
Tkrto days ago. 
Lately. 
Presently. 
Immediately. 
By and by. 
Instantly. 
Straightway. 
To-morrow. 
The day after. 
Two days hence. 
JVW yet. 
When? 



InUrim, Jn the mean time. 

Qufitldie, Daily. 

2. Continuance of time 
Long. 
How long 
So long. 



Dtu, 

Quamdiu ? 

Tamdiui 

Jarodia, 

Jamdadum, > Long l^. 

Jamprideni) ) 

8. Viciaritude or repdH kn of time 



QM5ties ? 



Sometimes. 

£pfr» alwtiys, 
»Verer. 



Iade» 

IlraMSy 
Dfhinc, 

IMneopOi 



Thost^ 

^fUrihai, 

Home^/krth. 



So forth. 

or 



IUr6, 

Tddes, 

AlR|u6tiety 

Vk'issini, 

Altemitim, 

Rurrasi 

It^ruin, 

SAbinde, 

Identrdeni} 

S«mel, 

Bis, 

Ter, 

Qoftter, 

S. Adverbs of Order, 

Dtelque, 

P'0fttlCtB6y 

Prim6, -An, 
SCciiiid6, -din, 
Terti^, -Am, 



X] 

i 

ici 



tkmoflai? 

Open, 

Sudam, 

ao^fUn. 

#br moeral times. 

]^ turns. 

Again, 

Emrandanonfnofotm- 

then. 
Once, 
Twice. 
'Thrice, 
Four tiauit kc. 



Ftnaily. 

UafOy, 

Firol. 

Stamdly, 

Mmoran, 

FomrtUsh Ik* 

n. Admbs denoting Qualitt, Maniod^ &c. are either AMbde or CyuiMirfn^ 
Those mlled Akmihtte denote. 



ERIVATION, COMPARISON, AND COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS. 123 



QDALITT, simply ; as, ben^ well; maU, ill ; former, bravely; aiMl innomerable others that 
e from a<y cctiv e nouns or partidples. 

CERTAUNTir ; as, pwdfeetd, e»Uy jon^, pUtmt, fut, mque, Ua, itiamf traly, yerUy, yes; quUbi, 
' not ? aimano, certainly. 

. CONTINOENCE ; as, forti, fqrtanj f&rtamg, fort, haply, perhaps, by chance, peradvenCnre. 
. NEGATION ; as, nmiy haud, not ; nefiidgiMWi, not at all; neuli^uam, by no means ; mhtrme, 
tiiorkss. 

>. AOHIBITION; as, ne, not. 

i SWEARING ; as, Aerde, jtol, edfp&lf mHadory by Hercules, by Polluz, &c. 
'. EXPLAINING ; as, utpdie, vidttUeif lefileef, nSmirwUf ntmpt, to wit, namely. 
L SEPARATION ; as, seortuntf apart ; tipirdtitny separatdiy ; tUgiUOiim, one by one ; fMikn, 
a by man ; tippi^dtimy town by town, &c. 

K JQININO TOGETHER; as, OmiU, un&y p&riter, together; gMfrMtUer, generally; M^er- 
ifer, onivertally ; pUrumque, for the most part. 

10. INDICATION or POINHNG OUT : as, en, eeee, lo, behold. 

11. INTERROGATION ; as, ctir, audrtj ^ijomofrrem, why, wherefore ? num^ en, whether ? 
Mtfoy qui, how ? To which add, Uoi, qud, quormm, unde, ^tcd, quando, qtunndtUf qmii$t . 

Those Adverbs which are called Comparative^ denote, 

1. EXCESS; as» Valdit, mnximi, mapumfre, niaxttnopere, summopere, admddumt'oppMf per* 

MM, fnigi^ gnntiy, very much, excecdragtV ; rdmu, ntmtum, too much ; pronutf peiihUf ^t mUn Of 

lyether, wkolly : magiSf more ; fneliitSj better ; pejtU, worse; foriiiu, more bravely ; and ^pHmt, 

Vfparimif wontfjortisnmt, most bravely; anid innumerable others of die co mp a r ative tnd 

Hnilive cMwrees. 

I DEFECT; as, Ferme, firt, pr^emddum, pitU, almost ; p&rjUm, little ; pauiof paulvhtm, Very 

le. 

). PREFERENCE; antpdtiiu, Mdtiiifi rather; pStissimitm, prtBttptt^, prasertimy chiefly, especially ; 

i, yes, nay, nay rather, yea rather. 

I. UKENE3S or EQUALITY ; as, i/a, nc, adedy so ; tU, mi, sicut, ndUiy viMy veUiti, eett, tan- 

zm, quadf as, as if ; quemadmddum, even as ; tUtit, enough ; ibidem y in like manner ;yux/a, alike^ 

wily. 

i. UNLIKENESS or INEQUALITY; as, ahter, secusy otherwise, alidqui or alidqiiih, else; 

Ana, noch more or much less. 

S. ABATEMENT ; as, rnuitn, pauldtiniy pidHUniimy by degrees, piece-meal ; xiXy scarcely ; 

fiy hardly, with difficulty. 

1. EXCLUSION ; as, tantumy toliim, mdddy taniumTtiddOy duniaxcUy dimumy only. 

DERIVATION; COMPARISON, AND COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS. 

Adverbs are derived, 

1. From substantives^ and end commonly in TIM or TUB ; as, Partimy partly, by parts ; 
ntna/un, by name ; gentratiniy by kinds generally ; tpecialimy vieaiimy grcgatim ; radMitUy from 
sroot, &c. 

2. From adjectives, and these are by far the most numerous. Sndi as come from adjectives of 
! 6r8t and second declension, usually end in E ; as, liberi, fredy ; plenty fully : some in O, UM, 
1 TER; as, faUdy tanitlm, graciter : a few in A, ITUS, and IM ; at, re^Uity antiquUuty prujaiim. 
me are usmI t4ro or three ways, as, pnmilm, v. -d ; purd, -iter ; eerU, -d ; eauiiy -dim ; humant, 
!r, Atus, publie&y piMieiihtn lUc, Adverbs from adjectives of the third declension commonly end 
TER, seldom m E; as, turpUery felieiter, aeriler, pariier ; faciUy repenie; one in O, omnfno. 
e neuter of adjectives is sometimes taken adverbially ; as, recent nattUy for recenter ; petfidunt 
tntj fyr perfid^y Hot. multa reluetanty for nmUum or vdde, Virg. So in English we say, to speak 
dy kigh, &c. for loudlyy highly y &c. In m«ny cases a substantive is understood ; as, primo, sc. 
D, opioid adcenity sc. tempore ; hiiCy sc. vidy &c. 

L From each of the pronominal adjectives, Ule, u/e, hicj t«, idemy izc, are formed adverbs, which 

iress all the circumstances of place ; as, from t7/e, illic, tllucy illortumy illiue, «nd iliac. So from 

'*y ubiy quoy quonanty wtdcy and qud^. Also of time ; thus,^txan<2o, quandiuy he. 

L From verbs and participles; as, ocn'm, with the edge; punctimy with the point; strictimy 

wly ; from aedoy pungOy Mringo ; amarUery prOperarUery dubitanier ; dislinctty emandatk ; merit&y 

piiuUOy &c. But these last are thought to be in the ablative, having ex understood. 

>. From prepositions; as, intusy introy from in; claneulumy from clam; tubtrUy from 

',tc. 

Adverbs derived from adjectives are commonly compared like their primitives. The 

ntive generally ends in e, or ter; as, durh,facil^, acriter ; the companOive, m htsj 

. duriusy faciUuSf acrius; the superlative ^ in ime; as, durtstinikj facURme^ 

crriwie. 

V the comparison of the adjective be irregular or defective, the comparison of the adverb is so 
; ts,6en^, meliiLty optimi ; mal^y.peJTXty pestimi ; panSm, minAf, mmimiy and -to; mtiftAm , 
^plwrimUm ; propCy propkU, proximtf oeyiiSy oeytnme ; priiU, primd, -Am; nuper, trnporrme ; 
litmAtwvilery novisnmd; merildy meritisnmdy &c. Those adverbs also are compared «^om 
■Hivct mre obsolete; as, uepiy taspiiksy tteptsrimi ; penUHtSy penitidfyJfemHstme; salit, ttmUt: 
r«, teeOtM, kc, Magit, maxime ; and potvja, potimrmms want the positive. 



124 



PREPOSITION. 



. Adverbs are wiously compoimdtd with all the different parts of speech ; thus, pttttriHef mtj^ 
tiopfrCf maximoperet nunmopere, taniopere, multimddity ommwMi$, ^[uimddo, future ; of p9tlero He, 
mmgno operty &c. /Iftcef , «etto;e/> rideHcetf of ire, teire, videref tied ; iWiC9, of tn loeo ; quonum, ai 
quo vermm f eommtntwy hand to band, of cum or eon and mainu* ; ein{m»i at a distance, of e nd 
flMtfuiff ; ftnnum, of qu» vermm ; dtmto, anew, of de notw ; ^nm, why not, bnt, of fut tte ; cur, of 
emrei; pedeientim, step bj step, as it were, pedtm tatdendo ; perendU for pertmpte dU ; mmimi, 
of ns, i. e. nun, and minim ; arUecL, postea, prcRterea, &c. of anie, and m, &c. UbjMt, qwtbi 
%mdetleet, tfuoutque, neut, tie&tiy veiut, veHUi, des&per, iruuper, quamobremj lie. of nMy'and vn, ke. 
fiiM(ttuler/tia, of name diu Uriiiu ; kUnlldem, of idem ei idem ; imprgueniiOrumf k e. m tempore 
rerum piwtentiunh lu:. 

Obs. ]. The adverb is not an essential part of speech. It only senres to express shortly, in one 
word, what must otherwise have required two or more ; as, siJMenler, wisely, for cum mpieiiiim; 
kkt for tn hoe loeo ; temper, for tn omnt tempore ; temei, for vnd viet ; kity tor duahut vieiku; 
Mehereule, for Herculet, me jwett, &c. 

Obs. 2. Some adverbs of time, place, and order, are frequently used the one for the other ; as, 
vM, wlMre or when ; tnde, from that place, from that time, after that, next ; haeUmu, bhberto, 
thus fuj with respect to place, time, or order, lie. ^ . 

Obs. 3. Some adverbs of time are cither past, pretent, or future ; Bs,jttm, already, now, by and 
by ; oHmf long ago, some time, hereafter. Some adverbs of place are equidly various ; thus, em 
ptregrif to be abroad ; tre peregri, to go abroad ; re«itrt peregri, to return from abroad. 

Obs. 4. Interrogativo adverbs of time and place donbW, or compounded with evn^iM, answer to 
11m FJigiish adiectioo, to ewer; as, Mubiy or ubicunque, wheresoever; quoqudf qvdewnque, whither- 
Bocver, Ibc The saaM holds also in interrogative words ; as, qnotquot, or qwieunque, how msny 
soever ', ouaniutquaHhuf or quftntuteunque, how great soever ; utut, or uteunque, however or how* 
iOCVWi §c. 

PREPOSITION. 

A I V ep oMtkm is an indeclinable word, which shows the relation of one thing to 
uiodier. 

Hiere are twenty-eight firepositions, which govern the accusative ; that is, have an 
accusative after them. 



Ad, 

Apud, 

Ante, 

Adversus, > 

Adversum, ) 

Contra, 

Cis, 

Citra, 

Circa, 

Oircum, 

Erga, 

Extra, 

Inter, 

intra. 



To. 
At. 
Before. 

Againd, toufardt. 

Agttintt. 

On thit tide. 

About, 

Towardi. 
Without. 

Between, amamr. 
Wi^n. 



Infra, 

Juxta, 

Ob, 

Propter, 

Per, 

Prvter, 

PjSnes, 

Post, 

Pdne, 

SScus, 

Secundum, 

Supra, 

Trans, 

Ultra, 



Beneath 

Jfighto, 

For. 

For, hard by. 

By, through. 

Setidet, except. 

In the power rf. 

After. 

Behtmd. 

By,akmg, 

According to. 

Move, 

On the farther tide. 

SeyofyC 



The Prepositions which govern the ablative 9te fifteen ; namely. 



A, 

Ab, 
Abs, 
Absque, 
Cum, 



F^rom or by. 



] 



Clam, 
Coram, 



Of, coneemmg. 

Of, out of 

For. 

Befbre. 

wSih the knowledgeof 

mthoui. 

Up to, at far at. 



De, 
E, 
Ex, 
Without. Fko, 

With. Pns, 

Withovd the knowledge PUam, 

of. Sine, 

Before, in the pretence TSnus, 
of 
These four govern sometimes the accusative, and sometimes the ablative. 

In, /n, inio. Sub, Under. Sfiper, Above. Subter, Beneath, 

Obs. 1.^ Prepositions, are so called, because they are generally placed before the word with wbicb 
they are joined. Some however, are put after; as, cum, when joined with me, te, te, and soine' 
tinaies wim 9110, qui, and quibut; thus, meotm, fectim, &c. Ttnut is always placed after; as, men^' 
tenut, up to the chin. So likewise are vertut and utque. 

Obs. 2. Prepositions are often compounded with other parts of speech, particularly with verb! ; 
as, tubire, to undergo. 

Prepositions are lUso sometimes compounded together ; as, Ex advertut eum loeutn, Cic. ^ 
adaartmn Athenatf a Ht^ inaattediemquarlfttnKaiendarumDeeembritdittulit,l.a.uamiein9Vi^ 
dtm^Cic, Supi^ieaiiomdida ett ex ante diem fuitdum idutOctob. i.e,abeo die, liw. ^ade 
pfidie tdtte Stpkmhi it, Plin. But prepositions compoonded together commonly become adv«rbi or 
coMunrtiwss ; as, pn^ndam, protbmt, imuper, &c. 

Qm» a Prepoaitiuis is conpositioa usually retain their primitive signification ; as, adeo, ta g« 
to; jtrmpono, to place before. Bat from this ttwraart several exceptions; 1. IN jomed with adjec 




INT£RJ£CTION AND CONJUNCTKIN. 125 

(ei|eiierany denotei privation ; m, ia^JtiUi anfaithfiil : bot wIwb joined with Torbs, incrMtet their 
^■Miritinii ; esy w^iKfi to herdee greathr. lo tome wordi m has two centraiy leniei ; af, mad- 
Mi^ called npoDf'or not caUed upon. So infrindbu, immutdiut, intuetut, impauuSf inkmmilutf 
taiMNff, be. 2, P£R cammonlj increaMt the u|piiification ; at, Peredrw, ptreeler, penOmitt 
wm i mMt p€H^ffMtiperdmm,ftrgNAw,f€^ 

v,«Myfarift»lic. a FRiE to m etim e t iocreaeet ; at, FrmOdrutf yrmdhUf pmduleih prmdi^rutf 
tfuufmif prmvalidus; prwfMeo, pnepoUeB : and alto £X; at, ExeUtmo, exaggfr^f exangva, 
ttl^i€W9 eaUewuh •xhiUbro; but £X tometiaMt denotet privation ; at| Exmrngnsu^Uimdlewit pSte; 
m% Mx m ri m ii, -mOt lie. 4. SUB oAen diainithes ; at, SmbalbUkUf ntbAnwAUf gubmmSmtg 
Mait nAgrmndiSf aubgrihntj auhnifcert &c. a little white or wUtith, lie D£ often ii| 
aavanl; at/ DeOde, deewro, def^rihfOf de^pieic^ ddibor: tometimet increatet; at, 
Htm: and tometimet ezprettet pmration ; at, I^emenJ, deedlorf dtfirmit, kc, 
Om. 4. There are five or tiz t>llablet, namely, am, dt or dUf re, at, can, which are eon u noaly 
Ihd buq^mrmbU Frqumiiont, becaute they are only to be fimnd in oompoond wordt : however, 
If fmerally add tootethiog to the tignification of the wordt with which they are compounded , 
"> 

Am, round about ; ^ ^ Ambio, to turrownd. 

Di, i mmm,mA»* . # V DiveUo, to puU tuunder. 

j^ ^ atunaer, r 1 DigtrtUio, to draw atunder. 

Re, again; £ ' S ReUgo, to rtad af^ain. 

Se, ofule, or apart; \ / S«ptao, to lay ande. 

Ck>n, together; -^ ^ Concresco, to grow t^ether 

INTERJECTION. 

An Inteijectioii is an indeclinable word thrown in between the parts id a aentaBoe, 
»eipre»ao«ne passkm or emotion of the mind. 

Some Interjectiont are natural toondt, and common to ail laoguaget ; at, Oh! Ah ! 

Urterjeetiont expreat in one word a whole tentence, and thut ntly repretent the quickneit af the 

usbns. 

Tbe diftrent paationt havo commonly different wordt to ezprett them ; thut, 

1* JQY; at, eoax ' he^, brave, lo ! 

2. gRBKi*; a ty ahy hex, heu, ehu ! ah, alat, wo u me ! 

^HQNDBE; aa, pc^ / O ttrange ! vofc / hah ! 

4 PRAISE ; at, euge / well done ! 

5. AVESmON ; at, apdgt ! away, begone, avaumtf off, fy, tuth ! 

«. EXCLAIMING : as, OA, prt^, O ! 

7/ SURPRISE or FEAR ; as, aiaJl! ha, aha! 

8. IMPRECATION ; as, voi ! wo, pox on*t ! 

9. UUGHTER ; at, Ao, Ao, Ae / 

10* SILENCING; at, mi, 'si, pax! silence, hush, 'st! 

11. CALLING; at, e4o, ehddum, iot ho! sobo, ho, O! 

12. DERISION ; at, hui! away with ! 

13. ATTENTION; at, Wi/ ha! 

Some interjections denote several diffbrent passions ; that, Vah it uted to express Joy, and tor« 
Vi tad wonder, &c. ' 

Adjectives of the neuter gender are tometimes used for interjectiont ; as, Malum! with a mischief*. 
fondm ! O shame ! fy, fy ! Mitirvm! O wretched ! Ktfaa! O the villany ! 

CONJUNCTION. 

A conjunction is an indeclinable word, which serves to jom sentences together. 

CoDJoncdont, according to their difibrent meaning, are divided into the following clatses : 

1. OOPCJLATIVE; ar, ef, oc, atqut^ que, and ; ^/tom, qudque^ item, also ; eum, turn, both, and 

^ their contraries, neCf ngque, neu, nettf neither, nor. 

^ DISJUNCTIVE ; at, out, oe, vd, sett, stre, either, or. 

^' CONCESSIVE ; at, efot, etiamd, tameUif Hcet, quanquamf quanwu^ though, alti>ough, 

«it. 

{• ADVERSATIVE; as, ted, veHim, autem, at, ad, atqui, but; tamen, atUtmeHf terumtamenf 

yfnenimviro, yet, notwiUistanding, nevertheless. 

>• CAUSAL ; as, nam, namque, entvi, for ; quia,, qfuippe, quaxUwn, becante ; qudd, that 

*i»e. 

L ILLaxIVK or RATIONAL; as, ergo, idea, igitur, idcirco, itdque, therefore; quapropter 

'ttrea, w h e i e fe r e ; proinde, therefore ; eum, quumf seeing, since ; quondoquXdem, forasmuch as. 

'• FINAL ^ PERFECTIVE ; as, ut, uti, that, to the end that 

'• CONDITIONAL ; as, si, sinf if; dum, modo, dummddo, provided, upon condition that; s»oid!dej», 

idfied. 

• EXCEPTIVE or RESTRICTIVE ; as, m, niti, unless, except. 

0. DIBflNUTIVE; as, saltem, certe, at least 

l» SUSPENSIVE or DUBITATIVE ; at, an, anne, num, whether; ne, annon, whether, not 

Hf or not. 



126 SYNTAX, OK CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS IN SENTENCES. 

12. EXPLETIVE ; u, mitm^ vero> now, trulj ; fiiMlem, tqiOitm, faAked. 

13. ORDINATIVE; as, iteiiKle, thereafter; demquitf finally; inOi^t moreover; atUonm 
tnoreoYer, but, however. 

14. DECLARATIVE ; as, videlicet, teilicet, nen^, fOmSrum, &c. to wit, namely. 

Obs. 1. The sane wonls, as they .are taken in different news, are both adverbt and ecnjundtmu 
Thus, Oft, antUf be are either mlemogalfpe adverbs; as, J§n eeribit f Does he write ? or, mupentkt 
eoruuneHoru; em^Jfeicio stn icribai, I know not if he writes. 

Obs. 2. Soma conjunctions, according^ to theic natural order, stand first in a sentence ; as, ACf 
atque, nu, ne^fue, aui, wUf twe^ ai, md^ Mnim, nofn, tpumdoqwdemj quocircOy quote, tui, nq^ndrnf 
fHBUrquam, ttc. Some stand in the second place ; as, Adem, vero, quoquey qutdem, enhn : and some 
may indifierentfy be put either first or secoad ; as, EUiiun, equidem, Rett, ffuanvis, qiumquam, Uantn, 
attamen, namque, quod, quia, auoniam, qtdppe, tUpdte, tU, vii, ergo; tdeo, igitvr, iaeireo^ itofjU, 
proinde, propterea, ti, m, niti, Lc. Hence arose the diriston of them into Prepotitive, Subpimdwe, 
and Common, To the subjunctive may be added these three, qtte, ve, ne, which are always joined 
to some other word, and are called £Mifies, because when put after long syllables, they make the 
accent incline to the foregoing syltaUe ; as in the foUowing verse, 

hndoctxuque pihf, diteive, troehive, quiesdt, Horat. 

But when these enclitic conjunctions come after a short vowel, they do not afiect its pronondation; 
thus, 

' Arhuttos feUus morUandque fraga legeb€mt. Ovid. 

SENTENCES. 

A Sentence is any thought of the mind expressed by two or more words put 
tog^dier ; as. Ego lego^ I read* Puer hgii VirgiUumj the boy reads Vii^l. 

That part of grammar which teaches to put words rightly together in sentencesy is 
called Syntax or Construction. 

Words in sentence have a twofold rdation to one another : namely, that of Concord 
or Agreement ; and that of GovemmaU or Jnfiuence. 

Concordy is when one word agrees with another in some accidents; as, in genderi 
number, person, or case. 

Government^ is when one word requires another to be put in a certain case^ or mode. 

GENE&AL PBINCIPLKS OF SYNTAX. 

1. In every sentence there must be a verb and a nominative expressed or under- 
stood. 

2. Every adjective must iiave a substantive expressed or understood. 

3. All the cases of nouns, except the nominative and vocative, must be governed 
by some other word. 

4. The genitive is governed by a substantive noun expressed or understood. 

5. The dative is governed by adjectives and verbs. 

6. The accusative is governed by an active verb, or by a preposition ; or is placed 
before the infinitive. 

7. The vocative stands by itself, or has an interjection joined with it. 

8. The ablative is governed by a preposition expressed or understood. 

9. The infinitive is governed by some verb or adjective. 

All sentences are either Simple or Compound. - 

SIMPLE SENTENCES. 

A simple sentence is diat which has but one nonlinative, and one finite verb ; that it^ 
a verb in the indicative, subjunctive, or imperative mode. 

In a simple sentence, there is only one Sv^ect and one Attribute, 
The Subject is the word which marks the person or thmg spoken of. 
The Attaibuts expresses what we affirm concerning the subject \ as, 

Tht boy reads his lesson : Here « the boy," is the Subject of discoarse, or the person spoken of; 
<< reads his lesson," is the Attribule, or what wa ■Arm concerning the sob|ect. The dSw/tud ^ 
reads hts lesson carefully at home. Here we have still the same subject, « the boy," niarfced by tlie 
character of « diligent" added to it ; and the same attribute, « reads his lesson," with the circom* 
stances of manner and place subjoined, << carefully," " at home." 

COMPOUND SENTENCES. 
A compound sentence is that wMch has more than one nominative, or one fioit^ 



AGREEMENT OF WORDS IN SENTENCES. 127 

i compound sentence b made up of two or more' simple sentences or pkrate9^ and 

onunonly called a Period. 

Phe parts of which a compound sentence consists, are called Members or damee. 

I Cferjr compound sentence there mre. either leTeral nbiectiy and one attribute, or loveral 
bates, and one subject, or both several subjects and sevtorai attributes , that btthare are eitfier 
ra] Bominath cs applied to the same Terb| or several verba applied to the saasa aominatlvey or 



leiy verb marks a judgment or attribute, and every attribute must iMtra a lobjact. There mutt, 
rfwei be in every sentence or period as many propotltionsi as diere an verbs of a finite 
e. 

lelitences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunctions ; as, 
Happy is the man who loveth reUgionj and practiseth virtue. 

CONCORD. 

'he following words agree together in a sentence : 1. An adjective with a substantive. 
i verb with a nominative. 3. A relative with an antecedent. 4. A substantive 
I a substantive. 

1. Agreement of an A^ecUve vnth a Substantive. 

luLE I. The adjective agrees with its sabstantive, in number, case^ and 
der; as, 

Bonus vtr, a good man ; Bom vkif good men. 

Fttminaeaitaf a chaste woman ; Fmmnmt eatUBy chaste women. 
/>u^ jMmum, a sweet apple. ikdeia pom a , sweet apples. 

And so through aU the cfises and degreei of comparison. 

his rule applies also to pronouns and parUciples; as, Meus Kber^ my book; ager 
%iusj a field to be tilled ; Phir. Mei I&riy agri colendi^ &c. 

s. 1. The substantive is frequentlyunderkoody or Its place supplied by an infinitive ; and then 
djective b put in the neuter gender ', as, irUte^ te. ntgotivm, a sad thing, Virg, Tuum mrtf 
lame with tuA'tdcnHa^ thy biowledge, Ftn. We sometimes, however, find the substantive 
ntood in the ieminine ; as, JVbn fSdtriofti fwam, sup. partes, Ter. 

<s. 2. An adjective often supplies the place of a substantive ; as, Certta amicuty a sure friend ', 
'ferfna, good venison ; Summvm boman, the chief good : Homo being understood to amieusy 
\ofertna, and negotium to bwium, A substantive b sometimes used as an adjective; as, moola 
: vocant, the inhabitants, Ovid Fad. 8. 562. 

8. 3. These adjectives, primuMt medbtt, tUtimus, exiremiu, infimiUf trnuf, mmmu$, Mpremus, 
(at, atUra, usually signify the fint parif the middle part, iu:. of any thing : as, «Veiiui noxp 
iMdle part of the night ; Summa arbor, the highest part of a tree. 

s. 4. Whether the adjective or substantive ou^t to be placed first in Latin, no certain role 
le given. Only if the substantive be a monosyllable, and the adjective a poljrsyllable, tl» 
ADtive b elegantly put first ; as, vtV clarissimuM, res prastafUissima, &c. 

2. Jgreememi qf a Verh with a Nominative. 
[. The verb agrees with its'nominative case, in number and person ; as, 

Ego lego, I read ; JWw tegimus, We read. 

7i^ scrUns, Thou vrritest or you write ; Vos seribitis, Te or you write. 

Pneeeptor doeet, the master teaches ; Frmeeptores doeeni, Masters teach. 

And so throogfa all the modes, tenses, and nnmbers. 

B. 1. Ego and not are of the ftrst person ; tu and vos of the second person ; t^, and all other 
i, of the iliird. The nominative of the first and second person b sekkmi expressed, 
I for the sake of emphasis or distinction ; as, <u et patronus, tu pater, Ter. • Tu legitt ^&^ 

• 

s. 2. An infinitive, or some part of a sentence, often supplies the place of a nominative ; as, 
Iri est turpe,iolie b bttse; JDiu non perHtalimn /emti^tfidatorem, the sacrifice not being attended 
favourable omens, . detained the dictator for a long time, lAv. vii. 8. Sometimes the neuter 
m id w illud is added, to express the mft»'^F"g more strongly ; as, Faeere fuse libet, id est 
igtm, Sallust. 

s. 3. The infinitive mode often supplies the placie of the third person of the imperfect of the 
itive ; as, Miliies fugire, the soldiers fled, for fugiebasU or fug^re eigperunJt. fmdire oamef 
torinrndelnrnt. 

1. 4. A coUective noun may be joined with a verb either of the singular or of the plural nom* 
IS, MuUitudo slat, or $taiU, the multitude stands, or stand. 

oUective noun when joined with a verb smgular, expresses many considered as one wlu^ ; 
'hen joined with a verb plural, signifies many separately, or as individnals. Hence, if an 



1 



CONSTRUCTION OF RELATIVES. 



12t 

•4jective or participle be subjoined to the verb when of the singvlir number^ thi^ will agree both 
In gender and number with &e collective noun ; but if the Terb be plund, the MJecti? e or parti- 
dple will be plural also, and of the same gender with the individuals of whidi, the coOecthre ikwh 
.8 oompMM; as, Fart ermnt tmd: Part obnixm trudmiti sc ftrmhtBy Yirg. Mtt. h, 400. JIbigM 
part rapUBf sc. virfiinit, Liv. i. 9. Sometimes, however, though more rarefy, the adjective is um 
used in Uie singular ; as, Part arduutt Virg. Mn, vU. 624. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF BBLATITBS. 

3. Agreement of the Relative with the Antecedent. 

III. The relative ^i, Qt^^Sy ^uodj agrees with its antecedent in gender^ 
number, and person. 



Singular. 

Vir qui, 
Fmminaqimf 
KegpHum quodf 
Egn qidteribo, 
Tu qui tcribiSf 
Vir yui tcribitf 
Mutter quoi teribit, 
Animal quod eurritf 
Vif ^lu&n vidif 
Mutter quam vidi, 
Animal quodvtdif 
Vkr cm pareif 
Vir cui etl timilit, 
Vir a quot 
MiUier ad qfjuxntf 
Vk em^ut ofnu ett, 
Vir quem mial[ror, 



The man who. 
The woman who. 
The thing which. 
I who write. 
Thou who writest. 
The man who writes. 
The woman who writes. 
The animal which runs. 
The man whom I saw. 
The woman whom I sajr. 
The animal which I saw. 
The man whom he obeys. 
The man to whom he is like. 
The man by whom. 
The woman to whom. 
The man whose work it is. 



ci^'ut miteror, vel mitertteOi 

ei^ut me miteret, 

cujtu vel eujd inlerett, &c. 



Plural. 

Viri qui. 
Famuuequts, 
J>fegpHaqua, 
Jfot qui terUnmttt. 
Vot qui tcribitit. 
Viri qui teribunt. 
MulieretqwK teribunt. 
AnimaKa qwe eurrunt. 
Viri quot vidi. 
Mutiertt quot vidi. 
Animalia qu^ vidi. . 
Vui quibtu paret. 
Viri quibiu at timiiH* 
Viri a quibui, 
Mutieret ad quat. 
Viri quorum oput ett. 



The man whom I pity. 

whose interest it is, &lc. 



IV. If no nominative come between the relative and the verb, the relative 
is the nominative to the verb ; but when a nominative intervenes, the relative 
is governed by the verb, or some other word in the sentence. 

Obs. 1. The relative must always have an antecedent expressed or understood, and therefore 
may be considered as an adjective placed between two cases of the same substantive, of which the 
one is always expressed, generally the former ; as, 

Vir qui (vir) tegit ; vir quern (virum) amo : Sometimes the latter ', as, Q^am quitque n6rit ariet»} 
tti Itae (arte) tt exerceatf Cic. Eunuchum, quern deditti no6w, quae turboM dedit, Ter. scl Eunuehut 
Sometimes both cases are expressed ; as, Erani omnino duo itinera, quibut itineribut dome tffft 
potsent, Cses. Sometimes, though more rarely, both cases are omitted j as, Sunt, qUot hoc genufi 
minime juotit, for sunt hominety quot hominet, &c. Hor. 

Obs. 2. When the relative is placed between two substantives of different genders, it may agree 
iu gender wifh- ehlier of them, though most commonly widi the former ; as, 

Vulttu quern dixere chaojh Ovid. Ett locut in careere, quod TuUianum avpcllatur, Sal. Atma^} 
quern vocamut hominem, Cic Cogito id quod res est, Ter. If a part of a sentence be the ante- 
cedent, the relative is always put in the neuter gender ; as, Pompeiw te c^fflixit, quod mibi ett tumtn^ 
dolorif scil. 'Pompeium te qfiigerf, Cic. Sometimes the relative does not agree in gender wiUi the 
antecedent, but with some synonymous word supplied ; as, Seelut qui for tedettut, Ter. Mttt* 
darttia eahtm rerum, quts mortalet prima putant, scil. negoliat &all. Vel virtut tua mo vel vi dnii th 
quod ego in aliqua parte amieUue pvlo, facit til te moneamy scil. negotitim^ Ter. jfn omm Jfii^f 
quiag^tanty for in omnibui Jfris, Sallust. Jug. 89. Aon dittideniid futuri, qute fmnpefwritodf ^ 
quod, lb. 100. 

Obs. 3: When the relative comes after two words of different persons, it ngreaa with the fin^ ^^ 
seooad persoa rathor than the third ; as, J5^ turn vir, qid faeio, scarcely JlaeU. 

Obs. 4. The antecedent is oflen implied in a possessive adjective ; as^ 

Omnet laudare fortunat meat, qui kabertm gnaium tali tngenio pnRdilum,Ter. Sonetiawstbe 
antecedent must be drawn from the sense of the foregoing words ; as, Came pluity quiem imk^ 
atM frnpuitte Jbruntur ; i. e. plait imbrem came, quern tmSrem, ^. Liv. Si tetnput eet utlium jvf^ 
homitut neoandi, qua multa tunt, scil. tempora^ Cic. 

Obs. 5. The relative is sometimes entirely omitted; as, Urbt antiqua fuit; TMi tenuere etllfi^ 

seiL qjuam or earn, Virg. Or if once ezprased, is afterwards omitted, so that It myst be suppU^*^ 

in a different case ; as, Bocchut eum pedUibutf quot filius ejut adduxerat, nomte m priort P4^ 

adhuHmtt Romunot inoadtmt ; for quique in priore pugna non adfuerant. Sell. In Encioh tke 

rtt&Hne U aflaa oititt'ed, where in Latin it must be expr^sed; as^ The Iditer I wrote, for the IdUf 



SAME CASE AFTER A VERB AS BEFORE IT. 1S9 



M i flMno/e; Tke man t Icte, to wit, «Aom. But this onuuiofi of the MatiTO b gmtnBf 
MMptr, particuJariy in serioas disooune^ 

Om. a. The caie of the relative sometiiiies fe€$iiit to depend on that of tlM witffcw l f f ttt i aa^ Ckm 
Ufrid ^pu evrumf qfumrvm eotmnUtii for qutt conmiltaLi ti^erv, or qmrvm oJjfUHi afira mmt^Uli^ 
M. BedUue m quern me aeeepiili locum, for tii loeumi **» T'^i Ter. AndTiT. 1. o(BL But aadi 
laaples rarely occur. 

Obs. 7. The adjective pronouns, Ule, ipse, itte, hie, it, and idem, in their construction^ reieinfala 
bit of the relative out; as^ Lt6er ejus, His or her book ; VUa eonmt Their life^ when applied to 
m; VUa earum. Their lifei when applied to women. By the improper ttse of these pfonoons ia 

tA, the meaning of sentences is ohen rendered obscure. 
B. 8. The interrogative or indefinite adjectives, qumlis^ quanlus, ouotus, &c. are also iniiMitiiaae 
)oastrued like relatives ; as, Fades est, quM&n decet esse sororum, Ovid. But these have coBsnaonlT 
dKf a^^tives either expressed or understood, which answer to them ; as, Tania eM mvhUunt 
mntwu wrhs eapere potest: and are often applied to different substantives ; as, (^ualet tusU dvet^ 
tUt est eioitms, Cic. 

Obs. 9. The Latin relative often cannot be translated literally into English, on account of tha 
lifierent idioms of the two languages ; as, Q^od dun ita esset. When that was so : not, Which wliea it 
ras so, becanie then there would be two nominatives to the verb tMt, wUeh is improper. SoBMtimes 
lie accusative of the relative in Latin must be rendered hy the nominative in English ; as, Quern 
^aad me ease 9 Who do they say that I am ; not whom, ^^um dieunt adventare f Who do they 
^J is coming ? 

Obs. 10. As the relative is alwa3rs connected with a difi^nt verb from the antecedent, it is 
sually construed with the subjunctive mode, unless when the meaning of the verb is expressed 
ositively ; as, Audire cupio, qua legeris, I virant to hear what you have read ; that is, what peihaps 
r probably you may have read ; Audir'e cupio, quce legisti, I want to hear what yon (adiudly or 
I fad) have read. 

To the construction of the Relative may be subjoined that of the answxb to a 

lUISTlON. 

The answer is commonly put in the same case with the question i uSf 

Qui vocore f Geta, sc. vocor. Quuf quxrisf Lihrum, sc. qy/tro. Qtio/d /iord terdsti f Sextd, Some- 
ines the constniction is varied ; as, Ctdus est libet f Mem, not met. Qjuanti tmftm est t Deiem 
mbus. Dasrinatusne es furti 9 Imd alio crimine. Often the answer is made by other parts of 
|»eech than nouns; as, Qutd agitur9 Statur, sc. a fne, a nobis, ^is fet;^9 K^tdoz aiunt 
*etrum fedsse. Qaomodo vales 9 Bene, male. Seripsistine 9 Scripsi, ita, etusm, nnd, Itc An 
ididi9 AWi vidl, fiaft, mkdme, be. Chmrea tuam vestem detraxit tibi9 Factum. El 9d 9tt 
uiMtef f fVieliMi, Tar. Most of the Rules of Syntax may thus be exemplified in tha fbnn of 
Qestions and answers 

The same Case after a Verb as before it. 

V. Any Verb may have the. same Case after, as before it, when both words 
efer to the same person or thing ; as^ 

Ego sum disdpuJus, I am a sckoloi*. 

Tu vocaris Joannes, You are named Johu. 

nia incedit reeina, She walks as a queen. 

Sdo ilium haberi sapientem, I know that he is esteemed wise. 

Sdo vos esse disdpvios, I know that you are scholars. 

So Redeo iratus, jaceo supplex ; Evadent digni, they will become woltl^ ; Bi^publicam dtftndi 
kUseens; nolo esse longus, I am unwilling to be tedious; Malim viitri Itmiehif, mUtm pariun 



"wiens, Cic. JVon licet mihi esse negligenli, Cic. J^Tatura dedit omnibm eue beatis, Glaad. 

e une dementem ; cupio non putari mendacem; VuU esse mediumt sc se^ He wishes to be neater, 

fc. Dtsce esse pater; Hoc est esse patrem9 sc. eum, Ter. Id est, dminim, turn imperaiorem 

K, Sallust. 

Obs. 1. This rule implies nothing else but the agreement of an adjective with a substantias or 

' OBO aubstantive with another; for those words in a sentence vidiich refer to the same Object, 

ust always agree together, how much soever disjoined. 

Ois. 2. The verbs which most frequently have the same casie aftelr them as belbare «^™> we, 

I. Substantive and neuter verbs; as, Sum^ fio, forem, and existo; CO, cento, ^f ««««o> «»«o«j 

8. lie psisive of verbs of naming, judgiiigi &c. Whfiiewr, appelloTi ffOf^» n^n^or, nund^r; 
v^uch add, videor, exislimor, creor, constittior, satiUor, dedgnoTf kc. ^. ^^:„^ isrk«» 

These and other like verbs, admit after them only the nominati^ accusative, «^jj^. ^f» 
ey have before them the genitive, they have aftor fliem an i-€u8ative ; as, Mere^ <»n9mm^ 
Zs, sea. se; it is the intefest of aU to'^be ffood. In some .^« 'i^ ^P.-'J,"*?'^^ ^^S^^^ 
accttsirtlve pnwlscuously ; as, Cupio diS ihctus w d^Ouuh bc. me dset , Cupw esse clemens, mn 

tLT& S^oTtiJ^a^e verbs are phuxd between two nominatives of different numbeia, 
I 



\ 



130 GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

tfMv commoiilT aHfe in number with the former; aS| Dot ejf d€9€m taUnta, Her dl^wiy to ten 
tSiilkTer. Oifmiawm(ia«rafrf,CKi<L Biit sometimes with the Irtler ; /a*, .^fiiaiattm ir« o^ 
tnlMNrfje eil, The quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love, Ttr. So when an adjectiTe is an>ta^ 
to^o adbftaatives of difibrent genders, it commonly agrees hi gender with that sohstantive whidi 
is most the subject of discourse; as, Oppidum ut appelhUum Possidoma, Plin. Sometiroei, 
however, the adjective agrees with the nearer substantive ; asi Mn omnis error dulMta est dtcenda, 

Cic. 

Obs. 4 When the mfinitive of any verb, particularly the substantive verb eite, has the datiTC 

before it, governed by an Impersonal verb or any other word, it may have after it either tiie dadre 

" or the accusative ; as, Ueet mihi esse beato, I may be happy ; or Iteet mihi em betOum^ me beiBf 

undentood ; thus, He$t mUii (me) esse beahm. The dative before ette is often to be tupphed; as, 

Lkd Mse btaituni One BMky be happy, scil. aUayi or homifii. 

QM«(k Hm poets use certain forms of expression, which are not to be imitated in prose ; as, 
fieU^ 4m» Jovis etsepronipotf for Se esse prontpotenif Ovid's Met. xii. 141. Cum foXeris jajnmi 
iiiiHjtfiiiijuf voeari, for scftenttm^ .&c. Horat. Ep. 1. 16. 30. ^cepivm refero versibus esse nocew, 
lMd» TnUumque puiaoit jam bonus esse soeer, I^can. 

4. Agreement of one SuhgtatUive with another, 

VI. Sobstantives signifying the same person or thing, agree in case; as, 

Ciciro ordtoTf Cicero the orator ; Cicerdnis oratoris, of Cicero the orator. 
Urbs AthiruB, the city of Athens ; Urbis MhSMnkm, of the city Athens. 

GOVERNMENT. 

I. The Government of Substantives. 

VU. One Substantive governs another signifying a diiTerent person or 
thing in the genitive ; as, 

Amw Ddi The love of God ; Lex ruUwrmy The law of nature ; Domtu Casdris, The house of Csiar, 
or CBsar's house. 

Om. 1. IVhen one substantive is governed by another in the genitive, it expresses in general the 
relation of property or possession, and therefore is often elegantly turned into a possessive adjec- 
tive ; as, Domtu patris, or paternal a father's house ; Filivu heri, or herilis, a master's son : and 
among the poets, iMbor HereuleWf for Hercidis ; Ensis Ewmdriusy for Evcandri. 

Obs. 2. When the substantive noun in the genitive signifies a person, it may be taken either in an 
active or passive sense ; thus, Amor Dei, The love of God, either means the love of God towards 
us, or our love towards him. So earitas pairiSf signifies either the affection of a father to his children, 
or theirs to him. But often the substantive can only be taken ejtber in an active or in a passive 
sense; thus, Timor Det, alwa3rs implies Deus timetur; and Providentia Dei, Deus providet. So 
earitas ipsius soli, affection to the very soil, Uv. ii. 1. 

Obs. 3. Both the former and latter substantive are sometimes \o be understood ; as, Hetidris 
Andromache, scil. uxor ; VerUum est ad Vestue, scil. eed&rn or templum ; VenJtum est tria millia, scil. 
passuum, three miles. 

Obs. 4. We find the dative often used after a verb for the genitive particularly among the poets ; 
as, Ei corpus porrigitur. His body is extended, Virg. Mn, vi. 696. 

Obs. 6. Some substantives are joined with certain prepositions ; as, Amidtia, immtcUia, pax 
cum aliquo ; Amor in vel erga aUquem ; Qaudium de re ; Cura de alique ; Msaiio iUius, vel dt 
ilh ; ^uies ab armis; Fumus ex ineendiis ; Pradator ex sociis, for soeiorttm, Salliist, &c. 

Obs. 6. The genitive in Latin is often rendered in English by several other particles besides o/; 
as, Descensus Avemi, the descent to Avernus ; Priidentia juris, skill tn the law. 

^Substantive pronouns are governed in the genitive like substantive nouns ; diS, pars 
meiy a part of me. 

So also adjective pronouns, when used as substantives, or having a noun understood ; 
asy Liber ejus, itliusy Imjus, &c. The book of him, or his book, sc. hominis: The 
bociL of her, or her booS;^ sc. femnm. Libri eorum, v. earum, their books ; Cujus 
liber J t^ book of whom, or whose book 5 Q^orum libri, whose books, &c. But wc 
always s^i^^^meus liber, not met; pater noster, not nostri / suum jus, not ««. 

Wnen a pu^e sense is expressed, .we use met, tut, sui, nostri, vestri, nostrum, 
vestrum ; but w^ ^ise their possessives when an active sense is expressed j as, Amo^ 
met, The love of m%, that is. The love wherewith I am loved; Amor meus. My love 
that is, the love wherewV^i I love. We find, however, the possessives sometunes used 
passively, and their primhiV*, taken actively ; as. Odium tuum, Hatred of thee, Ter 
^ Phorm.y.S.27. Labor mei,^JA^ l^AiouT, Plaut. 

The possessives meus, tuus, suus^ noster, vester, have sometimes nouns, mono^ 
and participles after them in the genitive; as. Pectus tuum hondnis sinq&ds,Of^ 
Phil. ii. 43. Noster duorum eventus, Liv. Tuum ipsius studium, Cic. - Mea scr^ 



GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANUVE^. ill 



HaiaUiSf Sec. Hor. SoUu$ meum jpeccatum corHgi non potutj Cic. Id 
piemque deceiy quod est aifjuaqm 9uwm nuudme^ Id. 

The reciprocals SUI and SUUS are used whea the action of the verb is reflected as 
tveie, upon its nominative; as, Cato interfecit se. Miles defemdit mam vitam. 
^iidt se scripiurum ease. We find, however, is or iUe sometimes used in ezamfto 
if tbis kind ; as, Deum agnoscimus ex operibus ejvSy Cic. Persuadent Rawrads, ut 
md CUM Us proficissccaituTy for und secuniy Cass. 

Vm. If the latter of two Substantives have an Adjective of praise or 
Hspraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive Or ablative; 9$^ 

Vhr summit ^udtrUus, or nunmd frudtnHd, A man of great ifvUdom. 
Puerprobtt tndolitt or probd indoU, A boy of a good dispositioa. 

Obi. 1. The ablative here is not properly governed by the foregoing substantive, blit hf 
ntposidon understood ; as, cum, de, ex, %n, &c. Thus, Vir tummd prudeniid, is thp , 
nth Fir cum tumma prudeniia. 

Obs. 2. In some phrases the genitive is only ufed ; as, MagM formica Idbcrh, the laJboriooi < 
"^ imi tubteUU, homo minimi pretH, a person of the lowest rank. Homo nuUiut iHpendiif a 
•f DO experience in war, Salnui. J^ton muUi eibi hotpUem aeeipiet, ied mulU joei, Cic. * « 
nvan jugerum. In others only the ablative; as, Es bono animo. Be of good courage. JI(Rr4 
iaeritate ad UHgandum, Cic. Capite aperto ett, His head is bare; obvoluto, covered. ' CapS^ iC 
vpereiHo temper ett ratut, Id. MuUer magna nalu, Liv. Sometimes both are used m flie same 
eotence ; as, Adoleaeem eximid tpe, tummte virt%itu, Ciq. The ablative more freqiiendy oeoun la 
>ro8e than the genitive. 

Obs. 3. Sometimes the adjective agrees in case with the former substantive, and then the latter 
abttantive is put in the ablative ; thus we say, either, Vtr prtetlaniis tngemt, or pnestanH ingenio ; 
r VirprtBstans ingenio, and sometimes preestofit ingeniL Among Uie poets, the latter sobMniive 
i frequently put in the accusative by a Greek construction, teewukun or otiod ad, behog male^'Blood 
y the figure commonly called Synecddehe; as, MUes fractut menUnra, i. e. fraelw, secundum or 
uod ad membra, or habent membra fraeta, Horat. Ot humerotque deo timilu, Virg. 

Adjectives taken as Substantives. 

IX. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the 
genitive; as, 

Multum pecunuB, Much money. ^ Quid rei estt What is the matter ? 

Obs. 1. This manner of expression is more elegant than Mulla peeunia, and therefore is modi 
sed by the best writers ; as. Plus elw^uentia, mintu sapientue, ionium fidei, id negotU; fuicfuid 
rat patrum, rtos dieeres, Liv. Id loct ; Ad hoc CRtaHs, Sallust ^ ^ ^^ 

Obs. 2. The adjectives which thus govern the genitive like substantives, generally signify qnamitj; 
s, muUum, plus, ptari^um, tanlum, quantum, minus, minimum, tc. To which add, hoe, iUudp 
rfurf, id, quid, aliquid, quidvis, quiddam, &c. Plus and quid almost always govern the genitive, 
•nd therefore by some are thought to be substantives. 

Obs. 3. JWiil, and these neuter pronotms, quid, aliquid, &c. elegantly govern neuter adjectlvet 
f the ^rst and second declension in the genitive ; as, nihil sineeri, no sincerity ; but seldom govern 
a this manneryidjectives of the third declension, particularly those which end in is and e; at) 
^'equid hostUe iunorent, not hostilis • we find, however, quiequid ctvUis, Liv. y. 3. 

Obs. 4. Plural adjectives of the neuter gender also govern the genitive, commonly the genitive 
lural ; as, Augusta viarum, Opaca locorum, Telluris operta ; loca being understood. So Amara 
^rarum, aciUa belli, sc. negotia, Horat. An adjective, indeed, of any render, iMiy have a genitive 
ftcp it, with a substantive understood ; as, Amicus Ctcsaris, Patria Ufystit, &c. , 

Opus and Usus. 

X. Opus and UsuSy signifying need, require the ablative } as, 

Est opus pecunid. There is need of money. Usiu tirihui, Need of strength. 

Obs. 1. Opus and usus arc substantive nouns, and do not govern the ablative of themsdv es, ^ nt 
y some preposition, as pro, or the like understood. They sometime* also, although moie nrny, 
:ovem the genitive ; as, Lectionis opus est, ^uinct. Opcr« usus est, Liv. 

Obs. 2. Opus is often construed like an indeclinable adjective ; as. Dux nobis opus est. We need 

general, Cic. Dices nummos mihi opus esse, Id. JVo6m exempla onus sunt. Id. 

Ois. 3. Opus i« elegantly joined with the perfect participle ; as, Opus maturaio. Need Of haste, 
^ eonsuHo, Need of deliberaUon ; Quid facto usus est ? Ter. The participle has sometimes a 
obstantive joined with it; as, Mihi opus fust Hiriio convento. It behoved me to meet with 
finius, Cic. . . -.. -, -. 

Qw. 4. Opus is sometimes joined with the infinitive, or the ^ubjunctiv* ^»™ w ; Wi,^tquM jorte 
'i,V»iopus rit sdri, Cic. Mine tibi opus eH, €egram ut fe aOnsmoUs, Plant, ^tw jjmfetl 
^iftrttart eqw, Horat. It is often placed absolutely, i. e. withouttlependmg on any other wwta, 
*f <>e optu est; oi opus sit, &«. -i- 



lit OOVfAKMEPrr OF ADJECTIVES, 

n. Go\KiiiU£HT OF Adjsctivss. 
1. Adfectives gonermng the GemHve. 

XI. Verbal adjectives, and%iich as signify an affection of the mind, goveri 
the genitive ; as^ 

jMdui^orue, Desirous of gloiy< tgnarus fraudtSf Ignorant of fraud. 
Jlfemor oeri/ictontm, MindfiS of fovoun. 

To tills rule belong : I. Verbal adjectives in AX ; as, capax^ edaxj ferax^ ienaa. 
perHnax^ &c. and certain participial adjectives in NS and TUS; as, amans aja 
p^tehSy ctmiensy insdlenSy aciena; consumsj doctuSy expertusy insuetusy insoUtuSy &c 
n. Adjectives expresnng various affections of the mind i 1. Desire; as, avaruSy cupidus 
$iudio8uSy &c. 2. Knowledge, ignorance, and doubting; as, caUiduSy certusy certior 
comduSy gnanuiy peritusy pruaensy &c. Jgnarusy incertiiSy insciusy imprudens, 
tnmerUwy u/mthnoTy rudis ; AniAguuSy dubiuSy suapensuSy &c. 8. Care and diUgence, 
WM die contrary ; nsyAnxiuti^ curioausy soUcitu^providuSy diligens; IncmiostUy tecunts^ 
negUgenSy &c. 4. Fear, and confidence ; as, FormidolosuSy pavidusy timicbuty trepiduM'^ 
hi^famdusy iwterrituBy inirepidua. 5. Giult, and innocence ; as, NoxiuSy reusy «l(^ 
pedmy compertus; tnmmu$y innocensy insons. 

To these add many Myectivea of various sigiufications ; as, aiger animi ; ardenSf 
tfttdJEUP, »B€t8u$y diverm^y tgr^u8y erectusy fakusy feUxy fessusy furensy inffenSy 
integer y ketuSy prcestana animi; modicua voti; integer vitie; 8eri aiudiorumynor. 
But we sayyosgerpedilmay ardens in cumditatihugy proBstans doctrindy modicua adtu; 
leetma negoHoy de rs^ ck propter remy ccc. and never cBgerpeduniy &c. 

Obs. 1. Verbals in NS are nted botii at adjectives and participles; thus, pattens algorit, ablete 
bear cM ; and patieru atgoremf actually bearing cold. So amaru viriuHt, and amans virtuiem 
itocftit g iw n t naH ctBi skilled in grammar ; doetus grammaticamt one wbo has learned it. 

Ob8. 2, Many of these, adjectives vaiy their constructipn ; as, amdus in pecuniiSf Cic. Avidior 
ad rem, Ter. Jure eonmltus ef perituSf or juris, Cic. Rwiis lUtrarum, in jure eiviU, Cic. Rudit 
aariif A mtdOf Ovid. Doetus Latine, LdUinis Uteris, Cic. Assueius labore, in omnia, Liv. MerM 
haili, Virg. - huuetiu moribus Romanis, in the dative, LAv. Laboris, ad onera portanda, Cm- 
Jksuetus bello et triumphis, in the dative or ablative, rather the dative, Virg. jdnxiiM, soltcUust 
seeuruSf de re aliqua ; dUigens tn, ad, ds, Cic. Jfe^ligens in aliquem, in or dk re ; Reus de vi, 
oimimbuSf Cic. Ceftiof foetus de re, rather than ret, Cic. 

OBjh B» The genitive after these adjectives is thought to be governed by catuA, in re, or in neff/Hot 
•r ^sfata smefc MPd tnidentood ; as, Cupidus laudis, i. e. emud, or in re laudis, desirous of praise, 
ttat by on acconnt of, or in the matter of praise. But many of the adjectives themseWes may be 
fea|iMiriMl to contain in their own sfgnification the force of a substantive ; Uius, Hudiesus peeunie, 
md of flioneyi is the same with kahens studium peeuni^B, having a fondness for money. 

XII. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, superlatives, 
interrogatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive plural ; as, 

Mquis philosophorum. Some one of the philosophers. 

Semor fratrum, The elder of the brothers. 

DociisHmus Romanorum, The most learned of the Romans. 

Qtuis nostrum f Which of us .' 

Una musarum^ One of the muses. 

Octmus sapifinlum, The eighth of the wbe men. 

Adjectives are csdled Partitivesy or are said to be placed partitively y tvhen they 
signify a part of any number of persons or things, having after them, in English, of 
or among; as, a/tW, mdSuSy aohtSy &c. quia and quiy with their compounds: also 
Comparatives, Si:q)erlatives, and some Numerals: as, unuay duoy trea; priimiSi 
aecunduay &c. To these add nmUiy pauciy pleriquey mediiia. 

Obs. 1. Partitives, fac. agree in gender with the substantive which they have after them in Ae 
gemtive; but when there are two substantives of different genders, the partitive, &c. rather aireei 
wifl^. the former ; as, Indus fluminum maximus, Cic. Rarely with the latter ; as, Del^wu» 
ammfUtum velodssimum, Plin. The genitive here is governed by ex numero, or by the same sub- 
stantive understood in the singular number; as, J\PuUa,sororum, scil. soror, or ex vxmsn 
ioroTum, 

Oss. 2. Partitives, &c. are often otherwise' construed with the prteposftions de, t, ex, or in; Mf 
UnoM defratnbus; or fay the poets, with ante or irder ; sA, PuldUrrimus ante omnes, for ommfiih 
yirg.Prutius mter ommt^ld, 

^yf ^' \f^^rJS'* .^' ,««»«f « collective nouns in the genitive smguiar, and are of Uie stfH 
Md^ wito the individuaU of which the eoUeetiye noun is composed; as, Vir forUssimm ns^ 
asfSahs, Cic. Maxmus sHrpis, lair. Vltimos orbis Britannos, Horat Od. i. 3a. 2Bl 

« Campatatireg Are used when we speak of two ; Soperlaaves, vdien we tpei& of «ore 



GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 133 

; as, Major fratrum, the elder of the brotherg, meaning two ; Maximus frairtmh Thm 
the brothers, meaning more tkan two. In like manner, uier, aUtr, neuter^ an appttad 
rd to two ; ^uw. untw, alius, nuttus, with regard to three or more ; as, UUr vutrum, Wfatther 
of you two ; Qyis veiinim, Which of you three : but these are sometones taken progiis- 
he one for the other. 

2. A^ectives governing the Dative. 

. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, likeness or nnKktnesSy &c. 
the dative ; as, 

Utilis belhy Profitable for war. 

Pemicidtut retpMictt, Hurtful to the commonwealth. 
Similit fMtiri, Like to his father. 

tiSy Any adjective may govern the dative in Latin^ which has the signs TO 
after it in English. 
is rule belong : 

tctives of. profit or disprofit ; as, BenigmUf bonw, commoduSf felix, fruehtosui, prw^rf 
— CcUqmitosusy damtumu, dinu, exUiosut,funethi3t ineommodut, tno/ta, noxitu, pemieUuu9f 

leasnre or pain; as, Acuptut, dttkis, grahu, grationutjueundut, hetuif muaritA ■ Jieertut, 

Htuavis, injueundvt, ingratiUf molettus, irittit, 

riendship or hatred ; 'as, Addictuif c^tittf, amieiM, benemduSf JUfmdus, tanUf dediivUf fiiusj 

rUf, mitts, jtropUius. Adversus, ^mtUus, asper, erudeUt, emUrmiuSf mfennu, tnj^ihif, 

imitiSf inimicuSf iniquw, invisuSf mridttf, iratuSf odiosut, sutpectuSf irux. 

leamess or obscurity ; as, Apertus^ certiu, compertuSf eonspieuus, manifetttu, notus, pet" 

^^Ambiguusy dtibius, ignotus, incertus, obseurus. 

leamess ; as, FinUimas, proprior, proximuSf propinquus, toeiuSf tUbnu, 

itness or unfitness ; as, Aptus, appositWy aecommodatuSf kabmSt ItfetietM, A^iporHcmtf.— — 

nhabilisy importunuSf inconoeniens. 

iase or difficulty; as, Facilis, levis, ohvius, perviut,'^^-^D\ffieUiSf arduutf gravi»9 Uborioeut, 

IS, inviiu. To these add such as signify propensity or readiness ; as^ rromu^ jme/lrit, 

', promptus, paraius. 

equality or iuequality ; as, ^Iqwxlis, aqyasms, far, compar, tuppar.''-'^ine^prtiSf9 vfipflr, 

tcors. Also of likeness or unlikeness ; as, SimittSf ^emtdus, gemtrtitf.— ZHtrimUtt, ahwnus, 

^hersus, discolor, 

nral adjectives compounded with CON ; as, Copudus, eoneolarf'toneertf eor^mis, esu^gnmh 

inetis, constfUaneus, consonus, conveniens, conhg^%^, eotdinuut, conlinent, contiguous ; af, 

' continens, est, Cic. 

se add many other adjectives of various sigpnifications ; as, ObnoxkUf subjeetut, wppUSB, 

absurdits, decorus, deformis, pnssto, indecl. at hand, secimdus, &c.— particularly. 

als in BiLis and dus govern the dative 5 as, 

Amandus vel amabilis omnilnis. To be loved by aU men. 

's est terribUis malts ; OptabUis omnibus pax ; Adhibenda est naMt diligenHa, Cic. Ssmsl 
udeanda est via lethi, Hor. Also some participles of the perfect tense; as, BHla matribut 

hated by, Hor. 

3 in DUS are often construed with the preposition a ; as, Heiit est venarmtdus & eolendus 
Cic. Perfect participles are usually so ; as, JIfors Crassi est a muitiii defUta, ratiier 
tis deflcta, Cic. A te invitatus, rogatus, proditus, &c. hardly ever tiki. 

The dative is properly not governed by adjectives, nor by any other part of speedi ; but 
them, to express tiie object to which their signification r^ers. 

irticle to in English is often to be supplied ; as, SindUs patri, lake bis father, ts Mof 
Ki. ■ 

Substantives have likewise sometunes a dative alter them ; as, iUe est PoUt, dus, vel 
]i, He is father, leader, or son to me ; so, Prtesidivm rets, deciu amiekt tc, Hor. BtUium 
irg. Virtutibus hostis, Cic. 
. The following adjectives have sometimes the dative after them, and sometuootet the 

Aiffims, similis, comnmnis, par, ^roprius, ftnUimius, fidus, coWteminua, sypmtes, eonietuf , 
*,ontrarius, and adversus; as, Similis tibi, or ttd ; Superstes patri, or patrit ; vonsehafaemori, 
ris. Conscius and some others frequently govern both the genmve wm dative; as, Jlftru 
ia recti. We say. Similes, dissimiles, pares, ditparee, teqwiUs, tmnffOMS^ inter se .• Pat et 
r etun aU^pto, Civitas seeum ipsa diseors; disdrdes ad alia, Lhr,- ' 

Adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness, and the contnury^ have after them the dative 
cnsative with a preposition ; as, 

imdilis, aptus, ineptus, aeeommodatus, idoneus, habiUs, inhabUit, om»of<6nitf, eonseniens, 
I ret, or ad aliquid. Many other adjectives governiMf the datire, are laewiie construed with 
)n8 ; as, Attentus quaesiHs, Hor. Attentus ad rem, Ter. 

Of adjectives which denote friendship or hatred, or any other affection of im muid 
any one : I. Some are usually construed with the dative only ; as, ^ffsbUii, arrogansp 
tif, dimcUis,fdais, iswisui, ire^s, nfensus, twpeelm ALICUI. IL Some with the nrepo. 

and the accusative; as, Acerbus, miimatus, ben^u» graltosWf tr^vnstut, Itberaks^ 



184 GOVERNMENT OF THE VERB SUM. 

metidttx, misericort, officiosru, pius, impius, prolixust severus^ordidwy tonmtf vehemeru^ IN ALIQUEM. 
m. Some, either with the dative, or with the accusative and the preposition IN, ERGA, or AD- 
VERSUS, going before ; as, Contumax, criminosus, dunts, exitiabilisyRravis, hospitalisj implacabUis, 
(and perhapg also inexorabilU and inioleraHHs.yiniguu8, rxvus, ALICUIor IN ALIQUEM. BenmlWy 
btmffiuh moleslm, ALICUI or ERGA ALIQUEM. Mitis,comist IN or ERGA ALIQUEM and 
ALTCUI. Pervicax ADVERSUS ALIQUEM. Crudelu IN ALIQUEM, seldom ALICUI. Amimsf 
temutut, infentus, in/ettus ALICUI, seldom IN ALIQUEM. Graius ALICUI, or IN, ERGA, AD- 
VERSUS ALIQUEM. We Bay alienus alicui or alicujtu ; but oftener ab ali^p»»f and soYnetimes 
a/tguo without the preposition. 

AVDIENS is construed with two datives ; as, Rtgi dicto audiens eratf he was obedient to the 
king; not regis; Dicto audiens fuU jussis magistrcUuumf Nep. Jfobis dicto audierUet sutitj not 
ilielUfCic. 

Obs. 6. Adjectives signifying motion or tendency to a thing, have usually after them the 
tfcitusative with the preposition ad or in, seldom the dative ; as, 
Fhmut, ftropentuSf proclivis, eeUr, tardus^ pigtr, &c. ad tram, or in tram. 

Obs. 7. Froprior and Proximus, in imitation of their primitive prope, often govern the accusative; 
as, Prepwr miniem, scil. ad. Sail. Proximus finem, Liv. 

Obs. 8. IDEM sometimes has the dative, chiefly in the poets ; as, Invitum qui servat, idem fitat 
oeeidenii, Hor. Jupiter omnibus idem, Virg. Eadem illis censemus, Cic. Biut -in prose we con- 
monly find idem qui, et, ac, atque, and also ut, cum ; as, Peripatetici quondam iidem erant got 
Jieademieif Cic. Est animus erga te idem ae fui^ Ter. Dianam et Lunam eandem esse puttmtt 
Cic. idem faciunt, ut, &c. In eodem ieco meeum, Cic. But it would be improper to say of the 
same person or thing under difierent names, idem cum ; as, Luna eadem est cum^ Diana, 

Wc likewise say, alius dc, atque or et ; and so, sometimes, similis and par 

, 5. Adjectives governing the Ablative* 

XIV. These adjectives, dignus, indignusj praditusj and contentus; also, 
natus^ sattUy ortuSj editus^ and the like, govern the ablative. 

Dignus honore, Worthy of honour. Captus oeulis, Blind. 

Contentus parvo, Content with little. Fretus virifnu, Trusting to his strength. 

. Hwditus wrhsUf Endued with virtue. Ortus regilms. Descended of kings. 

6o generattu, ereatus, eretuSf prognatus, oriundus, procreatus regibus. 

Omt. 1. The ablative after these acyectives, is governed by some preposition understood; as^ 
CmitmUus parvo, scil. cum ; Fretus viribus, scil. in, &c. Sometimes the preposition is expressed ; 
as, Ortus ex eoncubina, Sallust. Editue de nympha, Ovid. 

OUB. SL.D^ntif, indignus, and eonten/ici^ have sometimes the genitive after them; as, (ftgnt^ 
m mnm, Virr. So Macte estq, or maeti estote virtutis or virtute, increase in virtue, or Go on and 
pntpn i Jwerem maete virtute esse, so. te, Liv. ii. 12. In the last example macie seems to be used 

4. Adfectivea governing the Genitive or Ablative. 
XV* Adjectives signifyingj^Zen^y or want^ govern the genitive or ablative; as, 

FUmus vne or ir&, Full of anger. Inops rationis or ratione, Void of reason. 

8o Jfon inopes temporis, sed prodigi sumus. Sen. Lentuliis non verbis inops, Cic.. Dei plena tunt 
•im iMi, Cic. Maxima qweque domus servis est plena sunerbis, Juv. Res est soliciti plena timorii 
amor, Ovid. Amor et meUe et felle est fouundissimus, rlaut. FtBcunda virorum pauperlas Aigt/u^ 
lAcan. Ommum emmHorum ejus particejas. Curt. Homo ratione particeps, Cic. MhiliniidH* 
fmemsmi Id. Vaeuas estdis habete m«mi«t Ovid. 

SooM of these aiMectiv^s are construed* 

1. With the genitive only ; as, Benig^us, exsors, impos, impotens, irritus, liberalis, munifiem^ 
pnuitfwus, 

fl. with the ablative only ; Beatus, differtus, frugifer, mutilus, tenius, distenius, tumidus, iurpdui. 

S» With the genitive more frequently ; Cgmpos, consors, egenus, exheeres, expers,fertitis, indigitst 
§ mt m p€^iper, pro(Ugus, sterilijs: 

4, With the ablative more frequently ; Abundans, eassus, extorris, foetus, frequens, gravis, gravidust 
jejwms, Ub$r, loeuples^ nudus, oneratus, onustus, orbus, pollens, soluius, truncus, viduus, and captvs- 

6. With both promiscuously ; Copiosus, dives, foecundus, ferax, immunis, inanis, inops, Uargui, 
modieus, immodicus^ nimiuf, opulenius, plenus, potent, refertus, saiur, veunms, uber. 

6. With a prepo«ition; as, Copioms, Jurmus, paratus, imparatus, inops, instructus, A re alujuo* 
Ibr quod ad rem a/tgaom attinet, m or with respect to any thing. Extorris ab solo patrio, banished ; 
Ofha ab optimatibus eimao, Liv. So pauper, tenuis, facundus, nwdicus, partus^ in re aliqfi^- 
ImmwniSf inums, iiber,.n^iiik^ eolutus, vacuus, a re aliqua, Potens ad rem, and in re 

OovEBNMENT OF THE VXBB SuM. 

^ 1« Vekbs governing onfy one Case. 

XVL SuTttf when it signifies possession^ property ^ or duty^ governs the 
gemtivje; as, 

£arrem, Itbelongtothekiiw; Itisthepartorproperty^of akhig. 
8«> Mrijnenhs est dieere, non^dram, Itb the part or property of K^fo<4i fcc. Mmtitmest n^ 



CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES. 135 

iud pmrerty It it the part, or duty of loldien, &c. Laudart u vani; vituperare ttuiti est, Sen. 
&mtmt e^ errare ; ArroganlU ed negUgtre ouid de te aroMauE MenHnt. Cic. p#am# pji Mmiikt^i. 



flMwiw en errare ; Arroganlu td neghgere quid de te q^maue teniiai, Cic. Peeut etl MeHbai, 
rw. Hmc sunt homnu, Tcr. Pauperu est numerare peeus, Ovid. Tementas est Jlorentis tetatisy 
fnienita senetUtUu, Cic. *^ 

If Meunty tuumy suum, nostrum^ vestrumy are excepted ; as, 

Tuum est, It U your duty. Scio tuum esse, I know that it is your duty. 

Obs. 1. These pouetsive pronouns are used in the neuter gender instead of their sobstamives, 
mi, tui, «!», fioi<rt, vestri. Other possessives are ako construed in this manner; as, Est reghun, 
td kumanum, the same with est regis, est fuminis. Et facer e et patifortia, Rothanmn est, Liv. li. 12. 

0b8. 2. Here some substantive roust be understood ; as, qfficiutn, munits, res, negotttsm, optu, be. 
which are sometimes expressed ; as, Muniu est prindpum ; Tuum est hoe mumus, Cic. Neuilmunn 
^xmn Kfrert esse hominis puto, Ter. In some cases, the precedmg substantiTe may, be repealed ; 
as, Hie Hber est (liber) fratris. In like manner, some substantive must be supplied in such ei^nes- 
•ions as these ; Ea sunt modo gloriosa, ne^ patrandi l>eUi, scil. cmtsd or ficta, Sail. Xfihuimn 
tfwmdm tibertatis est, for ad sqfuandam Itbertatem pertinet, Liv. 

Obs. 8. We say. Hoc est tuum munus, or tui muneris: So mos est vel/ntV, w maris, or ist 
norcj Cic. 

XVII. SuMy taken for haheOy (to havej) governs the dative of a person ; as, 

Est tnihi liber, A book is to me, that is, I have a book. 

Stmt mUd lilni. Books are to me^ i. e. I have books. 

Dico Ubros esse tnihi, I say that I have books. '" 

This is more frequently used than httbeo librum; haheo Ubros, In like manner deest instead of 
careo; sm,' Liber deest mthi, I want a book ; LUm desunt mihi; Scio libros deesse mihi, &c. 

XVIII. Sumy taken for afferoy fto bringy) governs two datives ; the one 
of a person, and the other of a thing ; as, 

Est mihi voluptati. It is, or bringSi a pleasure to me. 

Two datives are also put after habeo^ doy vertOy relinquOf trihuOy forcy AiCOf and 

some others; as, 

Dudtur honori tibi. It is reckoned an honour to you. Id vertUur mihi vitio, I am Warned 
for that. So Misit mihi muneri; Dedit mihi dono; jBMet tibi Umdi; Venire oecmrere mtxiHo 
alieui, Liv. 

Obs. 1. Instead of the dative, we often use the nominative, or the acensative ; aB> Est oMm 
pecori, for exitio ; Dare aliquid alieui donum, or dono ; Dare Jiliam «i nuptamy or mipfHJ. Wfwn 
dare, and other active verbs have two da^ves after them, they Ukeme govern aa 
either expressed or understood ; as, Dare cnmird ei, sc. id, 

Obs. 2. The dative of the person is often to be supplied ; as, Ed exempfot indu^OypsmtUh^i 
&c. sciL mihi, alieui, homimbus, or some such word. So, ponere, opponere, pignon, tc sMetdy to 
pledge. Canere receptui, sc. suis militibus, to sound a retreat; Habere cunt, qusBduit^dhitokft^if 
nH^ovd, dudio, ludwrio, despicatui, &c. sc. sibi. 

(Sis. 8. To this rule belong forms of naming.; as, Ed mihi nomen AUxandrOt my name is 
Alexander *, or with the nominative, Ed mihi nomen Alexander; or more rarely with the genitive, 
Ed ndhi nomen Alexandri. 

* m 

XIX. The compounds of Suniy except Possumy govern the dative ; ait . 

Prafuit exercitui. He commanded the army. 

Adfuit prtdbus. He was present at prayers. 

The Construction of Comparatives 

i. 

XX. Words of the comparative degree govern the ablative when jiKim is 
omitted in Latin ; as^ 

Dulcior melle, Sweeter than honey. PraiStaniior auro, Better than gold. 

Obs. 1. The sign of the ablaUve in English is than. The positive with the adverb wutgisiVkt- 
wise governs the ablative ; as, Magis dileeta luce, Virg. - ^ , 

The ablative is here governed by the preposition pnt understood^ which It lometunse ezpresseo ; 
M| Foriior prm, eseterS, We find the comparaUve also construed with other prepositions; as, 
tmiMtntor ante omnes, Turg. , . . , ., . 

Obs. 2. The comparative degree may likewise be construed with the conjonction fudm; and tIMD, 
iwtead of the ablative, the noun is to be put in whatever case tiie sense reqmres; «i 

Diddor qudm met, scU. ed. Jhno te magis qudm Ulum, 1 love you more tiian hun, «»« «^ J««» 
«MtIliiin,thahItovehim. Amo te mim quSm ille, I love you more than he, i. e. ^«f» •«• •»«»» 
tiMui he loTM. Phit Mtur a megudm tM9, sc. ab. 



J36 CONSTRUCTION Ok ajjVERBS. 

Obs. 3. The conjunction giiAm is often elegnnUy suppressed after anrnUui uid|»li»; •■• 
VulnermUw ampliui aexcenii, C«s. sell. qudm. Plut qudngenios eobfkai mfregU «^ He hit 
Ml on me more than fire hundred blows, Ter. Catira ab urbe haud phu ^fumftte ffti|fta f tuu m 

toemU, flc. fuAnh Lit. 

4hutm is sometimes elegantly placed between two comparatives; as, 

THumphiu clarior quitm gratiar, Liv. Or the preposition pro is added ; as, Prmltim ti^nmui 
fuAm pro nwjMro pugnarUium ediiurt Liv- 

The comparative is sometimes joined with these ablaUves, opimone, tpt, aqtw, jtuto^ dim; ai, 

CfrtdUnH opinUme major, Cic. Credibili fortiori Ovid. Fast. iii. 618. Graviui mqm. Sail. Didt 
0Hm», Virg. Mc^'ora ertdHnU iuffmus, I^iv. They are often understood; as, Uberiua vivebai,t^ 
ntaiOf too freely, J^Tepos, 

J^ikU is sometimes elegantly used for nemo or nulU ; as, 

Atftt/ vidi qwdqwm Imthu, for ntminemj Ter. Crauo nihil perfeetmtf Cic. lOapariua mhil td 
km9if c^m 'M'^ tn dUum, So quid nopii laborumut, for qvit, Uc. Cic. We say, inferior pdtn 
mdla rtf or quim pater. The comparative is sometimes repeated or joined with an adverb ; as, 
Mtgii fnagisquet phu pituqi^f mn»ta mifnut^, carior cariorque ; Qiuoiidie plui, indiu magis, temper 
candidior fondiduirquef &i:. 

Obs. 4. The rehition of equality or sameness is likewise expressed in English by conjunctioas; 
^, £ff tarn doehu qiidm ego. He is fis learned as I. Animus erga ie idem est ae fidt. Ac. and offui 
m>e sometimes^ though more rarely, used after comparatives ; as, JVYAt2 eiA magis verum dftt 

hoct Ter. 

Obs. 5. The excess or defect of measure is put in the ablative after comparatives ; and the sign 
in English is by, expressed or understood ; {w more ^jprtly, the difference of measure is put in the 
ablative;) as, ^ 

Esi decern di^is altior quAm frater. He is ten inches taller than his brother, or by tm inches. 
Jlltero tanio major est fratre, i. e. duplo major, he is as big ^ain as his brother, or twice as big. 
Sesqvipede minor, a. foot and a half less; Aliero tanlo, out sesauimajor, as big i^gain, or a half 
bigger, Cic. Ter tanto pejor est ; Bis tanto amid sunt inter se, quhm prius, P|apt. Qum^utex ianio 
ampHus, qudm putntum licUum sit dvitatUnu imperavit, five times more, Cic. To this may be 
added many odier ablatives, which are joined with the comparative to increase its force; as, TantOi 
tmanio, quo, eo, hoc, multo, paulo, nimio, &c. thus, Qtio plus habent, eo plus cupiunt. The pnon 
they have, the more thev desire. Q^antq melior, tanto felidor. The better, the happier, ^noq^ 
minor spes est, hoe magts ille cupit, Ovid. Fast. ii. 766. ' We frequently find mulio, tanto, .qumtOt 
also joined with superlatives; Multo pulckerrimam earn haberemus, Sal. Multoque id maximvm 
fuit, Liv. 

Thb Construction op Indeclinable Words. 

!• The Construction of AovERBSr 
XXI. Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adver'bs; as, 

Bene seribit, He writes well. Fortiier pugnans. Fighting bravely. 

Servtu egregii fideHs, A slave remarkably faithful. Satis bene, Well enough. 

Obs. 1. Adverjbs are sometimes likewise joined to substantives ; bh, 

iBomerus pland orator ; plant noster, vert Metellus, Cic So Jffodie mane ; oras mane, heri mant, 
foodie vesperii &c. tarn mane, tafn vespere. 

Obs. 2. The adveHI> for the most part is placed near to the word which it modifies or aficcts. 

3bs. 8. Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative ; as, 

V(6C non senfOMnt, Nor did they not perceive, i. e. Et senserunt. And they did perceive ; JVbn poteram 
non exanimari metu, Cic. Examples, however, of the contrary of this sometimes occur in good 
authors, both in English and J^atin. Thus two or three negative participles are placed before the 
subjunctive mode, to egress a stronger negation. JYeque tu haud dicas tiii non proidictum, And 
do not say jttiat yon were not forewarned, Ter. 

But what chiefly deserves attention in adverbs, is the degree of comparison and the mode with 
which they are joined : 

1 

QSIS ,^ . , , ^ ^ , _^ 

agreealAe to both of us, Cic, perquam'puerile, vei^ childish ; oppid& pauct, very few; perfacile est, 
ke,^ Iq like mtnner, Parumy muUum, ntmtHm, tantum, quantum, aliquantum ; as. In rebus iqtertis' 
•imtff ntmtiiiii 2png» ffumtts ; parum Jbrmus, multum bonm, Cic. Adverbs in um are sometimes also 
johied to comparatives ; as. Forma viri aliquantiim amplior humand, Liv. 

^QHAM is joined to the. positive or sup«|iative in different senses; as, Q^am difficile est! How 
difllcidt it 18 ! Q^am erudelis, or Ut erudetis eft ! How cruel he is ! Flens quam familiariter, very 
fanfllavly, Ter. So quam tevert, very seyerety, Cic. Quam iaidt rery widely, Cms. Turn multa, 
Va^ ^l51°^^^ ^linffs as, &c. Qi^am maximas pdtett eepiat mnoHdy as mat as possible, Sail 
yiiMi y «i i » s < jg w a f ifl t s^gig, agpm primum quetm sepissime, C|c. ijium quuque pemmt feeit, tarn 

FACILE, for htnfd dMi, undoubtedly, clearly, is joined to the superlatives or words of a 

*^*"^l*y^*g» •"» *"^ €toe«t»*intt, faeild pHneept, v.prmtipum. &0NGE to comparatives 

^^^^^'S!!!!^^'^*^'^^^'^^ Pedibus longt melior 

■*4f»tts» V ay. 

ft. CUM, flsiov i* WB iB i i fn i l wiA the intficative or subjnnctinv_ofteiier #ith the latter ; 0UM, 
tMMsr, or Ao» Iti^ wHh Hie indicative ; os, Dum hsee agwihtr ; JBffoto, dim mtkna eel, ^ 



CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS, 1«7 

ikit»f Oe, JPlMMc mt fdix, muliot numerahis amieotf Ovid. DUM and DONEC, lor nmuedum, 
uaO^ w w ii B m wkh tbe indicathre and fometimes with the suhjunctive ; af| Open&Tf mmi itlm 
apimt Cie. Baud dmnmny donee perfeeerot Ter. So QUOAD, for ouoifuftUi ftfotifUM, futdemu 
IS low, ■• arachi as fkr as ; thus, l^iwad Calilinm fuU in urbe. ^^»ad tUn e^tiion vidAitm 
fmifumem si Ueeni; quoad progredi pohnerit amentiOf Cic. But QUOAD, unUl, oftener with tli« 
MbJActtve; as, ThemdaniuB ette iiahieram, quoad aliquid ad me tcribereSf Ck. but not ahrajs; 
Mim fkeimm Jinem regendh qaoad numeiaium erit te fecisse, Cic. The pronoun ejtUt with faeere or 
Jieit h elegantly added to quoad ; as, i^jioad ejus faeere potent ; ^aoad ejut fieri, pottiif Ok. 
Ejvi is tfaoi;^^ Id be here governed by ali^^uid or some such word understood. Qjuiad earpuMt 
peed amimatn, Ibr eecundunif or quoai athnet ad corpus vel animam, as to the body or sou, is 
c i twaaed by the best flrammarians not to be good Latin. 

a FD8IWAM or P03TEAQUAM, after, is usually joined with the indicAtire. ANTEQUAM, 
PBRJSQUAM, be/ore; SIMUL, SIMUL AC, SIMUL ATQUE, SIMUL UT, at toon at; UBI, 
vkesi 'sometimes with the indicative, and sometimes with the subjunctive; as, ^fUe^putm dieo 
or ikaMf Cic. Shmd ac pertentit, Virg. Stmul ut ffidero Cunonenh Cic. Htee uH dieta 
(Utt, Liv. Ubi temel quit perjeraveritf ei credi poMea non oportet, Cic. So fiMy truly ; as. 
Me f» homo tvm infelix, Ter. Jfa («, ti id feeittetf meHut Jamti eontuhnttetf Cic. BvH NE, not, 
vithme imperative, or more elegantly with tlie subjunctive ; as, J^ejura, Plant. JVe pod eonfirfu 
cttfaNM tR me, Ter. A% tot annorum_fBHcitatem in trntus A#rc dedertt diterimenf Liv. 

4 QUASI, CEU, TANQUAM, PERINDE, when they denote resemblance, are joined with the 
indicsthre ; PuU olim quati ego turn, tenex, Flaut. Adverti rupto ceu quondam turbme venHf eon- 
fipuUf Virg. Hite omnia perinde tunt, ut aguntur. But when used ironically, they have the 
tobji mctive ; as, QiMWt de verba, non de re taboretur, Cic. 

6. UTINAM, O SI, UT for utinam, I vnth, take the subjunctive ; as, Utinam earesei vohnpiaii 
td, Cie. O mihi pneteritot referat ti Jupiter annos, Virg. Vt Ulum dii demqae perdant, Ter. 

6. UT, tsAen, or after, takes the indicative ; as, ift ditcettit, venit, &c. IT Also for quam or 
(ptrntio, bow ! as, Ut valet ! Ut faltut animi ett ! Ut tmpe tumma ingenia in oecuito kdont ! Plant 
^ Or when it simply denotes resemblance ; as, Ut tute es, ita omnet eentet etH, Plant IT In this 
seme it sometimes has the subjunctive ; as, Ut tementem fsceris, ita metes, Cic. 

7. QUIN for CUR NON, takes the indicative ; as, Quin eontittetit voeem indieem thUtUiw veitnef 
Cic. % For IMO, nay or but, the indicative or imperative ; as, Q^in ett paratttm argenhan ; om'ti 
h hot audi, Ter. f For UT, NON, QUI, QUiE, QUOD NON, or QUO MIN17S, the subjunctive ', as, 
^idia tarn faeUit ret, quin dijleilis fiet quum intitus facias, Ter JVema ed, quia malet; fieere 
fwifomm, quin ad te mittani, I cannot help sending ; fdhU abed, quin tim miierrimus, Cic, 

1. The Govebnbient ov Advebbs. 
XXII, Some a4verbs of time, place, and qutotity, govern the genitive; as, 

Pridie ejus diii, The day before that day. 

Ubi^e gentium. Every where. 

' Satts est verbbrum. There is enough of words. 

1. Adverbs of time, governing the genitive are, Interea, postea, inde, tunc ; as Jnterea lod, in tbfi 
meantime; podea lod, afterwards; ipde loci, then; tune iemporis, at that time. 2. Of pliice, Ubi 
and ^, with their compounds ubique, ubicunque, ubivis, ubi'Ubi, &c. Also EOf Aoe, hueeine, unde, 
^^f^uam, nutquam, longe, ilndem'; as, Ubi, quo, quovis, &c. also usquamy nusquam, unde terrarvm, 
^ci gentium ;. Umgd gentiufn ; ibidem loci, eo audadoi, vecordim, miseriarum, &c. to thftt pitch of 
bo&88, madness, misery, &c. 3. Of quantity, Abunde, affitim, largiter, nimit, taiitf parvMy 
l^niNNd; as, Abimdt ghri€R,affdtim divitiarum, largiter auri, talis loquentue, sapitntict parum tit 
iUi Tel habet. He has enough of glory, riches, &c. Minimt gentium, by no means. 

Some add ergo and instar ; as. Ergo virtyiis, for the sake of virtue, Cic. Instar mantis, like a 
QOQotain, Virg. But these arp properly nouns. 

Obs. 1. These adverbs are thought to p)vern the genitive, because they implv in themsdvey the 
forcepf a substantive; as, Potent& glorue^e abuna^ adeptus, the same with abundantiam glorimj 
^ns, loeus, or negolium and a preposition, may be understood; as, Interea loci, i. e. inter im 
^i^^p^ loci ; Ubi terrarum, for in quo loco terrarum. 

Obs. 2. We usnallf sa^, pridie, postridie, ejus did, seldom cKem ; but pridie, postridie Kalendatf 
^tnas, Idut, ludot Apollvnares, natalem ejus, absolutionem ejus, &c. rarely Kalendarumnbc, 

Obs. 3. En and eece are construed either with the nominative or accusative ; as, 

•Gn hosHtt or hostem ; Ecu miserum hominem, Cic' Sometimes a dative is added ; as, Eece hb% 
^<rt9, Ter. Eeee duas (scil. aras) tibi, Daphni, Virg. In like manner is construed him pot for 
'^i as. Hem tibi Davum, Ter. But in all ttiese examples some verb must be understood. 

Obs. 4. Some derivative adverbs govern the case of their primitives ; as, 

Omnium optim^ loquitur, He speaks the best of all. . 

Convenienier naiura. Agreeably to nature. 

VenU obviatn eif He came to meet him. 

Proonmi eoHiit or eattra. Next the camp. 

2p Thx Construction of Pjuepositions. 
1* PrqpqnikmB governing the Accusative* 
^QOn. The prepositions cd^ apud^ ante^ &c. govern the accusalnne^ 

^^MMt, ft ^ Mart; rdigari ad aneretn, to be k/e, td or en; ad ponwi, ostiaaiiy tmft 9^ 
"VMI t» a plank; ad «em veniam, solvam, beftre; ad wtiem Itbcsriniy fiMTttf / 



ISS 



CONSTRUCTION 01? PREPOSITION& 



pla supplicatio, tn ; ad sumtnum, at mottf or 
to the top; ad sumroam) on the whole; Cic. ad 
nhimain, extremam, at leuty finally; ad v. in 
tpecieiDi to appearance; mentis ad omnia 
ca|Micitas; annus fatalis ad interitmn ; lenius ad 
•everitatem,/or, with respect to^ Cic ad vivum, 
se. eotpas, to the quick; ad judicem agcre, 
before; liihil ad Cesarem, in comparison of; 



dvringf m the time of; inter bee parata, during 
theu preparaHonsi Sail. Inter tot annos, in, 
Cic Inter diem, irA«tiee; Interdiui tn (fte day 
time; inter se amant, they love one analher; 
Quasi non ndrimus nos inter not, Ter. 
Intra privatos parietes, intra pancos aanog, 
within; intra faraam est, less than rtport, 
Quinct. 



numero ad duodecim, to the number of; omnes Juxta macellum, near the shasnbUs, 

ad onum, to a man ; ad hoc, besides; ad vulgi Ob lucrum, for gain ; ob oculos, before ; ob in* 

opinionem, according to; homo ad unguem dustriam ybt de industria, im^fmmie, Plant. 

factuf, an accomplished man; herbae ad lunam Pxnss quern, or -•item penes, m the power of; 

mes8», by the light off Virg. ad tempos venit, Penes te es ? you in your senses f Hor. 

4tf ; ira brevis est &. ad tempus, for, ad tern- Per agros, th .. ij per vim, per sodos, by; 

pus consilium capiam, according to, Cic ad per anni tempus, per fctatem licet, foty by 

decern annos, after ; annos ad quinquaginta reason of. 

natos, about, Cic. nebula erat ad multum diei, Pons caput, behind: 

for a great part of the doj^, lAv. ad pedes. Post hoc tempus, after; post ter^^um, hdmni; 

jac€re, proyolvi, procumbere, &, ad genua ; ad post homines natos, post bomlnum monoriam 



nanus esse, a/; ad manus venire, to come to a 
close engagement; ad Ubellam deberi, to a 
farthing, no more and no less; ad amussim, 
exactly; ad haec visa auditaque, upon using 
and hearing these things, Liv. 
AD seems sometimes to be taken adverbially; 
as. Ad duo milliii caesa sunt ; ad miUe hominum 



since the world began. 
pRSTSR te nemo, nobody besides, or except; 
prteter casam fugere, beyortd; praoter legem, 
morem aequum et bonum, spem, opinioDem, 
&c. contrary to, against, beyond ; praeter csteros 
excellere, lamentari, above ; praeter ripam ire, 
along, near ; praeter oculos, before, Cic. 



aunissura est ; ad ducenti perierunt, about, Liv. Propter virtutem, for, on account of; propte 



Apuo forum, «tf; apud me ccenabis, at my house; 

vgnA senatum, judices, r. aliquem dicere, be- 
fore; apud roajores nostros, among; apud 

jLenophontem, tn the book of; Est mihi fides, 

vtl valeo apud ilium, / have credit with him; 

facio te apud ilium deum, Ter. 
Akts diem, focum, Inc. before. 
Adtsrsus, v. -um;- Contra hostes, against; 

adversus infimos justitia est servanda, toward; Secus viam, in/, along. 

aulversum hunc loqui, to, Ter. Lerina adver- Supra terram, above. 

sum Antipolim, over against, Plin. 
Cis vel ciTRA flumen, on this side ; citra neces- 

sitatem, without ; Ede citra cruditatem, bibe 

citra ebrietatem, Senec, 
CiRevM & ciROA regem, about; Varia circa haec 

opinio, Plin. 
Eboa amicos, towards. Extra miiros; Extra 

jocum, periculum, noxiam, sortem, without; 

nemo extra te, besides; e^tra conjurationem, 

not concerned in. Sail. 
Inpra iectum, below the roof. 
Inter fratres, among; inter U super coenam, 



aque rivum, near, hard by, Virg. 
Secundum facta et virtutes tuas, according to, 
Ter. secundum littus, secundum aurem vui* 
neratus est, near to; in actione secundum 
vocem, vultus plurimom valet ; secundum pa- 
trem tu es proximus, after, next to; Frstor 
secundum me decrevit, sententiam dedit; fort 
in my favour, Cic. 



accusative are 

PROPS, BSftDE, 



Trans mare, over, beyond. 

Ultra occanum, beyond. 

To prepositions governing the 
commonly added Circiter, 
and VERSUS ; as, Circiter meridiem, about tnid 
day; prope muros, near the walls; usqoe 
Puteolos, Tharsom usque, as far as; Orientem 
versus, towards the east. But in these ad is 
understood, which we find spmetimes e^ 
pressed ; as, Prope ad annum, J^ep, Ab oto 
usque ad mala, Hor. Ad oceanum versus, 
Cas. In Italiam versus, Cic. 



2. Prepoaitiona governing the Ablative. 
XXIV. The prepositions a, aft, absy &c. govern the ablative. 

A patre, ab omnibus, abs te, by or from ; a 
puero, vel pueris, a pueritia, in cunabulis, 
teneris unguibus, &c. from a ihild, ever since 
childhood', ab ovo usque ad mala, /rom the 
beginning to the end of supper; a manu, sc. 



esses, but for you, had it not been foryo^ 
Ter. Absque is chiefly used by comic writers; 
sine, by orators. 
Clam pati« and patrem, without the knouledgt 

0/ 



fervus, an amanuensis or clerk ; ad manum, a Coram omnibus, before, in presence of. 



waiting man ; a pedibus, a footman ; a latere 
principis, an attendant. So a secretis, rationi- 
bus, consiliis, cyathis, &c. a secretary, account- 
ant, &c. fores a nobis, for nostrae. Injuria ab 
illo, for illius. Ter. a ccena, after ; secundus, 
tertius a Romulo; ictus ab latere, on or in; a 
senatu stare, for, in defence of; ab oculis 
doleo, Plaut. ab ingenio improbus, a pccunia 



CifM exercitu, Ufith; testis mecum est aonulu!*, 
tn my possession, Ter. cum prima luce, at break 
of day ; cum imperio esse, in ; cum primis, 
in primis, th the first place ; cum metu dice^i 
cum laetitia vivere, cum cura, &c. Cic. ^^ 
say, mecum, tecum, secum, nebiscum, vobis 
cum; rarefy cum me, cum te, &c. and quocoi'* 
or cum quo, quibuscum or cum qulbus. 



et militibus imparatus, as to, with respect to, De lana caprina rixantur, about, coneemingf 



Cic. Est calor a sole ; omissiores ab re, too 
careless lAout money; a villa mercenarium 
vidi, Ter. 
Abs^0B cansa, without ; absque te esset, recte 
f^ nilhi vidissem t. e. si to non cstet, nisi ta 



de tanto patiimonio nihil relictum est, ofi ^^ 
loco superiore, from ; de die,, by day ; de noct^f 
by night; de integro, oneto, etfresh; ide,*-.^ 
Improviso, wMJ^ectedly; de, v. ezindostnaf 
onfurpose; de meo^ at my expense ; id de IfK^® 



CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. 



1S9 



esse, decor gatUy Ter. de, v. ex com- 
i^re, by aexeement ; de trangyerso, 
sCf athwart; dei v. ex ejus sentcntia, con- 
xording to ; qua, v. hac de causa,f for; 
e plebe ; templum de marmore, oj; de 
dicere, to read a speec/^ ; defilioemit, 
/ic. De servis fidelissimus ; de ipsius 
1 non ampiius hominum mUle cecidit,. 
Robur de exercitu, lAv. Adolescens de 
loco, Plant. De procul aspicere, Id. 
K edibus, from, out of; e contrario, v. 
ia parte, on the contrary; e regione, 
airut ; e republica, e re alicujus, for the 
'; statitn e somno, ex fuga, ex taota 
ntia, aliud ex alio malum, /rom, afttr; 
io, out of hand, immediately ; poculum 
y; ex equo pugnare, on honeback ; 
lugnam ex commodo, on advantc^eotu 
Sail, diem ex die expectare, from day 
day after day; ex ordine, tn order; 
ex parte, for the most ^art ; ex super 
uperfluoiiuy ; ex tua dignitate, v. virtute, 
eto senatd^s, e natura, according to ; so 
ex veritate pauca, ex opinione multa 
: ; ex, v. de more, ad v. in morem alicu' 
: animo, from the heart; Insolentia ex 
is rebus, e via languere, ex doctrina 
on account of; ex usu est tibi, of ad' 
; ex eo die, since; ex amicis certis 
nus, of, or amor^; ex pedibus laborare, 
/ of the gout, Cic. E re nata, as the 
tlands; Ter. Commenta mater est, esse 
viro, nescio quo, puerum natum, by, Id. 
a certare, for; Rati noctem pro se, 
ble to them, Sail. Hoc est pro me, Cic. 
iplo, tribunali, concione, rostris) castris, 
before; pro sua dignitate, sapientia, 
potestate cogere, pro tempore, re, loco, 
B, according to ; est pro prsetore, pro te 



molam, comes facundus pro vehiculo est, fotf 
instead of; pro viribus, pro parte yirili, pro 
sua quisqiie parte, r. facilitate, to one*s abiliiy 
or power ; Parum tibi pro eo, quod a te habeo, 
reddidi, in comparison of, cormdering, Cic. pro 
ut, pro eo ac, pro eo ut mereor, as I deserve ; 
pro se quisqucy uterque, &c. for his Ofumpart; 
pro rata parte, pro portione, in proportion; 
pro cive se gerit ; agere pro victoribas ', pro 
suo uti ; pro rupto fisdus habet, for, as, so ; 
pro certo, iofecto, comperto, nihilo, concesso, 
&c. habeo, duco. Pro occiso. relictns est, 
Cic. . 

pR£ se pugionem tulit, before ; speciem pra se 
boni viri fert, pretends to be^Ter, pne lacrymis 
non possum scribere, for, because, of; illam, 
prae me contempsi, in comparison of: So the 
adverb praeut; as, preut bujus rabies qvm 
dabit, Ter. 

Palam populoy omnibusy before, with the knoW' 
ledge of. 

Sink labore, without ; sine ulla causa^ pompa, 
molestia, querela, impensa, &c. homo sine re, 
fide, spe, fortunis, sedes, &€. Cic. 

Capulo TENUS, up to the hilt. Temis is construed 
with the gcnitiire plural, when the word wants 
the singular ; as, Cvmarum tenus, as fkr as 
Cuma : or when we speak of things, of which 
we have by nature only two ', as, Oculorum, 
aurium, narium, labrorum, lumborum, crurum 
tenus, up to. We also find Corcyrse tenus, et 
ostiis tenus, lAv. Colchis tenus^f7or. Pec- 
toribus tenus, Ovid. 

To prepositions governing the ablative is com- 
monly added Pkocul; as, Procul domo, far 
from home ; but here a u ouderstood, whiph is 
also often expressed; as, Procul a patria, 
Virg. Procul abosleniatione,^tohict. Culpa est 
procul a me, Ter. , 



S. Prepositiona governing the Accusative or Ablative. 

^. The prepositions in, sub, super y and subter, govern the accusative, 
notion to a place is signified ; but when motion or rest in a place is 
1, in and sub^ govern the ablative ; super and subter either the accusa- 
ablative. 

hen it signifies intOy governs the accusative; when it signifies in or anumgyit 

the ablative ; as, 

V. in potestatem, honore, v. honorem, mente, v 
mentem ', in manu, v. manibus esse, habere, 
tenere, tn one*s power, on hand; in amicis, 
among ; in oculis, before ; Occissus est in pro- 
vinciam, far in provincia, SeUl. In pueritia, 
adolescentia, senectute, absentia, for puer or 
pueri, when a boy or boys, &c. Hoc in tem- 
pore, JVe/). In loco fratris diligere, for ut fra- 
trem, Ter. 

Sub terras ibit imago, sub aspectum cadit, under; 
sub ipsum funus, near, just before. Hbr. sub 
lucem, ortum lucis, noctem, vesperam, bru- 
mam, i. e. incipiente luce, &c. at the dawn of 
day, Uc. sub idem tempus, about; sub eas 
literas recitatae sunt tus, sub festos dies, after, 
Cic. 

Sub muro, rege, pedibus, &c. under ; sub urbe, 
. near, Ter. sub ea conditione, v. -em, en or 
with. 

SuPXR Numidiam, above, beyond; super ripas, 
upon ; super hac ; super morbom etiam fames 
affixit, bendes, Liv. super arbore, iVonde msp&c 
viridi, vv^ • super hac re tccibete,\s&i ^sfiseoMK 



ire, into ; amor in patriam, in te be- 

towards ; in lucem, until day ; in eam 
iam, to that purpose, on that head ; in 
.m est, for your advantage ; in utramque 

disputare, on both sides, for and 
; litura in nomen, on, Cic. potestas in 
trer ; in aliqucm dicere, against; mirum 
um, after ; in pedes stare, in aurem 
>, on ; in os laudare, to, before ; in, v. 
itres lectus, into the number of', in vul- 
bari, spargere, &c. am^mg ; crescit in 
1 singulos dies, omnes in dies, every 

diem posterum, proximum, decimum, 
; in diem idvere, to live from hand to 
not to think of to-morrow ; Est in diem, 
Open sometime after, Ter. . Induciae in 
3nses datse, in hunc dlieoi) annum, &c. 
imis assibus in pedem, v. in singulos 
transegit. He bargained for three shil- 
foot, or for every foot ; So inpugerum, 
, capita, naves, &c. In medmina sin- 
[. S. quYnos denos dedisti, Cic. 
avigo, in tempore, in; esse in potestate, 



140 CONSTRUCTION OF mTERJECTIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS. 

superi cancerrdng ; alii super alios tirucidantur, tur laade laborem, /oTi Virg^. 

lAv. Super ccenam, super vinum et epulas, for Subter terrain ve( terrai under. 

inter, dwiiig. Curt. Nee super ipse susL moli- 

Obs. 1. When prepositions do not g^em a case, thejr are reckoned adTerbs. 

Soch are JbUtt cirea, claoh eoramt contra^ infra, intra, juxta, paiam, j^ane,^ pott, propter, «eeur 
gubler, taper, supra, uUra. But in most of these the case seems to be implied in the sense ; as 
Longo pott tempore venit, sc. post id tempus, Adversiu, juxta, propter, secus, secundum, and etont 
are by ^ome thought to be always advertis, having a preposition understood when they TOveni a 
case. So other ^verbt also are construed with &e accusative or ablative ; as, Intut cwam, ibi 
tntrOf Liv. Inhu templo divumi sc. .in, Virg. SimiU Ms, sc. cum, Hor. 

0»s. 2. A and ■ are only put before consonants ; ab and %%, lisoaUy before vowels, and some 
tiaieft also before consonants ; as, 

Jfpatre, a regUme; ab initio, ab rege; ex urbe, ex parte; abs before q and t; bs, abs te, aB 
faovtt Aoaitae, Ter, Some phrases are used only with e; as, e loginquo, e regUme, e vest^iq, e r 
mea est, &c. Some only with ex; bm, Et emnpacto, ex tempore, magna ex psAt, &c. 

Obs. 3. Preposittons are often understood ; as, Devenere loeos, scil. ad; It portis, sc, ex Vir^ 
AVtfie idprodeo, scil. ob vel propter, Ter. Maria asj^era juro, scil. per, Virg. Vt se loco movere no 
pfusenif scil. e vel de, Can. f^na promens doUo, scil. ex, Hor. Qiiui iUo faeiat f ^ad me fist, s< 
lie, Ter. We sometimes find the word to which the preposition refers, suppressed ; as, Otrciaj 
OiJiewtKff, sc. tedem. Sail, Campum SteUatim divisU extra sortem ad viginti miUibus civium, >• 
ehnum mUtibus ad viginti miilia. Suet. But this is most frequently the case after pr^x>sitions i 
conpotitian ; thus, iSnittere tertmrn, scil. manu, Plant. Evomere virus, scil. ore^ Cic. Edue^ 
cojnat, 6cH. ca$tris, Cses. 

3. The Construction of Interjections. 

XXVI. The interjections O, heu^prohj and some others, govern the nomi 
native, accusative, or vocative ; as, 

O vir bonus or boTU ! O good man ! Heu me miserum ! Ah wretched me ! 

So O vtr fortis atque amiciu ! Ter, Heu vanitat humana ! Plin. Heu miserande puer ! Virg 
O prmelarum eustodem avium (ut ainnt) lupum ! Cic. 

XXVII. The interjections A^, and v(b^ govern the dative ; as, 

Hei mihi! Ah me I Vte vobis! Wo to you ! 

Obs. 1. Heus and she are joined only with the vocative; as, Heus Syre, Ter. OhelibeUe / Martial. 
Proh or pro, ah, vah, hem, have generally either the accusative or vocative; as, Pro hominumfidem I 
Ter. Froh Sanete Jupiter ! Cic. Hem astutias ! Ter. 

Obs. 2. Interjections cannot properly have either concord or government. They are only mere 
pounds excited by passion, and have no just connexion with any other part of a sentenoe. What* 
.ever case, therefore, is joined with them, roust depend on some other word understood, except the 
vt>cative v^hich is always placed absolutely; thus, Heu me miserum! stands for Heu! mmmm 
pdnrum serUio ; Hei mthi for Hei! malum est mifa! Proh dolor! for Proh! quufntuM ulmttl vA 
to in other examples. 

4. The Construction x>f Conjunctions^ 

XXVin* The coi^unctions ety ac^ atque^ necj aut^ neque, and some others, 
connect lilie cases and modes ; as, 

Honora patrem et matrem. Honour father and mother. 
Jfee legit nee scribit. He neither reads nor writes. 

Obs. 1. To this rule belong particularly the copulative and disjunctive conjunctions ; as likewise, 
ijfuam, nisi, prteterquam, an ; and also aoverbs or likeness ; as, ceu, tanquam, qtuui, ui, &c. as, 

NuUtun prtemium a vobis postulo, pneterquam hujus die memoriam, Cic. Gloria virtuiem tanqum 
umbra tequitur, Id. 

Obs. 2. These conjunctions properly connect the difierent members of a; sentence togedier, and 
are hardly ever applied to single words, unless when some other word is understood. Heoce if 
tile construction of the sentence be varied, different cases and modes may be couj^ed t«^;ether ; as, 

interest mea et rdpubliae ; Constitit cuse et plwris; Sive es Roma, sive in 'Epiro; Decitu cum m 
devoverei, et in medtam cmem irruebat, Cic. Fir magni in^nii summdque industrid ; Jfeque pet 
vim, n^jpuc insidus, Sail. Tecum habUa, et nSris, qtuim sit ttbi eurta supeUex, Pers. 

C>B8. 3. When et, aid, veli fi^^t ^^ ^^ <"^ joined to different members of the same sentencei 
without connecting it particularly to any farmer sentence, the first et is rendered in English b/ 
jb9^ or Uketnse ; out or vel, by either; the first sive, by whether; and the first nee, by neither; as, 

MH legit, etserihU; so turn legit, turn scribit; or cum legit, turn scribit, He both reads and writes; 
Sfoe legU, sive scribit. Whether he reads or writes ; faeere qud vera, quA falsa ; Increpare qitA 
gofuules ^MM, qud exerdtum, to upbraid both the consuls and the army, Ltr. 

XXIX. Two, or more substaiitives singular, connected by a conjuncdoD) 
my have a verb, adjective, or relative plural to agree with them ; as, 

Petrus el Joannes, qui sunt dodi, Peter and John, who are learned. 
QWM, I. If the Bubstantives be of different persons, the verb plural mitBt agree with the first 
rather tbsta the Mcood, «id with the Beyond rather than the third ; Bg^Situet TWKui 



CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS. 14i 

*tkiis, tgo et Cicero wdtmuif If yoo and Tallk are well, I and Cicero are welly Cie. In .Engiiriiy 
the penon speaking usually puts himself last ; thus, You and I read ; Cicero and I art well : but 
in Lttia, tiie person who speaks is generally put first ; thus, £^ et tu leghntu, 

Ob8. 2. If tfM substantives are of difierent genders, the adjective or relative plural mttit apree 
^tfa the masculine rather than the feminine or neuter; as. Paler e/ mater, ^ut^tin/martvt; but Ssii 
oaiy applicaUe to beings which may have life. The person is sometimes implfed ; as, Jithenarum 
et Cratippif ad ftiot, £c. Propter tummam dootoris auetoriiatem et urbitt jfiionim attert &c. Cie, 
Where Jtheme et terbe are put for Uu learned men of Athens. So in substantives ) as^ Ad fUdniMntm 
Cleopatram^ue reget legait miin« i. cthe king and queen^ Liv. 

Obs. 3. if the substantive signify things without life) the adjective or rcHative plural must be put 
II tlw neater gender ; as, DivSimt deem, fioridi in oeulis sUa sunt^ Sail. 

The same holds, if any of the substantives signify a thing without life ; because when we apply 
L foali^ or Join an adjective to several substantives of different genders, we must redoce the sub* 
taatirt to some ^ertauoi class, under which they may all be comprehended, that u, to wlmt is colled 
lieir Omme. Nolr the Gentiror class which comprehends under it both peraons and thii^gs, is that 
rfs nimnn cea or beings in general, m^ich are neither masculine nor femmine. To express tluiy Hm 
LOtin GtUBBMurians use the word J^egotia. 

Obs. 4. The adfective or verb freqoent](y agrees with the nearest^substantive or nominathre^ and 
■ oad srslD od to tte rest ; as, 

Et ego et Cicero metis flagUabitf Cie. SoeOs et rege reeepto, Virg. Et ego in ctdpa sump et tUf 
islli I am in the liudt^ and yon ; or, Et e^ et tu et in cutpa^ Both I and you are in the fault 
ySkU kk mid carfmnot denmt ; or m/Ul kic deest niti carmina, Omniaf qmmu iurbari solvte orai 
witas, iloMM diteorduh firit bellum exortum ; Duo miltia et quadringenti ec st, Liv. This conilnie' 
Ion is most usual, when the different substantives resemble one another in sense ; as, Mentf ratiOp 
ii eontUxumfin tenibut ett, Understanding, reason, and prudence is in old men. (^uibutipsemeifue 
sate laremflr^prtiim vescor, for oeMtmiir, Herat. 

Obs. 6. Ine pfairal is sometimes used after the preposition cum put for et ; as^ 

^emo cum fitdre Qimtnuf jura dabunt, Virg. The conjunction is frequentiy understood } as^ 
Own ctof , mAuy magitter prohibebantt Ter. From, ocuti^ tfultut uepe meniktrUurf Cie. 

The different examples comprehendcMd under this rule are commonly referred to the figure 

XXX. The conjunctions ut, quo, licet, 8z;c. govern the subjunctive mood ; a8« 

Le^ vi diteamf I read that I may learn. 
Uttnam eapereSf I wish you were wise. « 

Obs. 1. All interrogatives, when placed indefinitely, have after them the subjunctive mode. 

Whslfaer they be adjectives; as, ^^uanttu, qualis, quotutt quotupleXf uter; pronouns, as, ftti^ 
^enj/itt; adveibe, as, i/6», quo, undct qnd^ quortumf quamdiu^ quamdudumt quan^fridenh qiekesf 
^tif, fm r $9 fwai odrem, num, u^rum, qiwmodo, qui, ut, quam, quantopHre ; or ooajunctions, we, net 
ON, mmh emman .* Thus, Quit eaf Who is it ? JVejcio qu%a tit, I do not know who it is. ./fn ventuna 
^f JmeiOf dubitOf an ventunu tit ; Viden* ttt alta flet mve candidum Soracte f Hon But these 
^vQidi tee aonetimes joined with the indicative; as, Ado qyid ago, Plaut. Haud tdo, an amat, Ter^ - 
^mmUU fM facit. Id. Videt quam turpe ett^ Cie. 

f ill Hke manner the relative QUI in a continued discpurse; as, JVihil est quod Deu t ejieere non 
foeoL QMS est, md utiHafugiatf Cie. Or when joined wiUi QUIPPC or UTPOTE; J^eque 
^^IfMm frocul doerat, utpote qui sequeretur, &c. Sail. But these are sometimest altiiougfa more 
farely, jomed with the indicative. So Ett qui, sunt qui, est quando v. ubi, &c. ar^ Joined with the 
indicative or substantive. 

Note. Haud scio an reete dixerim, is the same with dicoi affirmo, Cie. 

Obs. 2. ETSI, TAMETSI, aud TAMENETSI, QtJAMQUAM, in tiie beginning of a sentence, 
luiTe the indicative ; but elsewhere, they also take the subjunctive ; ETIAMSI and QUAMVIS 
comiDonly have the subjunctive, and UT, dWwugk, always has it ; ba, Ut quarat, non reperiest 
Cie. QUONIAM, QUANDO, QUANDOQUIDEM, are usually construed with the mdicative ; SI, 
^, KEf NISI, SIQUIDEM, QUOD, and QUIA, sometimes with the indicative, and soraetnnea 
^ the snl^fimctive. DUM, for dummddo, provided, has always the subjunctive; as, Oderint dum 
Dtehianl, Cie. And QUIPPED for nam, always the indicative ; as, Qutppe vetor fatit. 

Obs. 8. donn conjunctions have their correspondent conjunctions belonging to them ; so tfaatf in 
(He foUoiHng member of the sentence, the latter answers to the former ; thus, when etti, telmet9i$ 
^ fuammt, edthouf^, are used in the former member of a sentence, tamen, yet or neioerthdese% 
gnttraUy answers to them in the latter. In like maimer. Tarn — quam ; Mto or itOf^^v^ : in 
«ii|^, Asi-^as, or to ; as, Etsi ait liberdtit, tamen non est profusus. Although he be liberal, yet 
^ n not profuse. So prius or antef^-quam. In some of these, however^ we find the latter con* 
junction scnnetimes onntted, particularly ki English. 

Obs. 4. The conjunction tU is elegantiy omitted after these verbs/ Volo, nolOf mate, rof^, psetnr 
^emo, suodeo, Ueet, oportet, necette est, and the like ; and likewise after these, imperatives, Sfne^ 
M or facito ; as. Ducat volo hodie uxorem ; Mlo mentiare ; F^ac cogitet, Ter. In like manner nc 
a commonly omitted aRer cave; as, Cotfe faciat, Ck. Post it idio sometimes understood ; tind^ 
*fe eetaoo, quam ereatus erat, Liv. iv. 47. scil. post. 

Obs. 6. Ut and Q^od sore thus distinguished : ut denotes the final cause, and is commonly naed 
^i^ regard to something future ; quod marks the efficient or impulsive canse, and is genend^ mad 
coneenSag the event or thing done; as, Lego id diteam, 1 read that' I may learn; Oamea qudd 
^ I am |(iad that or because I haver«ad. Ut is Bkewise used aHer tiiese hilensive woinAB» «■ 
^ ave cidled, Meo, Ha, sii^i tarn, ttdis, tantus, tot,b^ 



142 GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

Obs. 6. After the Terbs Hmeo, vertor, and the like, ttf is taken in a negative sense for ne turn, and 
ne in an aflirmatiye sense ; as, 

Timeo ne fadat, I fear he will do it ; Timeo utfaeiat, I fear he will not do it. Idpenet ne dvctu 
tu iUamf tu avlem u/ dueatf Ter. Ut ria vitalit, metuOf Hor. Timeo vt frater vwatt will not ;— ne 
frattr fMriaiWf will. But in some few examples they seem to have a contrary meaning. 

1. Verbs governing the AcatsoHvem 

XXXI. Terbs, signifying actively, govern the accusative ; as, 

Jhnh Deum, Love God. Rcverere parenUif Reverence yoor j^arents. 

Obs. 1. Neuter verbs also govern |he accusatt««»'iiliea tibe noan after them has a significatioo 
similar to tbeir own ; as, 

/re iter oTviom; Pugnare pugndm or mrtelivm; Cwrrpre eumun; Canere caniUenam; Vivm 
ffiUtm; JLudert ludum; Sequi aeetmn; Somniare tommtuih &c. or when that are taken in t 
metiipliMncal sense ; as, Corwitm wrdebat ^fexirit scil. prapUr, i. e. vehtrntnUr tmmbatf Virg. Cvr- 
rnniirMMr, scil.j9er, Id. ao eomptoi artit aduUeri erinest Hot. Saltare Cychpa; olethmum; 
StUeot a mneta erepat mera, Hor. Vox hominem sonat ; Sudare me/to, Virg. St Xerxet HeUO' 
ponto junctot el Alkont ptrfomj maria ambulaviitet, terramque natngtusetf sc. per Cic. Or when 
they have a kind of active mse; as, Clamare aiiquem nomtne, Virg. Catiere jura; Mttmt 
mortem ; Horret iratum marey Hor. 

Sometimes instead of the accusative, neuter verbs have an ablative ; as. Ire itinere ; dolere doUrtf 
vieem ejtu; gaudere gaudio; mori v. ofrtre morte ; rivere oi/d; 9fdet vtr^gtne, Horat. Ludere aUm 
V. -d; manaret pluere, rordrei ttUlaret sudaref aliquid vel aliquo. £ru6ejcere jura, Virg. origiMt 
Tacit, e^iio ve&s, Curt. 

Obs. 2. Several verbs are used both in an active and neuter sense ; as, 

Abhorrere famam, to dread infamy, Liv. alitibus; luclinare culpam in aliquem, to lay; Hos titse* 
ab uxore ducenda, to 6e (scene from, Id. a meis quar indinat animus, ineUnes; acies indinat, 
moribus abhorret, it inconiittent wUh, Cic. vel inclinatur, givet away, 

Abolere monumenfa viri, to abolish, Virg. illis Laborare arma, to forge ', morbo, a dolore, e 
Cladis Caudin» nondum memoria aboleverat, renibus, to be ill ; de re aliqua, to be am- 
wcu not effaced from, they had not forgotten, cemed. 

Liv. Morari iter, to stop ; in urbe, to stay ; Hoc nihil 

Adolere penates, to bum, to sacrifice to, Virg. moror, I do not mind. 

JEtas adolevit; adolevit ad setalem, Plaut. Properare pecuniam hieredi, Hor. in orbem; ad 

Declinare ictum, to avoid ; loco ; agmen aliquo, unam sedem, Ov. 

to remove. Quadrare acermm, to square, Hor. aliquid ad 
Degenerate animoi, to wetdcen; patri, to de- normam ', alicui, in aliquem, ad muHa, tofi^' 

generate from ; a virtute majoram. Suppeditare copiam dicendi, to fitmiih; SompUB 

Dorare adolescentes labore, to harden ; Res durat Uli« vel in suroptibus, Ter. suppeditat oratkhti 
ad breve tempus, endures; In aedibus durare afforded ; M^oknhift in fundamenta vix sa]^ 
neqneo, slay or remain, Plaut. dit&runt, ti;ere s/ti^JUcienJl, Liv. 

Obs. 3. These accusatives, hoc, id, quid, aiiquid, quicquid, nihil, idem, Ulud, tanium, quanhaih 
multa, pauca, &c. are often joined with neuter verbs, having the prepositions circa or. propter under- 
stood ; as, id iaerumat, id succenset, Ter. 

Obs. 4. The accusative is often understood. Tum prora avertit, sc. se, Virg. Flumina pnecipiteintt 
sc. <e, Id. Qudeunque intenderat, sc. se, turned or directed himself^ Sallust. Obiit sc. mortem, Ter 
Cum faciam vituld, sc. saera, Virg. Or its place supplied by an infinitive or part of a sentence ; 
as, Reddes dxdce loqui, reddes ridtre decorum ; for dulcem sermonem, decorum risum, Hor 

2. Verbs governing the Genitive. 

XXXII. MisereoTj miserescOy aifd saiago^ govern the genitive ; a£, 

Miserere civium tuorum. Pity your countrymen. 

c^#«».-# ........^ -.^^.^ S fle has his hands full at home, or has enough to do about 

SatagU rerum suarum, ^ his own affairs. 

Obs. 1. Several other verbs among the poets govern the genitive by a Greek construction, paf* 
tiottlarly such as signify some affection of the mind ; as, Ango, decipior, desipio, diserucior, excrudS) 
failo & fallor, fmstideo, invideo, kelor, miror, pendeo, sludeo, vcreor ; as, jfe angas ie animi, Plant 
IJaborum dedptttttf Hor. Diserucior animi, Ter. Pendet mihi animus, pendeo animi vel aniffi; 
but we always, say, Pendemus animis, not animorum, are in suspense, Cic. Justitice prius narefi 
Virg. In like maimer, Abstineo, desino, desisto, quiesco, regno; likewise, adipiscor, condico, eredih 
fnutror, funo, Idudo, libero, levo, parlicipo, prohibeo ; as, J^stincto irarum ; Desine querekenMi 
MUmnit populorum, Hor. Desistere pugrne, Virg. Qjjuarum rerum condixit, Liv. 

But all these verbs are for the nost palt differently construed ; thus, Angor, desipio, discrwfsfi 
fallor animo. Hoc animum meum-exeruciai. . Fastidio, miror, vertor aliquem, vel aliquid. UBbif 
aliqudre. Some of them are joined with the infinitive; or with qudd, ut, ne, and the subjunctive. 

Jn like manner we usuallpr say, Desino aliquid, et ab aliquo, to give over ; Desisto incepto, & 
negptio, ab ilia mente; Quteseo a labore; Regnare in equittbus, oppidis, sc. tn, Cic. Pervx^ 
Virg. Adipisci id;Frustrari in re ; Fur ere de aliquo, Cic. 

&s. 2. The genitive after verbs, in the same manner as after adjectives, is governed by fon^ 
tubslandve- understood. This substantive is different according to the different meanhig of Hm 
verbs; thus, Misereor fratrit^ scil. eaus&y Angor animij sdl. dolore or anxieUUe, 



VERBS GOVERNING ONE CASE X4S 

S 4 Verbs governing the Daiwe* 
OlIII. Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which has to^ or fir^ 
it in English ; as, 

Finit vinU imperiot An end is come to the empirei lAv. 

Animus redit. hotiibuSf Courage returns to the enemy, Id. 
Tibi seriSf tibi metis, You sow for yourself, you reap for yourself, Plaui, 

Yon nobis solitm nati tumia, Cic. MuUa maU eveniuni bonis, Id. 
ti eiiam sctleratis. Sen. Hartt ImUri Uihalis earundo, \vrg, 

(XIV. Verbs compounded with satisy bene, and maie^ govern the 

e; as, 

S€U^I^, saHsdo,benefaeie, benedieo, benevolo, maiefacio, mededieo Hbif lie. 

[XV. mmy verbs compounded with these nine prepositions, |»iv^ai^ 
«&, antej oi, tn, inter ^ super ^ govern the dative ; as, 

veecfo, prvMtirrb, pneeo, preuideo, pneluceo, pneniteo, prtulo, preevaleo, prmverto. 

xedo, aeereseo, aeeumbo, acquieseo, adno, adnaio, adeqiato, adhireo, adsto,^ adsHptUor, advohoff 

>, aUabor, aUaboro, annuo, appanto, apptaudo, appropinquo, arrideo, aspiro, assentior, OMtflleo 

assueseo, assurgo. • 

9Uudo, . eoneino, eonsono, eonnvo, 

\ccedo, iuccumbo, si^ffieh, sn^firugor, subereseo, suboleo, sutjaeeo, siubrepo. 

nieeello, anteeo, antesto, anteverto. 

brepo, obludor, ohtreetor, obstrepo, obmurmuro, occumbo, ocevrro, oceurso, obsio, obtisto, 

\i^tmbo, indormio, indubiio, irUttQ, in^emiseo, inh4ereo, insideo, insidior, insto, imisto, intudo, 

invigilo, ilUterymo, ilbtdo, immineo, tmmorior, immoror, impendeo, 

ienemo, intertnieo, intereedo, intercido, itUerjaeeo. 

tfpervemo, supereurro, supersto. But most verbs compounded with SUPER goirera the 

tiire. 

CXVI. Verbs, signifying to profit^ hurt^ favour, assisty commandj obey^ 

resist^ trusty threaten^ and be angry tvithj goveitf^the dative. 

To profit or hurt; bs, 

m, promrn, plaeeo, commodo, promido, eeneo, mttuo, timeo^ eonmiio, for prospido, Likewisei 
(^jfieio, incommodo, dispHceo, insidior. 

To favour or assist, and the contrary; as, 

0, greUulor, gratijieor, grator, ignosco, i$idulgeo, parco, adulor, plaudo, blandior, lenednor, 
assenlor, supparasitor. Likewise, JhaeSUwr, aaminiculor, subvenio, succurro, patrocinor, 
, medicor, opttulor. Likewise, Derogo, detroho, invideo, eemtUor. 

To command and obey, to serve and resist ; as, 

TO, prcBcipio, mandOf moderor, for moduin adhibeo. Likewise, Pareo, ausciUlo,. obedio, 
V, ohtempero, morigero, morigeror, obseeundo. Likewlse,^ Famidor, servio, inservio, minittro, 
\ Likewise, Repugno, obsto, reluctor, rehitor, resisto, refragor, adversor 

To threaten and to be angry ; as, . . 
fr, eomminor, interminor, irascor, succenseo. 
To trust; as, 
1 eonfido, credo J diffido. 

Mse add, JfuJ^o, excello, hoireo, supplico, cedo, despero, operor, prtestolor, pravarieor, rectjpt^y 
mse ; renuncio ; respondeo, to answer or satisfy; tempero, studeo, vaco, to apply; conmeior. 
Jvbeo, juvo, Itedo, and offendo, govern the accusative. 

1. Verbs governing the dative only, are either n^uter verbs, or of a neuter signification, 
verbs governing the dative, have also an accusative expressed or understood. 

2. Most verbs governing the dative only, have been enumerated ; because ftere are a great 
^erbs compounded with prepositions, which do not govern the dative, but are otherwise con- 
: and still more siguifyin^ advantage or disadvantage, &c. which govern the accusative ; asy 
vigo, alo, nuirio, amo, diltgo, vexo, crudo, aversor, &c. aliqium, not alieuk 

3. Many of these verbs are variously construed, partiraMr^ such as. are oompoonded with 
Mition; as, 

i, antecedere, antecellere, praecedere, prsecurrere, prsire^ be. alicui or aliquem, to go befoftt 

xel. ^ 

scere, rei, re, v. in re. Adequitare ports Syracofpi* ^ 

re, mari, v. mare^ to lie near. 

i nafllRis, naves, ad naves, to swim to 

ari el, fmrely eum, to oppose. 

i genibus, genua, ad genua, to fall at one's knees. 

re ei, ad eum, rostra, to fly up to. 

I rei, V. homini ; rem, v. hominem ; aliquid, alicui, to breatho f^pon* 



144 VFtlBS GOVERNING ONE CASE. 




Adoliri ei, V. etim, to JUMtr. Altobi orb ; wmt cjai» Vkg. ad «ita» 

ilpparere ooosulii to attend; ad tottam Jovis ; Reft apparet mUU| igqMttx 

Appcoplaqiiare BritannMB, portaBi ad portam, to appro&dt, 

Congmere alicui, cum re aliqua, inter se, to apte, 

Donunari cunctis oris, Vvy^. in cetera animaha^ to ruU ovtt. Ovid. 

Fidere, conficlere alicui ret, aUqna re, in re, to trud to| or in. 

Ignosccre mihi^ colpe ues^ inihi culpani^ to pardon Me or wy ^buZ/. 

Impendire aliciii, aliqaem^ in aliquem, to hang over. 

Inoessit cura^ cupido, timor ei, eum, v. in eum, semed, 

Incumbere toro; gladium, in gladium, to fall upon; labori, ad iModonif ad studiS} in ittidi 

caram, cogitationeni, &c. to appljf to. 
Indulgere aw:ui, id ei ; nimio ▼ertito, to tndu^ tn, Ter. 
tnhiare auro, bona ejus^ to gap€^ after. Innasci agnsi in agris^ to grow m. 
Insoltare rei et homini, v. bominem ; fores ) patifenttem fgos^ in ndBoicm ejiteyMoi) to maift c 
Inniti rei, re, in re ; in aliquem, to depend on, ^^ 

Latet res mihi, v. me, it unknown to me. Medeari ei; capiditates, to cure, 
jiffinistrare ei, to serve; arma ei| to fumiah. 
Moderari ammo, gentibus : navim^ omnia, to rule. 
Nocere ei, rarely eum^ to Jhiif i Plant. 

ISfubere alicui ; m familiam ; Nupta ei and com cOj to mmr^f Clc 
Ofcffepere ei and eum, to creep ifpon; in animos; ad hooofet. ^ 

Ofttrepere auribns Of uf aures. Obtrectare ei laudibosi ejus, to MnMf /ivai. 
Obambrat sibi yinea ; sol^m, nnbcs, thadee. Palpari alicui mM attqiiMaB. 
Fadsd alicui, cum aliquo ) vitam ab eoj SaU. viUua pro bwdt^ Vlfg. 
PrflBttoiari alurui and aliquem, to wait upon, 
Procfumbere terrs ; genibus ejus, Ovid, ad genua^ Liv, ad pedet^ to fall. 

To these may be i^ded vei^, which, chiefly among the poets, sovern the dative ; but ia pt 
are usually construed with a preposition ; as, 1. Contaidot certOf ieUo, pufnoj etneurrOf eem A 
for eum diquo; 2, Distare^ dusentire, discrepare^ disiidere, djfferre rei abends for d re Mpm, 
also say, Conlendunit pugiumtt distant, &c. inter se ; and cotdendere, pugnare centra and aivt 
aliouem, 

Obs. 4. Many verbs vary both their significatiod and construction ; as, Timeo, metuOf form 
horreo tibif de to, and pnfHe^ 1 am afraid for you, or for your safety ; but timeo, korreo f e, v. ( 
t fear or dread you as an en ^ ^ » -••' • - - .. . «. . _ _!-• 

to desire ; alicui, to favour 

le, I imitate , .^UKulto ft6t, _^ . , _^ _ , , , 

^iBnerO and -of tibi, I lend you on interest ; alts to, 1 borrow ; Metuistif ne non tibi istue faaurt 
' should not return with interest,' or bring usury, Ter. And thus many other verbs, which wil 
afterwards explained. 

Obs. 6. Verbs signifying Motion or Tendency to a thing are construed with the prepofii 
td; as, 

Eoj vadof eurro, propero, festinof pergo, fugiot tendo, vergot inelino, &c. ad locum, ^^ 
hominem. Sometimes, however, in the poets they are construed with the dative ; as, /< cto 
ceelo, for ad aelum, Virg. 

XXXVII. Recordor, memtnt, reminiscorj and obliviscorj govern the acca 
live or genitive ; at^ , 

Reeordor leelionis or todtonem, I jremember the lesson. '^ . 

Obliviscor infuria or injuriam, I forget an injury. *^^ 

Obs. 1. These vetbs are often construed with the infinitive, or some part of a sentence; a% Jft> 
tidere virginemf Ter. Oblitus est, quid paulo ante possuisset, Cic. / * 

Obs. 2. Meminif when it signifies to make mention, is joined with the genitive, or tha itti 
with the preposition de; as, Memini alicuius, vel de aliquo. So recorder, whenit «#i 
meoBect ) as, Velim scire eequid de te rccoraere, Clc. '*.. . . ..w^^i 

4. Verba governing the Ablative. ^■ 

XXXVIII. Verbs of abounding and wanting^ govern the ablativ^:^ 
jometiines the genitive ; as, 

Abundat dUvitiis, He abounds in rfches. 
Caret omni culpa, He has no fault. 

Verbs of plenty are, Mundo, (nffluoj exubirOf redundo, suppeMto^ icfdeo, &c. — of want, €fi 
tgeo, indlgee, voce, deJleioTf destituor, &c. 

Obs. 1. JE^geo and indigee frequently govern the genitive ; as, Egel mris, He needs mon^ J 
JVbit Um arHs mdigtrnt, qwkm kworis, Cic. 

Obs. 2. The ablative after these verbs .is gOvBmed by some prepo^i^on understood; and lO 
tfcnes we find it expressed ; as, Vsteat a dtff§i\m is free from fault, /ip. ' 

XXXI X. Utorj abutorf Jimgorf fruor, potior^ veicoTf and amm odM 
govern the ablative; as, ^at 

Utitur fraude. He uses decaft. . Autiiur Ubrit, He abases bodes. 
^ To these add, gaudeo, ereor, nascor, fid^t fiM^^M^t coitito> M&rof for moto mt-hmbeot to be 
J^amor, ipUhr, nitor, &c. 



f 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE INFINITIVE. 1« 

(Iss. 1. PoUnr often gofnms the genitive; as, Potiri urhit, Sail. And we always say, Potiri nmrnt 
to possess the chief command, never rebut ; imperio being understood. 

Obs. 2. PeHofffkngorf fvtfor, epulor, and paaeor, sometimes have an accnsative; as, Potiri urbem, 
C!c. O^oa fungi, Ter. Munera fun^i^ Tacit. PoKuntur sUvas, Virg. And in ancient writers, 
u/sr, abutor, and fruor; as, C/H conn/iiim. Plant. O^emm abutiturf Ter. Dtpatco and dipatcoTt 
ahnqrs take an accnsative ; as, Deposn/iir or/itf, Virg. 

XL. A verb compounded with a preposition, often governs the case of that 
preposition; as, 

AdtwnuM teholam, Let us go to the school. " 

ExeamuM tchold, Let us go out of the school. 

Obs. 1. The preposition with wliich the won! is compounded, is often repeated ; as, Adire ad 
Kh»Um; Exire tx aehola; JSggredi aliouid, or ad aliqitid; ingredi oraiionemy or in oraHoMm; 
tsAieere mtntv^buid in antmum ; txaatrt undis and ex undis ; decedere de tuo jure-f deccdere vUL 
or de eia; expmfe, ejieere, ez/ermtnare, exlntdere, exturbare urbe, and ex vrbe. Some do not 
repeat die preposition ; as, AUarit aUbfUt, allntrare ali^enif not ad aliqueni. So Alhiert whem, 
Wdkrtfiumln; drcwtuenire oH^fuem; Tprmlerirt inhinam; abdieare se magittraiUf (also abdieart 
wilSabrutym ;) frofiMfueere exttatum Jhtnunh be. Others are only construed with the preposition ; 
n, Jfeeiorere ad ofa'qiieiR, adhwrtari ad aliguid, ineidere in morbumy aroeare a Hudiii, a§eriere ab 
v»upt§tke. 

Smm admit other prepositiont : atfAbire, demigrttre loco ; and a, de, ex hen ; abstrahere ali^em 
•» A,Td e campe c to; DemterB tenieniiAj a vel de tententia ; Exeidere manibuj, de, vel e numiMifi kc. 

On. 2. Some Tcrbs compoonded with e or ex govern either the ablative or accusative ; aS| 

Ijeredi wrbt or vrhetn, sc. extra; egredi extra vallum, Nep. Evndere intidiis, or intidiat, POtnos 
KBcmre murof, Lncao. Seeleraid exeedere terrd, Virg. Elabi ex manibus ; pugnam, tfineula, Tac. 

Ois. 8. This role does not take place, unless when the preposition may be disjoined from the 
vcib^ and put before the noun by itself; as, Alloquor patrem, or loqnor adpatrem. 

The Construction of the Infinitive. 

XIJ. The infinitive mood may be governed by a verb, participle, adjective, 
or noon; as, 

Cupio discere, I desire to learn. 

i Obs. 1. The infinitive is often ^^emed by adjectives ; as, Horalfus est digtiu* legi, Qulnctil. And 
lOBKtimes depends on a substantive ; as, Tempus, eqwCtm fumantia solvere eolla, Virg. 

Obs. 8. The word governing the infinitive is sometimes understood; as, JVene tncep(o ilefailere 
Hcfon, sciT. deeet, or par est, Virg. Videre est, one may see. Dicere non est, scil. copta, or faeuUatt 
Uorat And sometimes the infinitive itKcIf is to be supplied ; as, Socralem fidibus doeidt, scil. 
cmere, Cic. So Discere, scire, Jidibus. 

Obs. 8. The infinitive was not improperly called by the nncients J\''omen verbi, the name or noon 
of tbe verb ; because it is both joined with an adjective like a substantive ; as, Velle tuum euique 
fttf Every one has a will of his own ; and likewise supplies the place of a noun, not only in the 
Qomioative, but also in all the oblique cases ; as, 1. In the nominative, Latrodnari, fraudare^ turpe 
«ff Cic Didicisse fideliter artes emollU mores, Ovid. 2. In the genitive, Peritus cantare for can' 
Mi, or canfiis, Virg. 3. In the dative, Paralvs servire, for urvituti, Sail. 4. In the accusatiTe, 
Ik tnifu fallere, for artem fallendi, iHorat. Q;iiod faciam superest, pneier amare, nUnls Ovid. 
^ la the vocathrc. vivere nostrum, ut non sentientibiu effiuis ! for vita nostra. 6. In the aUatire, 
^^ianu amari, for amorc, or ^t ametur, Virg. 

Obs. 4. Instead of the infinitive, a dificrent construction is often used after verbs of doubUng, 

NtOv^, ordering, fearing, hoping ; in short^ftcr any verb which has a relation to futurity ; as, 

I AiKtef Uafaeere, or more frequently, an, numf or vtrum iiafacturus sit ; Dubitavit anfaceret neene, 

j ^ iubito quin fecerit. Vis me facere, or ut faciam. Metwit tangi, or ne tangatur, Sperote 

. *niftinf«i esse, or fgn ut venias. J^unquam putavi fore ut ad te supplex venirem, Cic. Exittimabant 

MUmm fuiise yi.tfpidiim amitteretur, Cas. 

Obs. 6. To, which in Bnglish is the sign of the iiifiMitlve, is omitted after bid, dme, need, nudte, 

*te, ktar,fee(, and some others ; m, i bid him do it ; and in Latin may often be rendered otherwise 

iWn 1^ the infinitive ; as, I am sent to complain, MUtor questum, or ut querar, &c. Ready to hear, 

Prmmtus ad audiendum ; Time to read, Tempus legendi ; Fit to swim, Aptus natando ; Easy to say, 

I fttiitdkLu; I am to write, Scr^^urus mm; A house to let, or more properly, to be let, Domus 

L foeanda; He was left to guard thc^icity, Relictns est ut iuerelur urbem. 

P ' ' ifc :fkcu8ative before the Infinitive. 

f XLli. Wj^auodj auin, ut, or n6, is omitted in Latin, the word, which 
^ Ironld other^se be in Qie nominative, is put in the accusative, and the verb 
\ hi die infini&ve moot} ; as, 

Gaudeo It valere, I am glad that yoii are well. 
i Obb. 1. The particle that in English, is the sign of the accosattve before the infinitive in Latm, 
wim it comet between two verbs without expressing intention or design. Sometimes the 4[»artic]e 
ii oaitted; ms, Aiunt regem adventare. They saT the king is coming, thai being understood. 

Cte. 8. The accosative before the infinitive alwayB dtpendi upon some other verb, commonly on 
laeiitCTV substantive verb; but seldonron a TWb- taken in an active sense* 



146 CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICIPLES AND GERUNDS. 

Obs. 8. The infinitive, with the accusative before it, teemt sometimes to supply tlie place o 
nominative ; as, Turpe td nnHiem fugert. That a soldier should fly is a shamerul thing. 

Obs. 4. The infinitive tttt or fuuHf must frequently be supplied ; es|)ecially after participl 
aS| Hodium ejtercitum etetum fmwnqut eognorij Cic. Sometimes both the accusative and infiuit 
are understood ; as, PoUieitui ttucepiitrum, scil. me esae, Ter. 

Obs. 6. The infinitive may frequently be otherwise rendered by the conjunctions, quod, t(f, 
or quin ; as, Oaudeo U raUrct i. e. quod valetu, or pnpier litam bontim valeivdmem ; Jubto 
bene eperaret or ut bene tpereHt; Protnbeo eutn exire, or ne exeat; non dubito eum feeitttf or m 
better, quin futril. Seio qmdJUixu amet, Plant, for Jiliuni amare, Miror ti poluUf for e 
pohttMet Cic. JiTemo dubital, tU pojmlus Romanvs omnes rirluie niptrdrit, for popuJvm Roman 
nqtenu$et Nep. Ex anhni urUentia jurof tttego rempublicam uoii dtseram^ for me tiou deaertw 
etse, lav. xxii. 53. 

The Construction op Participles, Gkrunds, and Supineb. 

XLIII. Participles, gerunds, supines, and adverbs, goveri^^e same cs 
as the words froin which they are derived ; as, 

Jimam virlulem, Loving^ virtue. Caretu frmtdef Wanting giiilo. 

Ob8. .1.' Passive participles often govern the dative, particularly when they are used as ad 
tives; as, ' 

Sugpeehu mi'Ai, Suspected by me; Sttmeetiores regibust Sail, invitut mUiif hated by me, 
hateful to aw ; ifuUes intuior, Sam, Occtula, tt maribiu lUfn invua so/um, ied e/tam itiaulUa m 
iiQieeBi Cie. 

EXOSUSt PEROSUSf and often also PERT^.SUS, govern the accusative; as, Tadttt « 
juged§if Ovid. Piebe emmUum tiamen haud seciu quam regitm veroaa eralf Liv. Pertiuut ignat 
tuam; mmei ^ut^ disiileased witli, Suet, vi/ain, weary of, Justus. Uriiatiij Cic. 

VariMit In mJifDUS jmvem the case of their own verbs ; as, Gratulabundus patrue, Just. I 
kundiu eatlra ituMfivm, LIv. So sometimes also nouns ; as, Jxutitia est obtemMratio seriplit Ugi 
Cic. Inndim eotuuH, Sail. Domwn rediiimut epe mMeUd, Cm*. Spedalio ludotf Plaut. 

Obs. 2. ThesA verbs do, reddo, rolo, euro f facto, kabeo, eomperio, with the pei-fect participle, f 
a periphrKsli similar to what we use iii Kngfisb ; aS; Compertum habto, for eomperi, I liave foi 
Siti, liffeetum dabo, for effieiam ; imfentutn tibi curedh, el tulduclum luum PamphUum, i. e. t 
mam et aMceam, Ter. Sometimes the eerund is used with ad ; as, Tradere ei genlei dirij^ien 
or ad dir^^iendum, Cic. Rogo^ acdpio, do aliqidd ittendnm ; or ad utendum; or Misit mi/a lib 
i$g9ndum, or ad legendam, kc. 

Obs. 3. These verbs, euro, habeo, mando, loco, condueo, do, trUmo, mitto, &c. are eleganthr 
strued with the participle in dm instead of the infinitive ; as, Funus faciendum curori, tor fir 
ui fierei ; Columnaa aidificandaa /o«sfi7, Cic. 

The Construction of Gerunds. ' 

Obs. Geitinds are constnied like substantive nouns ; ^s, 

Studendum est mihi, I must study. /tplns stwUndo, Fit for 6tudyui«r. 

Tempua dudendi, Time of study. Scio ttudendum esse mihi, I know that' I must study. 

XLIV. The gerund in dum, of the nominative, with the verb e^t, govc 
the dative ; as, 

Legendwn ed mUti, I must read. Moriendum ed omnibus, All must die. 

So Scio Ufrtiulum ed miUi ; moriendum este omnibw, iuc 

Obs. 1. This gerund always inipoits obligation or necessity; and may be resolved intoo^ 
neceiae ed, or the like, and tlie innnitivo or the subjunctive, with the conjunction nt ; as, Omn 
eat moritHdum, or Omaubua neeeaae at mori, or ut moriantur ; or JVecesM ed ut otutiea moriai 
Conauiendum ed tUri a me, 1 must consult for your euod ; for Ojiorlel ut eonsulam tibi, Cic. 

Obs. 2. The dative is often understood ; as, Orandum ed, ut ail mena aana in eorpore aano,te. 
Juv. Hie viiuendumt aut moriendum, militea^ ed, sc. robis, Liv. Dtliber^dum ed diu, quod « 
endum ed aemel, sc. tibi re/ alieui, P. Syr. 

XLV. The gerund in d*, of the genitive, is governed by nouns, or a^j 
tives; as, 

Tempiu tegendi. Time of reading. Cupidxu diaeendi, Desirous of learning. 
Obs. This gerund is sometunes construed with the genhive plural; as, Ftleallaa agrorum 
donandi, for agroa, Cic. C^pia apuUxndi cometdiarum, for comadiaa, Ter. '8|«| chiefly with 
iMHins ; as, hi cadra venerunt aui purgandi cmiad, Ca». Fedri adhorlandi eamm^}Uw» tjua vid 
cupidua, sc. fmninte, Ter. The gerund here is supposed to govern the genitive witb a substas 
noun. ^^ 

^ XL VI. The gerund in do^ of the dative, is governed by.adjectives i 
mtyitiQ uspfvlnesi^ or fitness^ &c. ; as, 

CliarUL utHia acribendo, Paper useful for writing. 

Obs. 1. Sometimes the adjective is understood ; as, JVon aW aolvenda, idL par, or hdbiUa, 1 
not able to pay. la Jhua canaendo fmdua ed, JAr. 

w 



CONSTRUCTION OF SUPINES. 147 

Obs. 2. This gerund is sometimes governed also by verbs ; as, JMum uribendo^ Cic. 4ft9t 
kAtnio ensem, for wearing, Ftrg. 

^ XLVn. The gerund in dum^ of the accusative, is governed by the prqMr 
udons ad^ oh^ inter^ ante^ propter ; as, 

Promptut ad audiendum, Heady to hear. „.. ^ 

AttenJtw inter doeendunif AttentiTe in time of teaching. 



Cjw. This gerund is also governed by some other prepositions; as, Cirea movendumf 

Or it depends on some verb going before, and then with the verb fise gbvems the dative case ; u , 
StiQ mmendmn esse amnilnaf I know that all must die. Esse is often understood. 

^ELVIII. The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions 
i, ab, de, e, eo?, in ; or without a preposition, as the ablative of cauae^ meanSf 
or manner ;%8, 

Pitna aptecatido ahsUrrett Punishment frightens from sinning. 

Jliemaria excoUndo auf^eiur, The memory is improved by exercising il^ 
Difessus sum ambulando, I am wearied with walking. 

Obs. The gerund in its nature very mudi resembles the infinitive. Hence the one if frequently 
put fiMT the other ; as, Est tempus hgendi, or Itgere : only the ^rund is never joined with aa' aiUec- 
^^ V^ ^ sometimes taken in a passive sense ; as, Cum Tuidum voearetur ad tmpgrgfM h p w , i. c. 
vtipsi imperetwj to receive orders, Sail. Jfunc odes ad imperanditm, vel ad parenium potUu^ Sic 
entm antiqui lofuebtmtwr, Cic. i. e. ut tibi imperelur. Urit videndo, i. e. Aim vtdeiWf Virg. 

Gerunds turned into participles in dus. 

Obs. 1. CSerunds governing the accusative are elegantly turned into participles in dus, whk^i like 
*4jectives, agree with their substantives in gender, number, and case ; as, 

By the Gerund. By the Participle or (Gerundive. 

Pehtnaum est mihi pacemt p T Pax est peHnda miki. 

Tesnpuspetendipacem, C or more ^ Temptu petenda pads. 

M pelendum pacem, C frequently V ^<2;iefen(iam|>aeem. 

j9 petendo pactm^ J ^ A petenda pace. 

Oss. 2. In changing geruuds into participles in dusj the participle and the substantiva V6 always 
to be pot m the same case in which the gerund was ; as, 

^ithre. Jnita sunt comilia urbis dtlendnE, civium trucidandorumf nominit RHnmU extin' 
^€ndi, Cic. 

Dative. Perpeliendo lahori idoneus, Colum. Capessendee reipublic^e habiliSf Tac. Jirea 



tmplis atporticibus suatintndisy Liv. Often ferendo esly sc. aptus v. habilis, Ovid. Jfaha nuscriis 
ferendiif Ter. Littris dandis rigilare, Cic. Locum oppido condenio capere, Liv. 

Ace. and Ablative. Jid defendendam Romam ab oppugnandd Capua duces Romans abstrahertt 
Liv. Orationem Latinam legendis nostris tffieies pltnioremy Cic. 

Obs. 3. The gerunds of verbs which do not govern the accusative, are never changed into the 
participle, except those of medeor, utor, abutofi fnior, fungor, aad potior; as, Spes pofiimdi vrbef 
^^ potiwidte urbis ; but we always say, Cupidus subveniendi tibi, and never tui- 

The Construction op Supinbs. 
1. Tlie Supine in urn. 
XLIX. Tlie supine in t/m, is put after a verb of motion; as, 

Abiit deambulatumf He hath gone to walk. 
So Ducere eofiorles pntdatumy Liv. M'unc venis irrisum dominum f i^uod in rem Uutm sptimum 
faUu arbtlroTi te id admonitum venioj Plant. 
Obs. 1. The supine in um is elesantly joined with the verb eo, to express the significatk» of any 



Obs. 2. Tlic supine in um is put after other verbs besides verbs of motion ; w, Dednt jiMKm 
^'^Ptum; Cantatum provocemus, Ter. Rcvocatus defensum patriam ; Divisit capiat hiematum, Nep. 
^ Obs. 3. The meaning of this supine may be expressed by several other parts of Ae verb ; as, 
'^^nU oratum opem ; or 1. Vejiil opcm orandi eausd, or opis orandoi. 2. Venit ad orandum apem, or 
^ random spem. 3. Venit opi oranda. 4. Venit opem oraturus. 6. Vemt grm, or itf opem ore* 
*• '^enit opem orare. But tlie third and the last of these are seldom used. 

2. The Supine in u, 

li. The supine in u, is put after an adjective ; as, 

Facile dictu, Easy to tell, or to be told. 
. Sa J^ihil didu fdpdum, visuque hose limina tangat; intra fute puer tst, Juv. DiffictUs res tst 
*'**«iifti rertts amicus; Fas v. mjas est dictu ; Opus est scitu, Cic. 



14$ CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES. 

tuBMi etpedallj in old writen, pat after ▼erbs of motion ; as, AVme obaontUu rtdeo, fnm gettia| 
prmwknooM, Pima. Primw aibitu ntrgat, (▼ilUcus) from bed, pottrtmtu cubitfm tatf Cato. 

Om. 2. This iupiiie may be rendered bj the infinitiye, oir |;emnd wMi the prepoiitkNi m; if) 
DMeSe eognUu, tognma^ or oi eo^OMcniium ; IZet faeilu ad eredendim, Cic. 

Qbs. 8. The nqSnet being nothing else but yeibal noons of the fonrth declension) osed ooljr m 
the aocnsative and abhitive singular, are goTemed in these cases by prepositions nnderstood; te 
supine in tun by the preposition ad, and thie supine in u by the preposition in. 

The Constbuction of Circumstances. 

The circumstances, which in Latin are expressed in different cases, are^ 1* Tiie 
Price of a thing. 2. The Catwe, Manner^ and Imtrument. 3. MeoMwrt and 
DUiance. 4. TVnie. 

1, Price. *• \ 

LI. Nouns, signilying the price of a thing, are put in the ablative; as, 

End /tfrnim duobus ambuM, I bought a book for two shillings. v' 

CoruHiii Udenio, It cost a talent. \ 

Sp Jitte ettnum eti ; viU viginti minit; auro venale, &c. JVocet empia dolore vohiptaff Hor. ^^ett^ \ 
pntio noti emaifi, Ter. PkAmi auro vtneunt honoruj Orid. 

51 These genitives, taniij guanUf plurisy minorisy are excepted; as^ 

QiMNiK eoruHHt, How much cost it? .i£gse et pluritf A shilling and more. 

Obs. 1. When the substantive is added, they are put in the ablative; as, pdrw preiuf, impofts^ 
pniio Mfulers,Cic. 

Om. 8. Jlfti^gvM, pirmai^Of parvo, pmiiuh, mtmmo, plvirimot are often used without die sobstatsi- 
tifn ; ••, Permagno emuMiif scil. prmo, Cic. Heu quanio regnit nox stUii una tuiif Ovid. TuM^ 
ii. 812. We also say, JSiiit cari, eomi, eariisimd ; bene, me/tiU, oplimi ; wuiUj pejiu, viHds, vUi uU m^' 
VM% Mvd mtHmoi : Emit domttin prope dimidio eortiU, quikm mtUmabatf Cic. 

Om. 8. The ablative of price is properly governed by the preposition pro understood, which >> 
likswiie sometimes expressed ; as, Dum pro argenteit decern aurout uniu vaieretf Liv. 

2. Manner and Cause. 

Lll. Nouns, signifying the instrumentj cause, means, or manner, are put i-^ 
the ablative ; as, 

Palleo metUf I am pale for fear. 
^ Feeit tuo more. He did it after his own way. 
Scribo calamot I write with a pen. 

So Ardet dolore ; palUseereeulpd; 4tUuare dubitaHone; gettire voluptate vel sceundit rebus : C(^^^ 
feduM morbo; njfeetut beneficiitt gravittimo tupplicio; intignit pietate; deterior lieeniiA: Pieta^^ 
filUitf eontiliis pater, amore f rater; hence Rex Dei gratid. Paritur pax bello, Nep. Proeed^"^^ 
lento gradu; Acceptm regio apparatu .- JV*ti//o eoiio eonvertitur annuiy Juv. Jam veniet taeilo ewr^^ 
seneda pede, Ovid. Pereutere teeuri, defendere taxit, eot{figere sagitlit, &c. 

Obs. 1. llie ablative is hefe governed by some prepositions understood. Before the manner as^V^ 
cause, -the preposition is sometimes expressed; as, De more matntm locuta ett, Virg. Magnoa^^"^ 
metu : Hoc de causa ; Pne marore, formidine, inc. But hardly ever before the instrument ; ^ ^' 
Vulnerare aliquem gladio, not cum gladio: unless among the poets, who sometimes add a or a^^' 
as, Tn^edus ab ense, Ovid. 

Obs. a. When any thing is said to be in company with another, it is called the ablative ^>^ 
Coneomitaney, and has the preposition cum usually added; as, Obsedit curiam cum ttladiu ; Ineresm'^^^ 
ed amgladto, Cic. a > -s 

Obs. 8. Uq^r this rule are comprehended several other circumstances ; as the matter of whi^C=h 
mf lUnf b HfMde, and what is caUed by grammarians the ADJUNCT, that is, a noun in the ablatl -^« 
joined to a verb or adjective, to express the character or quality of the person or thhr spoken i^ ^I 
as, CupUoHtm mxo quadraio eonttrwtum, Liv. Floruit aeumine ingenii, Cic. PoUei ombus, iw-^^ 
armiSfVigdmemoridtfamdnobilisyiu:. ^gerpedibus. When we express, the matter ofwhich a^ 
thing is made, the preposition is usuaUy added; as, Templum de marmore, seldom ^ 

Poewum ex auro factum, Cic. 

3. Measure and Distance. 

UII. Nouns, si^ifying measure, or distance, are put in the accusativi 
sometimes in the ablative ; as, 

MuTus est decern pedes attus. The wall is ten feet high 

Urbs distattrigintamillia, or Iriglnta I «,. .^ . -_^ ^ „ 
millibuspassuumt ] -^"^ ^^^ » thirty mOes distant 

Iter, or itinere unius rfiet, One day's journey. 

Chis. 1. The accusative or ablative of m«»a«ure is put after adjectives and verbs of 
as, Longttt, lohis, crassus, profundus, and iuius: Patet,porrigitur, eiiinet, kc. The nams 



\ \ 

VERBS GOVERNING TWO CASES. 14^\ 

itiu, ulna, pasnu, digUut, an inch ; palmuM, a span, a handfteMuMi, be. The accuMtive ^ 

of distance is used only after verbs which ezpreu motkMi or *' pf ti m*t ; U| ^ emf, ' 

Of &c. The accusative ig governed by ad or per undentood, and tht aUatif* bjmardb. 

Vhen wc express the measure of more things than one, we cooMBonly ute the dntribntiva 

6, Muri tunl deiun pedes alii, and sometimes denHtm pwium, for dmortim, in ths nnilif*, 

t» being understood. But the genitive is only used to «Sjpi«M tfaa mcasore of uiiigt fai 

Aumber. 

^en we express the distance of a place where any thing is doiie» we comaoiily use 

{ ; or the accasative with the preposition ad; as, Sex nUmmpmuitum ab wbt trniMtdUt 

millia passuum, Cow. M quantum mt/^iarium, v. miilian eotuedii, Cie, Ad funUmn 

ep. 

Ihe excess or difference of measure and distance is put la tlM altlathre ; as, 

Am exttdit illud di^ilo. Toto vertice tupra eHf Viff . Brilmmim langUudo ejus latitudmem 

idragiida mUlianbus snperat. 

4. Time. 
Nouns, signifying the time wheuj are put in the ablative ; those, how 
the accusative — sometimes in the abladve ; as, 

Venit hard tertid, He came at three oVlock. 

^n the question is made by Quamdiu f How long ? time is put in the accu- 

iblative, but oftener in the accuiative ; as, 

Mansit paucos dies, He staid a few days. 
Sex mensUnu abfuitf He was away six months. 

iu8y Time when is put in the ablative } time how long is put in the accusative. 

^hen we speak of any precise time, it is put In tlie ablative ; bat when continaaaee of 
ressed, it is put, for the most part, in the accusative. 

Ul tlie circumstances of time are often expressed with a preposition ; as, JnprmsnUUi, or 
I scil. tenure; in vel ad prmsens; Per decern armos; SurgusU de noete, adkammdisii- 
ra ttanuin ; Per idem tempus, ad Kalendas toluturos at/, Suet. The preposition ad of dna 
ss suppressed, as in these expressions, hoe, Ulud, id, isthue mtans, lemporis, heintf Ik. 
te, hoe tempore, &c. And arde or some other word ; as, Annos nattis tmum & viginUf wc. 
H quotannis tributa conferunt sc. tot annis, quot vel qtufiquot sunif Cic. Prope diem, K. 
Oppidum paueis diebus, quibus ed venlum ekj eappugnatvmf sc. post eos dies, Ces. JMe 
n Kalendas Maias aecepi ttuu Uteras, for die tertio ante, €^. ^t dies fuiurus emt in 
^avum KcUendas Jfovembris, Td. Ex atde diem quintum Kal, Odob, Liv. Laeedamonii 
r Jam annos amplius unis moribus et nunquam mutatis legibus vivunt, icjquam per,, Cic. 
rimum stipendiam meruit annorum decern septemque, sc. Atticus; for septemdectm annos 
ntecn years old, A'ep. 

L*he adverb ABHiMV, which is commonly used with respect to past time, is jouied whh 
Ive or ablative without a preposition : bb, factum est abhtnc tnennio or biennium. It was 
ears ago. So likewise are post and ante ; as, Paucos post annos : but here, ea, or id, may 
>od. 

1. Ferbs governing the Accusative and the Genitive. 

V'erbs of accusing^ condemning, admonishing^ and acquitting^ govern 
sative of a person with the genitive of a thing ; as, 

Arf^uil me furli, He accuses me of theft. 

Jileipsnm inertus condemno, I condemn myself of laziness. 

Jllum homicidii absolvunt, 'J'boy acquit him of manslaughter. 

Monet me officii, He admonishes me of my duty. 

of accusing are, Accusoj ago, appeUoj arcessoj inqmro, amtOf depSrOf 
postuloy alUgOy a^tringo; of condemning, Danmo^ condemnOyUffmmo^naiOp 
ing, AhsolvOy libera, purgo ; of admonishing, Moneoy adnumeo^ aammtmrfaeto. 
Jethi of accusing and admonishing, instead of the genitive, fr^uently have after ibm^ 
th the preposition de ; as, Monere aliquem officii, or de qfficio ; Aeeusare oHqWHn /krfi, 

De vi condemnati sunt, Cic. . 

Crimen and caput are put either in the genitive or ablative ; but in the ablat ive nin ally 
preposition ; as, Damnare, postulare, absolvere eum eriminis, ▼. emtis; and«Jrimm«j ^' 
> Absoho me peccato, Liv. And we always say, PUdere, punire oRquem et^^t «« not 
lunish one capitally, or with death. .,,„„ _^ - .. ^ 

Many verbs of accusing, &c. are not construed with the accusative of * P^^"' *J« )°f 
a thing, but the contraiy ; Uius wc say, Oidpa, reprehenda,itia»,J^;;i^^ 
cnminor, excuso, &c. avaritiam alicujus, and not aliqtum mm^- !SJ2^S^^ 
, iitcuso, &c. construed in Uiis manner; as, Aoeusare, ti^^^J* f2!?S!r^fiJSl 
rmcr<ifl,Cic. Culpamareuo,Uy, Vfe say, ^gerett«J»fl*Jt»/*<rt», rather Uiaii«l^ii«t, 

"erbs of \JcusYng and admonishing sometimes ?ov«™J5^..^2?Sl7'i!i!i^'»ij^ 
stud, id, unum, muUa, fcc. as, Monio, aceuso te &^. We faldon tad, hoir^rer, Brr^nm 
>ut erroris or de errorc ; except in old writers, as Plautot. 



150 VERBS GOVERNING TWO CASES. 

LVL Verbs of esteemingy govern the accugative of the person, or thin, 
esteemed, and the genitive of the valne; as, 

JEilimo U magni, I value you much. 

Verbs of valuing are, JEstimOy existimoj ducoy faciOj habeOy pendo, putOj tam^ 
They govern several other genitives; as, tantiy quantij plurisy mqforts, nUnori^^ 
mimmiyphtritm^ maxtrnt, nauciypilij assiSf nihiliy teruncUj kujuM. 

Obs. 1. JEdmo sometines governs the ablative ; as, ^Mno ie tnagtw, permagMf panOf fcil. 
wrUi» : aad also mkih. We likewise say, Pro nihilo, habeo, puto, duco. 

Ob8. 2. JEfid and honi are put in the genitiye after faeio and contulo; at, Hoc eanndo bowMiif 
mqui berdquM faeiOf I take this in good part 

Obs. 8. The genitive after all these verbs is governed by some substantive understood; as, Argu^re 
mkfuem furH^ scil. de arimine furti ; ,SUtimo rem magnif scil. pretii, or pro re niagni preHi; Cowulo 
bono, i. e. itaftie or eensct eue factum, or manut boni viri, or animi ; Monere ciiquem officii, \. e. 
officii cau»Ai ardergor ntgcMo tffitii. 

2. Verht governing the Accusative and the Dative, 
LVII. Verbs otcomparingj giving, declaring, and taking away, govern the 
accusative and dative ; as, . 

Compiro Virgilium Homero, I compare Virgil to Homer. 

Suum cuique tribiiito. Give every one his own. 

JVannof fabulam mirdo. You tell a story to a deaf man. 

Eripuit me morti. He rescued me from death. 

Or rather, — ^Ant active verb mat govern the accusative and the dative, 
(when together with the object of the action, we express the person or thing with 
relation to which it is exerted,) as, 

Legam leetionem tibi, I will read the lesson to yon. Emit Hbrum mihi, He bought a bo<A for 
me. Sic vot non vobisfertis aratra boves, Virg. Paupertas ttepe madet mala homirUbuSf advises men 
to do bad things, Plaut. imperare pecuniam, frumentum, naoet, arma aliquUfiu, to order them (o 
fumiih, C^8. 

Om. 1. Verbs of conmailog and taking away, together with some others, are often construed 
with a preposition ; as, bompmare wtiam rem cum alia, and ad aHam, or eomparare res inter te • 
Erjgpmi me marti, mortct a or ex morte : Mittere epistokan alicui, or ad aliquem ; Intendere tebm 
aUeui, or in aliquem .* Ineidere ari, in tt», or in are ; and so in many others. 

0^8. 2. Several verbs governing the dative and accusative, are construed differently ; as^ 

Oareumdiire mama oppido, or c^fpidum memibut, to surround a city with walls. 

Jnterdudere eommeatum alicui, or aliquem commeaiu, to intercept one*s provbions. 

Donare, prohibere rem alicui, or aliquem re, tp give one a present, to hinder one from a thing. 

Mactare noiliam Deo, or Deum hotttd, to sacrafice. 

Jmpertire taliUem alicui, or aliquem iafvJte, to salute one. 

Interdixit Oalliam Romanit, or Romanoa QalliA, he debarred the Romans from Gaul. 

Indmre, exuere vesfem Hbi, or te ve$te, to put on, to put off one's clothes. 

Levare dolorem aUeui; dolorem alieujus; aliquem dolore, to ease one's distress. 

Jftnori aHiquid alieui, or sometimes, alicui aliquo, Cic. to threaten one with anything; Cetari 
glaiio, Sail. . 

Qratulor tibi ?utnc rem, hoe re, in, pro, and de, hoc re, I congratulate you on this. Mettut Tullo 
devietot hoitet gratulatur, Liv. 

Ratituere aUeui tanitatem, or ali^m tanUati, to restore to health. 

Atipergere labem alicui, or aliquem labe, to put an affront on one ; aram sanguine, litare Dtvm 
taeria, and sacra Deo, to sacrifice. 

EjoBUfore se alicui and apud aliquem, dfi re; valetudinem ei, 

Exprobare mlium ei v. tn eo, to upbraid. 

Oecupare peeuniam alieui and apud aliquem, i. e. pecuniam fanori locare, to place at interest^ Cie* 

Oppanere se morft, and ad mortem; Renunciare id ei, and ad eum, to tell. 

Obs. 3. Verbs signifying motion or tendency to a thing, instead of the dative, have aq aceusatiTe 
after them, with the preposition ad; as, ' 

Porio, faro, le^, -«, proicipito, tollo, (raho, duco, verto, indto, susdto ; also hortor and invito, 
90€o,provoeo, ammo, stisnulo, conformo, laeesao; thus, M laudem milUes hortatur; M pnetorm 
fwmtnem fraxw, Cic. But after several of these verbs, we also find the dative; as, InferreJkoi 

^* A ViJ^'^*^ ^'""ff- tnmlwre aliquem hospUio, or tn hospUium, Cic. 

Obs. * The accusative is sometimes understood ; as, J^ubere alicui, scil. se ; Cedere alieuh ^• 
toeum; Uetraheredluut, scil. laudem ; Jgnoscere alicui, scil. culpam. And in English the panfck 
to IS often omitted; as> DedU mihi librum, He gave me a book, /or to me. 

3, Verbs governing two Accusatives. 

^^*tt* Verbs of ddhing, and teaching, govern two accusatives : the one of 
a person, and the other of a thuig; as, 

P«Mm^ te paeem. We beg peace of thee. 

Dowtt me grammatieam, He tanght me grammar. 



<i 



n 



CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS. ' J51 

Vedbs of asking which govern two accusatives are, RogOy oro^ exaroj obsecro^frccWf 
fOKOy rcpotco, ftagitOy &c. Of teaching, Doceo^ edoceOj dedoceo, erudio. 

Om. 1. Celo likewise governs two accusatives ; as, Celavil me hane rem, He concealed thit matter 
ftoB ne; or otherwise, celarit bane rem mihi, or eelavit me de hoe re. 

On. 8. VertM of aslung and teaching are often construed with a prepofition ; as, Rogare rem ab 
tSfm; Doeert dUquem de re, to inform ; but we do not sav, doeere alimtem de grammoHea, but 



n, tfiifran/tam aliaijus, Erudire aliquem arles, de v. tn re, ad rem. Formare ad studiumf mentem 
itfMu, itudia t^ut. 

Obs. 8. The accusative of the thing is not properly governed by the verb| but by quod ad w 
namdim understood. 

4. Verbs governing the Accusative and the AUatine* 

LIX. Verbs of loadings bindings clothings depriving, and soinfe others, 
govern the accusative and the ablative; as, 

Oturat naves axuo. He loads the ships with gold. 

Verbs of loading are, otiSrOy cunvulo^ premo, opprimoy obruo. Of unloading, Jevo, 

oeoniroy Sec, Of binding, astringOy ligo, aUigo, devincioj impedioj irretiOf iUaqueo, 

^ Of loosing, solvo, exsolvoj libiro, laxo, expedioj &c, 'Of depriving, privOj nudoy 

\ or6o, spoHoy fraudoj enmngo. Of clothing^ vestiOy anticiOf tjuhco^ dngo, tegOy veto, 

cormtOf and calceo. Of unclothing, exuoj discingo, &c. 

Obs. 1. The preposition by which the ablative is governed after these verbs, is sometimes 
*'P''essed ; asy Solvere atiqitem ex caleniM, Cic. Sometimes the ablative is to be supplied ', as, 
^^BMpJBl nmves, sc. viris, waus the ships, Virg. 

. Obs. 2. Several of these verbs likewise govern the ^nitive; hb, Adoletcentem evue temerUoHt 
^""^fUi, Liv. And also vary their construction j as, Indmt, exuU »e wMibw, or testes sibi. 

The Construction of Passive Verbs. 

liX. When a verb in the active voice governs two cases, in the passive it 
retains the latter case; as, 

^censor furti, I am accused of the/t. 

.Virgilius comparatur Homtro, Virgil is compared to Uomer. 

Doeeor grammatieam, I am taught grammar. 

Naxis oneratur auro, The ship is loaded with gold. 

^ 8eio homines aeeusatum iri furti ; Eos ereptum iri morii, morte, a vel ex morie ; p uerot 

^'^vm iri grammaiicam ; rem celatum iri mihi vel me ; me celeUum iri de re, Sic. 
Sometimes the active has three cases, and then the passive has the two last cases ; ai, Bahetur 

Obs. ]. Passive verbs are commonly construed with the ablative and the preposition a; ai, 
. *^ ktttdaris a me, which is equavaJent to Ego laudo te. Virtus dUigUw a nobis; JVm dUigiima 
^l^tem; Omudeo meum factum probari a te, or te probare meum factum. And so almogt all active 
^^^- , Neater and deponent verbs also admit this preposition ; as, Mare a sole eoHucetf Cic. 
^aitsris nan a pemeis interiit. Id. So eadere ab hoste ; Cessare a preliis; Mori ab ense ; Patiffiarmi, 
^ttfct ab oHtfuo, &c. Akio Venire ab hostibus, to be sold ; Vaptdare ab aliquOf ErnUare A vrbe. 
'^"^Ukewise many hctive verbs ; as, Sumere, petere, tollere, pellere, expeetare, emere, kc, ab aUfUO. 

*^ prepositi<m is sometimes understood after passive verbs ; as, Deseror conjuge, Ovid. Desertus 
'^ ic. Of Tacit. TabulA distinguilur undd, qui namgat, sc. ab unda, Is kept from the water by a 

^ preposition PER is also used in the same sense with A ; as, Per me defensa est reovblka, v 
^ **< ; Per me restUutus ; Per me v. a me factum est, Cic. But PER commonly marks the uiBtnmient, 
^S!^ A the principal efficient cause ; as, JRes agUurper ereditores, a rege, sc. a rege vel a legato e/vfy 
^Ftm. i.l. 

^88. 2. Passive verbs sometimes govern the dative, especially among the poets ; as, 
jj^'^que eermtur vJli, for ab ullo, Virg. Vix audior ulli, Ovid. Scriberis VariOf for a Vario, Hor. 
p?jf^ bonis vtris qweruntur, for a mris, Cic. VIDEOR, to seem, always governs the dative ; as, 
l^'^ mUu, Tou seem to me : but we commonly say, Videris a me, Tou are teen by me; although 
^^^ways ; as, Jfulla tuarum audita mihif neque visa sororum, for a me, Vli^. 
^^. 3. Induor, amictot, dngor, aedngor, also exuor, and (Hscingor, are often construed with (he 
^^^■ative, particulari^ among the poets, though we do not find them govemmg two accmatives in 
^^*ctive voice ; as, nuhdtwr vestem or veste. 

^y>t. 4. Neater verbs are for the most part only used impersonally in the paisive voke; uplcss 

#?^ they are joined with a noun of a similar signification to their own ; as, Pugnm fnsgnata est, 

*^* Belhtm jnilitalntur, Horat. Passive impersonal verbs are most commoDly applied either to 



152 CONSTRUCTION OF IMFERSONAL VERBS. 

a Mnltitiide, or to in iadhridiud taken indefinitely ; as, Sialur, fittwr, ewrrihWp muUwr^ venUur^ lie. 
• nokitf mb iiUi, fac We are itandkig, weeping^, Izc. Bene potest vim a mc, vel mb ali^iio» I ot any 
penen may Ufa wiU. Prmflium ed nobU optimd a Deo ; Kedttmattim ed ab ommftus, aU cried out 
afainst it, Cie, 

They also govern the same cases as when used personally; as, Ut majoribus ntiht euturgKiur, 
%d sufplieiun miaermtwrf Cic. Except the accusative ; for in these phrases^ Itvar JUhenatf pugnatwm 
ett bumumt dormUwr Mam noctenh the accusative is not governed by the verb, Imt by tte pcpo- 
sitions mi and per understood. We find, however, Tota miki dormUur hytwu; Jfoctet vigUmiiiitr 
o m mr m ; Oeeonitf ram ab orbe nostra navibus avdetur^ Tacit. 

The Consteuction or Impersonal Vebbs. 

LXI. Impersonal verbs govern the dative ; as, 

Vxpfdit reipublie^, It is profitable for the state. 

Verbs which in the active voice govern only the dative, are used impersonally in the 
passive, and Ukewite govern the dative; as,^ 

FaiHtwr mihi, I am lavouted, and not Ego faveor. So noeetur mihi, impenUur mihi, &c. We 
find, however, H^ee ego mroewrare imperor ; Ego ewr intrideor, for tmpemlur, moidetur tnihi, Hor. 

Obs. 1. These verbs, rotest, eetpitf incipU, aesinit, debet, and eolet, are used impersonally, vrhen 
joined with impersonal verbs; as, 

Jfon potest credi tibi. You cannot be believed ; Mihi wm potest noceri, I cannot be hurt ; Jilegel 
jttamde posse vivi sine virtute, Cic. Per virttUem potest tri ad astro. Miorum katdi el ^mm 
tnoideri solet, The praise and ^lory of others use to be envied, Id. JVeque afortissimis inprmusimo 
gmeri reskti posuy SnUusf . 

Oas. 2. Various verbs lU'e used both personally and impersonally ; as, Venit in mentem mUU hee 
res vel de hoc rCt vel hujus rei, scil. memoriae Ijiis thing came into my mind. Est euiw mihi Aiec 
res vel de hac re. Doleo vel dolet mihi id faetwu esse. 

Obs. 3. The neuter pronoun it is always joined with impersonal verbs in English ; as, It ratni^ 
it skineSf &c. And in the Latin an infinitive is commonly subjoined to impersonal verbs, or the 
suiyunctive with ti/, forming a part of a sentence which may be supposed to supply the place of a 
nonioative ; as, nobis non lieet peceare, the some with^ecea/iim; Omnibus bonis expimt rempubiiami 
esu satvam, i. e. Solus reijtublicse expedit omidbiu boms, Cic. Aecidit, evimt, eontigiif tit ibi esumvs. 
These nominatives, hoc, illud, id, idem, auod, &c. are sometimes joined to impersonal verbs ; as, 
idem mihi lieet, Cic. Eadem lieent, CatuU. 

Obs. 4. The dative is <»ncn understood; as, Fadat quod libel, sc. sibi, Ter. Stal casus renovtare 
omnes, sc. mihi, I am resolved, Virg. 

LXII. Interest and refert require the genitive ; as, 

Interest omnium, It is tlie interest of all. Refert patris, It concerns my father. 
if But meOf tuoy €ua, nostra^ vestra^ are put in the accusative plural neuter^ as; 

JVbn mea refert. It docs not concern mc. 

Obs. 1. Some think mea, tua sua, &c. to be in tlie ablative singular feminine. We say either 
eujtu interest, and quorum interest ; or euja interest, from cujus, -a, -urn, 

Obs. 2. Interest and refert are often joined with these nominatives. Id, hoc, iUud, quid, quod> 
fvihii, &c. also with common nouns ; and with these genitives, Tonti, quanti, magni, pemuigHif 
parvi, pluris; as, Illud mea magtd interest, Cic. Hoc parvi refert. Usque adeo magni refert studnani 
Xncret Incessus in gravida refert, Plai. 

They are frequent^ construed with these ndvetbs, Tantum, quantum, mulium, plus, plurimum, 
tr^finsium, parum, maximd, vehementer, minhnd, &c. as, Faciam, quod inaximi retpublicsB interesse 




natune fines viventi, iic. Hor. Sometimes they are placed absolutely; as, Magtuipere inttresl 
opprimi DolobeUam, It is of great importance, Cic. PermuUwniiUertd, qualis primus aditussit, 
Id. Adeone est fundata leviterMes, ut ubi sim, quam qui sim, magis referat, Liv. Plttrtmifm «rtm 
iattrerit, quUms artibus, out qmhus hunc lu moribus instituas, Juv. 

Obs. 8. The genitive after interest and refert is governed by some substantive understood, widi 
which the possessives mea, tua, sua, &c. likewise agree ; as. Interest Cicetonis, i. e. est inter nego^f^ 
Ciceroms; Refert patris, i. c. refert se h<BC res ad negotio patris. So Interest mea, est internegotia 



mea. 



LXIII. Miseretf pcenitety pudet^ tadety and pigetj goveru'the accusative of a 
person, with the genitive of a thing ; as, 

Miuretmetui, I pity you. . Titdet me vitis, I am weary of life. 

Pcenitet me peceati, 1 repent of my sin. Pudet me culpis, I am ashamed of my fault. 

Obs. 1. The genitive here is properly governed either by negotium understood, or by aotoe 
other substantive of a signification similar to that of the verb with which it is joined; as, misef^ 
me tuif that is, negotium or miseratio tui miseret me. 

Oss. 2. An infinitive or some part of a sentence roav supply the place of the genitive; as, Psmit'i 



it 

'* . 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE NAMES OF PLACES. 155 

ae, or qu9d pecemtrim. The accusative is frequently understood * as, SeeUrumti bene 
cil. noSf Horat. 

Miterei, pmniiet, &c. are sometimes used persHaally, especially when joined with theie 
es, hoe, id, q[Uody 4ic. as, Ipta ttti muerd, Lucr. J^ionnc ktu U pudeni, Xer.. MbU ^umL 
MtttU, faeiaSf for cujus it ptenitere pottitj Cic 
netimes find miserct joined with two accusatiires ; as, MentdenU vicim miteret me, scil. 

or quod adj Ter. 

The preterites of tnueretf pudet, Uedet, and pigei, when used in the passive fonoi gvnm 
cases with the active ; as, Muerilum est me tuantm fortunarum^ Ter. ^e likcwisa find, 

and miseretur used impersonally ; as, MiioretcU me /iit, Ter. Misereaiur te Jftrairum . 
: tuiy neque tuarum liberontm mitereri potest, Cic. 

V, Decety ddectat^juvaty and opartety govern the accusative of a person. 
s in6nitive mood; as, 

Deleetat me ttudere. It delights me to study. 

Non dectt tt rixarif It does not become you to scold. 

• 

These words are sometimes oaed personally; as, P arvmm pmna deeeMf Hor. JSd aHqmdf 
oporteat, etiamti lieeat, Cic. Heee facta ab iUo opartebemt, Ter. 
Dceet b sometimes construed with Uie dative ; as, Jta nobis decet, Ter. 

Oportet b elegantly joined with the subjunctive mode, vt being understood ; as, 
\iqwi eonsidat oportet, Cic. Or with the perfect participle, esse or fuisse behig understood ; 
umcaium oportuU ; masuum oporhtU ; Adolesunti morem geshan opartuity The yoong man 
ve been humoured, Ter, 

Fallit, fugU, praterit, UUet, when used impersonally, also govern the accusative with 
ive ; as, In hgt mdld esse ejusmodi caput, non te faUU ; De Dtonysio fugit me adte mUea 



/ic. 



Attinst, pertinet, and spedat, are construed with ad; M rempubiicam pertinet, me 
, Cic. And so personally, lUe ad me attind, belongs, Ter. Res ad arma speetai, looks, 

c. ' ... 

CONSTEUCTION OP THE NaBIES OF PlACES. 

:ircuinstances of place may be reduced to four particulars. 1. The place 

»r in which. 2. The place whither j or to which, 3. The place whenctj or 

ich. 4. The place hy^ or through which. 

: IN a place is put in the genitive ; unless the noun be of the tlurd decleii8ion« 

i plural number, and then it is expressed in the ablative. 

place is put in the accusative ; From or by a place in the ablative. 

lese cases will be more exactly ascertained by reducing the circumstances of 

particularly questions. 

1. 2%c Pface Where. 

. The n^me of a town, signifying the place wAere, or in whxch^ if it he 

irst or second declension and singular number, is put in the g^tive; 

t be of the third declension, or plural number, it is put in tfaer 

: as, 

VixU Ronue, He lived at Rome. 

Mortuus est Londini, He died at London. 
Habitat Cartfuigine, He dwells at Carthage. 
StMUtU Parims, He studied at Paris. 

When a thing is said to be done, not in the place iUelf but in its neighbourhood, or near 
ays use the preposition ad or apud ; as, jM or dfntd Ttojam, At or near Troy. 
The name of a town, when put in the . ablative, is here governed by the preposition m 
1 ; but if it be in the genitive, we must supply in wbe, or inoppido. Hence, when the 
town is joined with an adjective or common noun, the preposition is generally expressed ^ 
io not say, J^atus est Bonus urbis Celebris : but either Romte in eetebri urbe, or in Romm 
'e, or in Roma celebri wbe, or sometimes Romte celebri urbe. In like manner we nsoally 
tat in urbe Carthagine, with the preposition. We likewise find, Habitat Carthaginif idiich 
les the termination of the ablative when the question b made hyvbif 

2. The Place Whither. 
I. The name of a town, signifying the place wkUher, is put in the 



ve; as, 



Venit Ramam, He came to Rome. 

Profedus est JlthenoM, He went to Atiiens, 



154 ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

' Ob9. 1. We find the datiire also used among the poets, but more seldom ; as, Carthaghd ftiitiftsf 

mUtam, Horat. . ^ „. , , . 

Obs. 2. Names of towns are sometimes put in the accusative after retbt of t^in^ and ^ving) 
where motion to a pUce is hnpUed ; as, RBmamj trot nmticUwn^ The report was earned to RimMi 
Lnr. Hicc nwUiarU domum Alhrndt Id. MtMionam liUrat dtdU, Cic. 

S. The Place Whence. 

LXVII. The name of a towti, signifying the place whence, or through what 
plaeey is put in the ablative ; as, 

Ducemi Corintho, He departed from Corinth. 

Laodiad iter facubatt He went through Laodicea. 

When motion by or through a place is signified, the preposition ptr is commooij used ', at, Pir 
Thebm iter fecU, Nep. 

Damue and Rue. 

XaXVIIL Domus and rus, signifying the place where, are constmed lik« 
the names of towns ; as, 

Manet domij He sUys at home. 

J}omtan revertitur, He returns home. 

Domo areettilus nim, I am called from home. 

yivU rure, or more frequently rurif He lives in the country. 

JUdiU rare, He is returned from the country. 

Abiit nu, He is gone to the country. 

Ob8. 1. Humif milituc, and bellif an likewise construed in the genitive, as names of towns.; thus, 

Domi ei mUituR, or beUi, At home and abroad. Jaeel kumi, He lies on the ground. 

Obs. 2. When Domw is joined with an adjective, we commonly use a preposition ; as. In domo 
patemaf not domi paterruc ; So M domum paiemam : Ex domo pattmd. Unless when it is joined 
with these possessives, Mtu», tuus, suus, noster, vetteff reghUf and alierms; as, Domi mem viont, Cic. 
Begiam domum eomportantf Sail. 

Obs. 3. When domus has another substantive in the genitive after it, the preposition Is sometimes 
used, and sometimes not ; as, Deprehennu est domi, domo, or in domo Cttsaris. 

Obs. 4. To names of countries, provinces, and all othor places, except towns, the preposition is 
commonly added ; as, 

When the question is made by 

Ubi ? J^atus in ftaliot •** Laiio, in iir6e, be. 

Quo ? JibUi in iialiamf in Laiiumy in or ad urbem, &c. 

Unde ? Rediil ex Italia, e Latio, ex urbe, &c. 

Qua ? Transit per ItcUiam, per Laiium, per urbem, inc. 

• 

Obs. 6. A preposition is often added to names of towns; as. In Roma, for Romee; ad Rtnnam, ex 
Roma, &c. 

Ptio always governs the accusative as an active verb without a preposition; as, Petini Egyptvm, 
He went to Egypt. 

Obs. 6. Names of countries, provinces, &c. are sometimes construed without the preposition like 
Mmes of towns ; as, Pompeius Cypri vitus est, Cses. Creidjussit eonsidere Apollo, Vhrg. J^on Lylri^B, 
for in Lybia; rum antd Tyro, for Tyri, Id. Mn. iv. 86. Venit Sardiniam, Cic. Roma, Mimiduevue 
faeinora ejus memorat, Sail. 

The Ablativjb Absolute. 

LXIX. A noun, or pronoun, joined with a participle expressed or under- 
stood, when its case depends on no other word, is put in the ablative 
absolute; as, 

Sole oriente, fugiunt tentbrsB, The sun rising, or while the sun riseth, darkness flies away. 

Cpere peracto, Tudemus, Our work being finished, or when our work is finished, we wiH play. 

So Dominante libidine, temperantise nulliu est locus; Mhil amidtid preestabilius est, except A 
virtute ; OppressA libertate patria, nihil est quod speremus, amplitu; JVb6t7tum vUd vietuqtte fnutato, 
mores muiari civitatum puio, Cic. Parumper silentium et quies fuit, nee Etruseis, nisi a^rmtur, 
pugruan inituris, et dietatore areem Romanam respectante; at ab auguribus, simul aoes rite adsnisistent, 
ex eon^ftosito tolleretur signum, Liv. BeUice, depositis dypeo paulisper et hastd, Mars odes, Ovid 
Fast. iii. 1. 

Obs. 1. This ablative is called Absoltde, because it does not depend upon any other wonl in the 
■entence. 

For if the substantive with which the participle is ioined, be either the nominative to some foUowfaur 
^fb, or be governed by any word going before, then this rule does not take place ; the ablative 
fiSQiiBte is never used, unless when different persons or thmgs are q>oken of; as, MiHteSy hostibus 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 155 

wtut rtdieruni. The soldiers having conquered the enemy) returned. Uottibus viciit, may be 
Rwlerted in dnglish several difi<erent wavs, according to the meaninr of the sentence with which it 
ii Joined ; thus, 1. The enemy eonquertOf or being conauered : S. When or after the enemy it or wom 
amund .* 3. By eonquerinjg the enemy : 4. Upon the aefeat of the enemy, Cc. 

Oii. 2. The perfect participles of deponent verbs are not used in the ablative absolute ; as, Cicero 
haihu hme eofuedit, never hit loeutit. llie participles of common verbs may eiiher agree in case 
wAt the suhstantive before them, like the participles of deponent verbsi or may be pat in the 
sUativ^ absolute, like the participles of passive verbs; as, Romani adepti Itbertalem Jlorueruni ; or, 
ft iMHS y Is6erf <tfe adepid florueruni. But as the participles of common verbs are seldom taken in a 
passive sense, we therefore rarely find them used in the ablative absolute. 

Obs. 8. The participle exittente or exittenlibut, is frequently understood ; as, Cmtare duce, sdl. 
oiiteiile. fits eomuJMnii, scil. exitientibm. Intntd Minervd, sc. exittenie, against the grain ; Croud 
JAiervdy without learning, Hor. Magittrd ae duce naturd; vitit fratrtlnu ; te hortatore; Cmtare 
impiUaoref &c. Sometimes the substantive must be supplied; as, Jxondumcomperto, qttam regionem 
ktkeM petistenif i. e. eum nendwn compertum ettet, Liv. Turn dianum palam faetot sc. negoti^ Id. 
fxeapto quod nen nrntd ettet, emtera Uetut, Hor. Porto quod aieebat, Id. In such examples n^gslie 
mart be understood, or the rest of the sentence considered as the substantive, which perhaps it 
■ore p r o per. Thus we find a verb supply the place of a subsUntive ; as, Vale dido, liaving lakl 
fiuvweil, Ovid, 

Obs. 4. We sometimes find a substantive plural joined with a participle singular ; as, AbKs |Nne- 
loOev Plauit. Jibtente nohit, Ter. We also find the ablative absolute, when it refers to the umM 
pSkioii with the nominative to the verb ; as, me duce ad hvnc votijmem, me milite, vem, Ovid. Amon 
iL 13. 13. X^B/ot fecit te contule fattot, Lucan, v. 384. Populo tpeeUmie fieri eredam, qtncquid 
me eoneeio fatiam, Senec. de. Vit. Beat. c. 20. But examples of this construction rarely occur. 

Obs. 6. The ablative called abtoluU is governed by some preposition understood ; as, a, ab, eum, 
odt^oir vfL. We find the prepositkm sometimes expressed ; as. Cum dOt juvanHbut, Liv. The 
soounative likewise seems sometimes to be used absolutely } as, Femieiota Ubidine pavlitper vmui, 
ufirmiteut nahstm aceutaiver. Sail. Jug. i. 

Obs. 6i The aUnlive absolute may be rendered several difierent ways ; thus, Superbo ^]JE"^^ 

ii the same with eiMn, dum, or quando Superlnu regnabat, Opere peraeto, is the same with rott 

mu peraeiumt or Cum opus ed peraetum. The present participle, when used in the ablative 

wbenimtB^ eosBUion^y ends in e. 
Qbb.7. Iirhm a sobstanUve is joined with a participle *m English Independently in the rest of the 

seatBDC^ it is expreosed in the nominative ; as, Illo detcendentef He descendmg. But thU manner 
of tpBecn is seldoin used except in poetry. 



APPENDIX TO SYNTAX. 



L VAMOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF VEl 



A. 



[The verbs are here placed in the tame order as fai Etjrmolog/J] 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 



SPIEARE ad ^loriam & landem, to mm at ; 
m earimmt <• dutrc to he admUted^ Cic. eilais 
li^^KffiM, to wiA /ar; labori ejus, to fatmtr; 
amorem dictu, te. ei, to infuse, Virg. 

Dmpbbabs sUm de se; saluteniy sahiti, de sa- 
lute, to detpair of. 

h^GhSE alK|ueiD ad alioiii} to tend a$ an 
mmboMtador ; aliquem sibi, to mmke hit Heutenani ; 
pecaDiain aliciu* u e. testasieato rellnquere. 
W. B, Fublice le^caUur hoiuines ; qui iode le^ati 
diamtur : privafim aUegantwr ; unde aUegaU, 

DcLXOABB as alienam fratei« to (sore kun to 
pt^; laborem alteri, to lay upon; aliquid ad 
■liHWiMj t e. in cum transferre, Cic. 

LEVARE asetnm ejus II ei, enm metu, to 



MUX ARE locum, solum, to he hanitked; ali- 
quid aliqua re ; belium |>ro pace, to exekemge ; 
yntt»Bh i> «• sordidam tof am induere, U9, ves- 
tern cum aliquo, Ter. fidem, to break, 

OBNUNTIARE comitiis vd concilio, i. e. 
comitia anspiciis impedire, to hinder, hjf teUvng 
bad omentf and repealing then words alio due ; 
Consuli V. ma^stratui ; i. e. prohibere ne cum 
populo agt^t Cic. 

Pboitontiare pecuniam pro reo, to promise ; 
aliquid edicto, to order; seotentias, to sum up 
the opinions of the senators, Cic. 

IUnuntiare aiiquid, de re, alicui, ad aliquem, 
to tell; consulem, to declare, to name; vitas 
anucitiam ei, to give up; muneri, hospitio, to re- 
fuse ; repudium, to divorce. 

CK!!CUPARE aliquem, to seize; se in aliquo 
negotio, to be emptoyed ; te ad negotium, PtauJt. 
pecuniam alicui, v. apud aliquem grandl fa*nore, 
to give at interest, Cic. occnpat facere bdlum, 
transire in agnim hostium, begins first, antid' 
pates, Liv. 

PfLEoccuPARE saltum, portas CicilisB, to seise 
beforehand, Nep. 

PRJEJUDICARE aliquem, to condemn me 
from the precedent of a former stntence or triaL 
Cic. 

ROGARE aliquem id, & de ea re ; id ab eo ; 
salutem, &.pro salute, Cic. legem, to propose; 
Aettee uri rooas, dicere, to pass it ; militem sa^ 
cramento, to administer the military oath; Roget 
quis .' if any one should ask. Comitia rogandb 
•consulibus, for electing, Liv. 

Abbooabe legem, seldom legi, to disannul a 
iaso, to repeal, or to change in part ; multam, to 
fofte 4# a fine ; imperium ei, to tdte from. 

Abbooarb id sibi, to claim. 

Dbbooabb aliquid legi v. de legej to repeal or 
take away some clause of a law ; lex derogatoiv 
Cie. fidem ei, v. de fide ejus, to hurt one*s credit; 
ex sqoitate; sibi, alicui, to derogate or toAe 

^f09IS, 



Ebooabb pecuniam in dasaeasy in 
U^mAtmrntiyon, 

Ibbooabb mnham ei, to tMiiMe. 

Obbogabb 1^, to enod a new Imo a 
an old. 

. Pbobooabx imperinm, provinciam 
pr^limg ; diem el ad aolvewliiM, to pui 

SuBWWABB aliqoem in looun alterio 
' stiltdt ; legi, to sM a new clause or to j 
pUwe if anethir, 

SFECTARE orientem, ad orienten 
towards; aliquem ex oensu, animnm al 
suo, lohidfuof, 

SUPERARE hostes, to overcame ; n 
pass; superat pars aepti, se. operis, 
GaptiB superavimos nrbi, survived, ¥lr| 

Temperare iras, ventoa^ to wwdenUe 
to ruie; mihi sibi, to restrain, to farhea 
to Koare; cssdibus, a laciymis» to ahdmn 

V ACARE cora, culp&, morbo, BMmcr 
&c. a labore, to be free from; animo, 
be at ease ; philosophis, in v. ad rem, 
to ; vacat locus, is empty ; si vacas v. v 
if you are at leisure. 

VINDICARE mortem ejus, to revi 
interitu, exercitum fame, to free ; id c 
se, to claim; libertatem ejus, to defen 
libertatem, to set at liberty. 

DARE animam, to die ; animos, to en 
manus, to yield ; manum ei, to skdiU han 
jura, to prescribe laws; literas alicui ad 
to give one a letter to carry to dswtke 
fugam, v. se in fugam, in pedes, to ffy 
in fugam, to put to flight; operam, to en 
operam philosophise, Uteris paUratrei 
to; operam honoribus, to seek, Nep. y 
to grant his request, Ter. gemitus» 1 
amplexus, cantus, ruinom, fidem, jiisii 
&c. to groan, weep, embrace, sing, jsm, 
nitores honestos, to give good vouchers 
character, Cic. aliquid mutuum, v. atei 
lend; pecuniam foenori, &collocare,(i 
interest; se alicui ad docendum, Cie. 
suo ingenio, to think much of; se ad a) 
opply to; Me auctoritati sensitiU, to yiei 
lam, scripta foras, to publish, Cic. efii 
perform; senatum, to gtve a hearing ofti 
actionem, to grant leave to prosecute; pn 
to tusnhle headlong; aliquid patemum, t 
one's father; lectos faciendos, to be^ 
Utem secundum aliquem, to determine t 
in favour of one ; aliquem exkio, mo 
letho, rarely lethum alicui, to kill; aliq|i 
dono, V. muneri, to make a present; 
▼Itio, laudi, to accuse, bUane, praise ; p 
si{ffer; nomen mHitisB, v. in nulitiam, to 
seffto be a soldier; se alicui, to be famit 
Ter. Da te mihi hodie, be directed bp 



[OUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF VERBS. 157 



HHen; dbUrioiii, to fur^tt; ciriUtem 
«ne fret rf the cUy ; dicta> to tpeak ; 
iy to impmt on, to duat ; le m vian, 
t a jifwrmjf; viam et, to give piaet ; 
to Mocrifict jtutiee to inteixH ; se tur- 
sike a mabhy appearance ; fundum re/ 
icai, mancipio, to convey ike property 
rani the title to; Vitaqne mancipio 
, omnibus usu, Luar, senroc in qmet- 
gioe up iUtves to be tortured ; prinas, 
be («e. partes) actkmi, to atcribe entry 
Uveryt Cic Dat ei bib«re, Ter. comas 
Fentit, to let them fiaw foate, Vhrg. Da 
>Ihs4 idl ti#) Cic. Ut res «lant se, c» 
; solertem dabo, TU warrant him ex- 

.RE Jndicatitm soliriy to giee tecwfify 
he judge hat determined mall be paid, 

contra aliqoem; ab| cum, v. pro 
ie witht to be of the some party; ju- 
te fiiUno ; in teslentia ; pncto, con- 
cooventis, to etand to, to nuMkemood an 
; re judicatfty to keep to tehatiuu been 
I ; stare, v. constare animo, to be in his 
m Stat per me quo minus pccunia sol- 
t'noi owin^ to me that, &c. multorum 
m Pcsnis victoria sietit, eott, TAw, Mihi 
morbom, desinere, / am resolved, 

B menssBy to stand by; ad mensam, in 

Its ex mnkis rebus, animo et corpore, 
if; secnm, to be consistent with, Cic. 
aUt V. stetit mihi duobus assibus, cost 
constat ei color, his cohwr comes and 



goes; anri ratio constat, the sum is right, Constat, 
impers. // is evident, certain, or agreed on; mihi, 
inter onmes, de hac re. 

ExTARX aquig, to be above, Ovid, ad ifbenio* 
riam posteritatis, to remain, Cic. sepulctora ex- 
tant, Ltr. 

InsTARE victb, to press on the vanfuished; 
rectam viam, to be m the right way; cuimm 
Marti, to make speedily, Virg. instat factum, tn- 
sists that it was done, Ter. 

Obstaae ei, to hinder, 

Prxstare multa, to j^erform; alicui, v. aliqoem 
virtute, to excel; siJentmm ei, to give; aoxOiom, 
to grant, Juv. impensas, to defray ; iter tntum, 
to procure ; se iucolumem, to preserve ; se rlmm, 
t. e. prcbere, exhi|)ere; amorem, v. betttvo- 
lentiam alicui, to ^uw ; culpam, «. damnom, 
i. e. in se transtorre, to take on on^*s. aeif; 
praestabo de me eum facturum, / wUl be a rn war- 
able. In ib rebus repetendis, qu« maac^l 
sunt, is periculnm jodicii prsstare debet, tpA 
se nexu obligaTit, in reeovaring, or in an aettan 
to recover those things whidi are trantfhrMe^ 
the seller ought to fake upon himmf Hbe 
haaard of a trial, de. Jf. B. Tbose tUagt 
were called. Res maadllit, {cmdraeted for voMBOr 
cipii, i. e. quas emptor manu caperet,) the pr^ 
perty of which might be transferred from one 
Reman ciiiMen to another; as houses, lands, 
slaves, &c. ' 

Praestat impers. i. e. t< it better; Frasto esse 
alicui, adv. to be present, to assist ; labri prsstant 
yenales, the booli are ex]^osed to sale, 

ACCUBARE alicui m conytvio, to recline 
near; apud aliquem. Incubare ovte & ova, to 
sit upon; stratis U super strata. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



l£ spem, febrin, ftnem, bonum czitum, 
consuetudinem, voluntatem nocendi ; 
inibus, r. inter mimus, to have; gratiam 

to have a grateful sense of a favour ; 
lo hold a trial; bonorem ei, to honour; 
'o be fond of, Ter. fidem alicui, to trust 
r curam de v. pro eo ; rationem alicu- 
' regard to, to alloiv one to stand candi" 
n office ; rationem, r. rem cum nliquo, 
nness with ; satis, to be satisfied ; ora- 
ncionem ad populum, to make a speech; 
idio, in odium, to hate; ludibrio, to 
igioni, to have a scruple about it ; So, 
s|uidquflB8ttti|.lionori, predae, voluptati,* 
i ; se bene v, ^fraviter, to be well or ill; 
i duriter, to live, Ter. aliquid comper- 
itum, perspectum, explorntum, certnm, 
to, to Jmow for certain ; aliquem con- 
lespicatni, -urn, v, in despicatum, to 
scusatnm, to eoccuse ; susque deque, to 
tgA/ ; Ut res se habot, stands, is; rebus 
•entibns, in this stale of affairs ; Hec 
habui dicere de, &c. Non Imbeo ne- 
bere, quid stm facturus, Cic, Habe 
iS| a form of divorce. 
RS diligentiam, celeritatem, vim, se- 
in aliquem, to use ; in convivium v. 

to admit; remediora vulneri, cnra- 
»rbo, to apply; vinum legrotis, to give; 
ibns, to hear with taste ; cuhnm & pre- 
» i^er, Cic. £xbibere molestiam ali- 
w troMe, 

B legem, to vote for, to pass; rsgcm, 
aliquem salvere, to wish oneheaUk; 



esse bono animo, ke, Uxorem suas res sibi 
habere jussit, divoreedj Cic 

DOCEO te banc real. It de bac re. Ductus, 
ttdj, utriusque linguie ; Lnlbiit & Grvcis Uteris ; 
Latin^; & Gmc^; ad miHtiam. 

MISCERE aliquid alicui, cum aliquo, ad ali- 
quid ; vinum aqn&, Plin, cuncta sanguine, Tadt, 
sacra profanis, Hor. huroana divinis, Uv, 

VIDERE rem v. de re; sibi, de isthoc, to 
take cure of, Ter. plus, to be more wise, Cfc. De 
hoc (u videris, consider, be answerable for, Cic. 
Videor videre, methinks tsee; visus sum audire, 
methought I heard; mihi visus est dicere, he 
seemed; Quid tibi videtur? What think youf 
Si tibi videtur, if you please ; videtur fecisse, 
guilty, Sue'. 

Inviderk honorcm ei, v, honori ejus ; ei, rd 
eum, to envy. 

Providers k, prospicere id, to foresee ; ei, to 
provide for; in posterum ; rei ihimentarisB, rem 
V. de re. 

SEDERE ad dextram ejus ; in equo, to ride ; 
toga bene tedet, fits; Sedet hoc animo, » Jboed, 
Virg. 

AssiDBRX ei; Adherbalem, to sit by^ Sail. 
Assidet insano, is near or Hke to, Hor. 

DissiDXRS com aliquo, to disa^pree, 

IvsiDXRX eqoo, & in equo, to nf «]ton; tocim, 
Im>, in animo, meaoorift, to te ^eo. 

pRSSiPERx urbi, imperio, to eomwumd, Cic 
exercitma, Italiam, 7MI. 

SvPEBSSBRBx laboro, Utibw; pagaoh loqm^ 
to fsrheaTf to give over, 

PENDERE promissis, ab.v. eft «ik|oo» to 



158 VARIOUS SIGNIFICATldN AND CONSTRUCTION OF VEi 



dtpendj dcy ex, ab b in arbore ; Opera pendent 
interrupta, Ktrg. 

Impendet malum nobis, nos, v, in nos, 
ifweaieru. 

SPONDERE & despondere filiam aUcui, to 
beiroih. 

Despovders dommn alienjas sibi, to be sure 
oft Cic. antmo fe -is, to promise, to hope; animum 
& "OS, to despair, Liv. 

Respondere et, literis ejus, hb^ ad h»c, ad 
nomen, to answer; votis ejus, to iotisfy his 
withis; ad spem. 

8UADERE ei pacem, v. de pace ; leg^m, to 
speak in favour of. 

DOLERE casum ejus; de, ab, ex, in, pro, re ; 
dolet mihi cor, v, hoc dolet- cordi meo ; caput 
dolet a sole. 

y.ALERE {pratii apud aliquem, to be in favour 
wUk one; lex valet, is in force ; quid verbum 
▼aleat, non video, ngidfiM ; valet decern talenta, 
or oftener talentis, is vovfth; vale ve/, valeas, 
farewell ; or ironieally, awav with you, 

EMINERE aliqua re, vel in aliqua re, inter 
omnes ; super cetera, lAo. super otrumque, Hor. 
to he eminent, to excel ; ex aqua, v. aquam, super 
tmdas, to be above. Imminere alicui, to har^ 
ooor, to'threaien; in occasionem, exitio alicujus, 
to seek, to waleh for. 

TENERE promissum ; se domi, oppido, cas- 
tris, se. in, to keep ; modum, ordinem, to observe ; 
rem, dicta, lectionem, to understand, to remem- 
ber; lingnam, but not suam, silentium, se in si- 
lentio, to be sUeni ; ora, to keep the eountenance 
jixed; secundum locum imperii, to hold, Nep. 
jura civium, to enjoy, Cic. causam, to gain; 
mare, to be in the open sea, to hold, to be master 
of; terram, portum, mctam, montes, to reach; 
risum, lachrymas, to reUrain : se ab accusando, 
quin accuset, Cic. Ventns tenet, blows; teneri 
legibus, jureinrandoi Ice. to be bound by ; leges 
tenent eum, ouid; teneri la manifesto furto, to 
he seised ; tenet flUMf wnvedU, 

Abstinere roatodtenti t. a, to abstain ; pub- 
lico, to live retiredf Tadt. animum a scelcre, 
egrUm a cibo, to keep from ; jus belli ab aliquo, 



not to treat rigorously, Liv. Id ad me, i 
gionem, &c. pertinet, concerns me ; crin 
pertinet, Cic. But it is not proper to si 
ad me, ad fratrem pertinet, for md fi 
belongs to ; vena ad vel in omnes corpoi 
pertinet, reach. 

SusTiNEBx personam judicis, nomeii 
tAs, to bear the character ; assensionem, 
assensu, to withhold as»mt ; rem in n 
defer. 

MANERE apud aliquem; in castrii 
bem ; in urbe ; proposito, 8eoteQti&, in i 
statu 8UO, &c. adventum hostium, to ex 
promissiS) to dand to, to keep, Virg. Oi 
manet nox, awaits, Horat. Manent 
seoibus, mod6 permaneat studiam & i 
Ctc. Munera vobis certa manent, Viri 

MEREKE laudem; bene, male dc 
stipendia, 'equo, pedibus, to serve as < 
fustuarium, to be bealen to death. 

H^RERE lateri ; tergis, v. in terga 
Liv. curru, Virg. alicui in visceribus, d 
mihi a(|ua, / am in doubt ; Vide, ne ha 
you beial a loss, Cic. 

Adhjerere & adherescere justitise 
rim ; in me. Inhaerere rei, & in re. 

MOVERE castra, to decamp; bella, 
aliquem tribu, to remove a Roman cit\ 
a more honourable to a less honourabh 
senatu, to degrade a senator; risum t 
alicui, to cctuse laughter; stomachum ei, 
Cic. 

FAVETE ore, V9l Unguis, sc. mihi, 
silence, or abstain from words of a bad 

CAVERE aliquid, aliquem, vel ab i 
guard against, to avoid ; alicui^ to prov 
advise a8~a lawyer does his client ; aliqi 
Cic. sibi ab aliquo vel per aliquem de 
to get secvrily on; mihi prsdibus k, chi 
cautum est, I have got security by bail i 
veteranis cautum esse volumus, Cic. Ca 
sc. ne, see you don*i do it ; mihi cavei 
mea cautio est, / must take care. 

CONNIVERE ad fulgura. Suet, to 
hominum sceleribus, to take no notiu o 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 
Verbs in I0> 



FACERE initium, iincm, pausnm, ilnem vitae; 
pacem, amicitiam ; testamentum, nomen, fossam, 
pontem in flumine, in Tiberim, to make ; divortium 
cuin uxore, Cic. bellum regi, JVe/7. se hilarem, to 
show, Ter. se <livitem, miserum, pauperem, to 
pretend, Cic. ses alienum, contraherc, v. conflare, 
to contract debt ; animos, to encourage ; damnum, 
detrimeatum, jacturam, to loose; naufrapiilm, to 
svfftf ; sumptum, to spend; gratum alicui, to 
oblige ; gratiam delicti, to pardon a fault ; gra- 
tiam legis, to dispense with; justa vel fumis 
alicui, to perform one's funeral rites; rem, to nuUce 
an estate; pccuniam, divitias ex metallis; foedus, 
V. inire, icere, ferire, percutere, jungere^ sancire, 
firmare, &<;. to make a league ; moram alicui, to 
delay; verba, to speak; audientiam sibi, Cie. 
negotium, et facessere, to trouble ; aliauid mis- 
sum, to pass over : aliquem missura, to dismiss or 
excuse;, ad aliquid, rarely alicui, to be fit or 
useful; ratom, to ratify; planum, to explain; 
pawun sniatia tnatt ktwum, Nep. stipendiura pe- 
dibus, V. ^vOf & merere, to serve in the army ; 
99erat MMrneiirai, v: rem divinam, to sacrifiot ; 



reura, to impeach; fabulam, carmen, ve 
to wriie a play, &c. copiam consilii ei 
advice; copiam vel potestatem dicend 
to grant leave ; fidem, to procure or gi^ 
periculum, to make trial; potestatem s 
pose himself, Nep. aliquem loquentem, 
to suppose or represent, Cic. piraticam 
to be a pintle ; argentariam, medicinan 
turam, &c. to be an usurer, a physician^ 
suram, to contract a new debt, to disi 
old one, to borrow money at great inti 
cum V. ab aliquo, to side with; contra v. ) 
to oppose; nomen, v. nomina, to Iwrron 
and also, to settle accounts; i. e. ration* 
taruniy se. pecuniarum & expensarum 
conferre ; nomen in litura, to write it wh 
thing was before, Cic. pedem, v. pedei 
the sails, Virg. Fac ita esse, suppose 
obvius fieri alicui, to meet ; ne longum, 
faciam^ nt breve faciam, not to be t^ion 
non facit, tvUl not move, Cic. Fac velli 
AffMie tneio be uniting, Virg. JEn. iv. 
AwTiCKBM aliquem laude, honore, pr 



lOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF VERBS. l59 

spiritos, raperbiam alicajm, to bear^ to Mntetn ; 
aJiquem, consUio, perfidia, to taich; nee te 
Troja capit, Virg, iEdes viz nos capiunty 1^6 
hotue hardly contains tu. Altero oculo capHur, 
blind of one eye; capitur locis, heisdelt^ed 
vnth^Vlrg. ^ 

Agciperx pecuniam, Tulnus, dadem, injurlam 
ab aliqno, to receive; Orbis terraram divHias 
accipere nolo pro patrice caritate, J^ep. binas 
literas eodem ezemplo, two copies of the same 
letter i Cic. clamorem de Socrate, to hear. Id m 
bonam partem, to take in good pari, to vmder-' 
stand in a good sense : omnia ad contomeUami 
aliter, aliorsum, ac, atqae, Ter. nidem v. rode 
donari, to be discharged a* a gladiaior; aliqnen 
bene, v. male, to treat ; eum male acceptiun in 
Midiam hiematum coegit redire, roughly handledf 
Nep, rogationem) to approve the bill; nomeBy t e. 
ad pretendum admittere, to allow to stand mm- 
didate; omen, to etleemgood; satisfactioneBy v. 
excusationem, Gst. Acceptus plebi, apud ptebem, 
pop^ilor. 

CoiiciPKRB verba jnrametiti, to preterike the 
form of an oath ; oonceptis verbis jnrare: inimi- 
citias cum aliqao, to bear emniity to one ; aquam, 
to gather i to form the head of an aqueduetf Fron- 
tinus. 

ExciPERx eum bospitioyto entertain; fngientes, 
to catch ; extremnm spiiitum cognatonim ; san- 
guinem paterd, to keep or gather ; notis, & scri- 
bare, to write in short hand; motus futuroc, to 
perceive : Hos homines ezcipio, I except; virtu- 
tem ezcipit immortalitas ; turbelentior annus ex* 
cepit, succeeded ; sic ezcepit regia Juno, repUed, 
Virg. 

Incipere, occipere, to begin. Percipere ihit- 
tus, to reap, 

Prjeciperb fotura, to foresee; gaudia, spem 
victoriae, to antieipmte; pecnniam motuam, to take 
before the timci Cses. lae^ to ^bry up, Virg. alicut 
id, V. de en re, to order; arlem ei, to teach, 

Recifere aliquidf to reeeite; urbem, to re* 
cover ; eum tectis, to AitorlciR ; se r. pc^dem, to 
retreat ; se domum, to return ; se, mentem, ani- 
mum, to come to one's self agatn, to recover 
spirits ; in se, to take charge ; alicui, to promise ; 
se ad frugera, to amend ; senem sessum, to give 
a seed to, Cic. 

RAPEKE vel trahere in pejorem partem, to 
lake a thing in the worst sense; in jus, to bring 
before a judge; partes inter se, to sAsre, Liv. 
Sub divum, to reveal, Horat. 

UO. 

EXUERE vestes slbi, se vestibus ; jugum sibi, 
se jugo, to cad qff'; 6dem, sacrainentum, to break; 
mentem, to change, Virg. hostem castris, to beat 
from. 

RUERE ad interitum, in ferrum: CMeros. 
Ter. spumas, to drive or lose, Virg. 

LUERE poenas capitis, to svffer ; aes alieooDi 
to pay, Curt, culpamr suam vel alterius, morte, 
sanguine, to expiaie, to atone, Or s^jfer for, 

Fluers amicitias remissioiM qpAs, to drop 
gradually, Cic. "^ 

STATUERE stipendium iis de publico, to tm- 
jpoiid ; exemplum in hominem, vel -ne, to make 
one a public example ; aliquem capita in terraniy 
to set or place, Ter. 

Constituere coloniam, to settle ; agaaen jpaa-' 
lisper, to make, to stop or hatt, StfL In dl|itis,^to 
count on one's fingers, Cic, orhBai. to Mfch Ovid. 
Is hodie venturum ad me oonituf doasum, op* 
pointed, resohed, Ter, Si utOitaa sUakMai» oo». 



f ymmJi, raortc, leto. Sic. to praise, 

c to disgrace, punish. Sic. Ajflfectus 

rbo, weakened. 

ERE bellum, to finish; orationes, to 

Seg, cibum, to chew; argentum, to 

jfel ; also to spend, Cic. cum aliquo de 

lude m bargam; ezercitus hostium, to 

iltenun, Curiatium, to kill, Liv. Qui 

confectis erant, i. e. emeriti, Imd served 

tme, Vyic 

RE animo, to faint ; ab aliquo, to re- 

pus deficit mini vel me, fails; Defici 

tione, inc. to be deprived of. 

IB se vitro, to stain; Infectus, part. 

afectus, adj. not done. luficior, -atus, 

^. 

RE alicui, to fUnder or hurt; Diogeni 

to stand betwixt him and the sun ; auri- 

, to stop or obstruct ; Umbra terras soli 

octem efficit> Cic. 

lERS aliquem exercitui, to set drer. 

alicui, to profit, to do good; in philoso- 

rogressus facere, to make progress. 

RE muros, tenpla, sdcs, rates, res, to 

Dimam, viresy saocios, se, jumenta, to 

recover, 

BBE laboribus, ictlbus, to be able to 
la V. vires alicui, to afford ; Valerius in 
iatioi sufiectus est, was substiluted, Liv. 
tri suffectus, Tacit. Oculos suffecti 
k. igne, sc. secundum, having their eyes 
rftmned, Virg. 
kCBRE alicui, in v. dc aliqua re, to satis- 

promisso, to perform. 
LE aliquem in presceps ; contumelias in 
trow ; fundamenta, & ponere, to lay; 
'lay at dice ; anchoram, to east. 
RE, to add ; oculos alicui rei, to covet ; 
tudiis, to^apply; sacerdotibus creandis, 

BRE se in pedes, v. fugam, to Jly; 
conjecture. 

£ manus ei, to lay on; spem, ardorem, 
•m, pavorem, ancui, to inspire ; admi* 
3ui cuivis ipso aspectu, Xfep. 
RE se hostibus, in v, ad omnes casus, 
or expose; crimen ei, to lay to one's 

fiE tela in hostes, to throw back ; judi- 
to reject ; reui ad senatum, Romam, to 
J ad- Idus Fcbr. to delay, Cic. 
:re ova gailina', to set a lien ; se im- 
ijus, to submit ; testamenta, to forge ; 
ubom ; partes v. species geueribus, ex 
anant, to put or class under; aliquid 
est; libelluin ei, i. e. in manus dare: 
m, to expose ; bona Pompeii v. fortu- 
vel voci ii sub voce prseconis, to expose 
lale, Cic. sub hasta venire, to be sold, 

:re copias v. excrcitum, fluvium, Hel* 
, vel trans fluvium, to transport ; Marius 
i navicula in Africam trajectus est, 
aUed over. Trajectus ferro, pierced. 
£ conjecturam, consilium, dolorem, 
leciinen, spem, sedem, Szc. to guess, 
ieve, fly, essay, hope, sit, &c. augurium, 
im, k, agere, to lake an omen ; exera- 
liquo: locum castris; terram, to aliglU; 
umma, sc. loca, to reach; spolia ex 
to gam, Sail, de republica nihil pnster 
V*fp. magistratum, to rectiee or ett- 
lem Vestalem, to eAovse ; amentiftin. 



160 VARIOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF YEI 



ftMttit, toilet ettdea, wmku, eondittUes^ Cic Cor- 
|Ntf bene cwuthatam, a good eonttUtUionf Id. 

DxBTiTiiBRB aUqaem, to fartakt; tpem, to 
deceive; propoAknm, to give wtr^ Ovid, deos 
p«ct& mercede, to defraud, Uor. 

Institvere aliquem secundam hieredein filioi 
to amrinif Cic. roHegiom labroruni) sacra, to 
inshhUe, tofowtd, PUn. aliquem doctrinfc Gnedt 
literiBi to wjfruel ; naves, to fmildf Ccbs. ser- 
TOONem, to enier vpon. Id. animum ad €0([^tan- 
diMii to tettle; antcquam pro Munena dicefe 
ioilitaov / bi^iiif Cic. 

. PBSnrruxiuE pctitorl, qua actione Ulam uti 
oporteati to preteribe to the pmuulor itohatform 
of ffroeeu he ihould tue, Cic lempuf ei| to deter' 
tmtte* 

BxsrmnERx exnlef ; virgineni suit, to retlore ; 
oppida vicotqae, to repmi: ; aciem inclinatuini to 
rmljf ; pnelinin, to refi^w, Liv. 

»yBtTrruBBB aliquem in locam ejtis, pro 
altero, to mjibUUuU^ or mU in the plaee -of, 
Cic. 

STRUERE epblSM, tofftpttre; intidias, men- 
dacinmy to conln've ; odimBy crimen alicaiy vel in 
aliquem, to roue acvnuf. 

BO. 

SCRIBERE evA. mann, bene, velociter, iepiv- 
.tolam alicui, t, ad allqnem ; beUum, v. de belio ; 
railitei, to enliat ; nippleroentnm militibus, to 
•reentit them; hmredem, to make one hit heir-; 
dicam el, to rotJC an action againd one ; nmn> 
nme,- to give a bill of exdkange ; do rebus suis 
scribi cupivit, Cic, Decemvir legibus scribendis, 
Iav. 

AscRiBERE aliquem civitati, in civitatem, r. -e, 
to make free, 

Desgriberb aliquem, to describe and not to 
name ; partes Italios, necuuiam, populom onlini- 
bas, to diahibutef to iivide ; vectigal civitatibus, 
■i. e. imperare ; jurn, L e. dare v. constituerc ; 
censores binos in sinrnlaa ci^itates, i. c. faccre, 
€ic, 

Ibscribmib litems alicui, to correct a letter; 
librum, to entitle or name ; sdes mercede, to ptU 
a ticket on ene'e haute to let, Ter. 

Probcribbre bona alicujus, redps suas, auc- 
lionem, to piiblidt to be told^ to set to tale; ali- 
quem, to banish, to outlaw. 
• Rescribere alicujuR Uteris v. ad literas, alicui 
ad aliqnid, to write an answer; pecuniam, to pay 
monejf^hjf bill; legiomnn. od equum, to set foot' 
soldiers on horseback, Cns. 

Sdbscribere exemplnm literarum, to tortte 
below; caiisie, to join or take part in an aeeusa' 
tion; Caesaris irae, to favour, Ovid. 

CO. 

DICERE aliquid, r. de aliqua re, ex aliquo 
loco, alicui, ad'v. apud aliquem; in aliquem, 
againtt ; ad aliquid, t») answer to ; sententiam, 
to give an opinion ; jus, to adminitter jut/ice, to 
pronounce lenience ; muktam ei, to amerce or 
fine ; dien ei, to appoint a day for hit trial 6e- 
Jare thepeopU; pnKUoere, tofiXuit eiff; cansam, 
to plead; testimteinm, to give evidence; non 
idem, /o^ut est ac dieere, to harangue, Cic. sacra- 
mento, teldom sacramentum, to take the military. 

Adoicsre aliquid ei, to call out at an auction, 
to teU; servituti, v* in servitutem, to amlence or 
adaudge to ionsfatte ; bona, to give up the goodt 
of the de i to r to the creditor; se alicm, to dwde 
himeeif to Me't eerotee : aves non addiaemnt; v. 
abdizwaM» M« Mrdt did not give a fmmmwbie 



omen ; pretio addictam habere fidem, 
rupl, Cic. 

CoNDiGERE opcram alicui, to proim 
ance; oenam siicui, v. ad cienaro. Is 
tupping with one without intitation, 

Edigerb alicui, to order; delectum,! 
a levy ; prsdam militibus, to promise by 
jusUtium, diem comitiis, vel comitia c 
creandis, to appoint, 

Indigere bellum, justitium, to proel 
legem sibi, to appoivi, Cic. costus in d 
b«monim, to tummon, Liv. indicare, to i 
dictus, an adj. not taid; caus& indicC 
cognitSL condemnari, to be eondemnet 
being heard; me indicente, hiec non 
telHng, Ter. 

IirnBRDicxRS aUcni, aliquid v. a] 
fiocminis vsnm porpiirw, to forbid or dei 
ei aqu& & igne, v. aquam et ignem, d 
male rem serentibus, bonis patemis 
solet, Cie, interdict non poterat sooe 
diteharged the company of, Nep. 

Prjkdicers alicui aliquid, de aliqni 
hac re, taforetel, to forewarn. 

DUCERE in carcerem v. vincula, 
czercitum,to command; spiritum, anima 
to breathe, to live; fossam, murum, a 
make or draw ; bellum, to prolong, alt 
on, Virg. aetatem, diem, to tpend ; u; 
take a wife ; in jus, to summon Itefore 
aliquem, &i vultum alicujns, sere, ex sen 
marmore, &c. to make a statue ; genus, 
V. ex aliquo, to derive ; omnia pro nU 
so ; id laudi, laudem, v. in landem, (i 
Jvnt,) to reckon it a praise to him ; in con 
to vnpute to a consciousneit of guilt ; 
PUn, in crimen, Tacif. centesimas, t 
vel fcDnus centcsiniis, to compute tntoi 
for the hundred a month, or at 12 pei 
annum; binis ccntesirais fbcnerari, to tt 
cent, per annum, Cic. ducerc, longas 
fletum, to draw out, Vir^. ordincs, to b 
rion, Liv. ilia, to pant like a broken-wit\ 
Hor. 

Adducere aliquem in judicium, 
mcum, to bring to a trial; in suspicioi 
ft'ep. arcmn, to draw in; babenas, ; 
the reint. 

CcNDUCERE aliquem ex loco, to conre 
domom, coquos, to hire ; columnam fi 
to engage to make at a certain price ; 
hoc tuie laudi, in v. ad rem, is of adva 

Deducxrk naves, to launch ; classe 
lium, to bring, Nep. equitcs, to make 
Liv. cum domum, to accompany, to ca 
desententia, Cic. coloniamjto transplm 
to drain. 

f)DUCERE sladiam e vagina, to drai 
Italia;, to lead out; copias in aciem, Ci 
to educate, oftener educare; in astra, 
Uor. celo, Virg. 

Inducere tenebras clarissimis rebu; 
on, Cic. animum, v. in antroum, to p&rt 
self; senta pellibns, to cover, Caes. solea! 
V. In pedes, to put on; colorem picturt 
m^, Plin. nomina, to cancel or rau, t 

Obducerb exercitum, to lead againt 
dolori, to blunt it ; sepulchrum sentibus 
' Rbdvgerb aliquem in memoriam all 
alicui aliquid in memoriam, to Ining bat 
rememltrance ; in gratiam cum aliquo, 
ctto. Vallis reducta, retired or /oti;. 

Prodvoxrb teites, to frritig out} 



nous SiONIFlCATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF' VERBS. l6l 



kk jMCtmn, to fnUng, to €m»- 
eai ia lueniein, to defer ; teiroi ▼eiideii< 
rimg to nunfcel. 

rcKRB te a custodibus, to ifeo/ otm^; 
drmo up on thore; cttNini ei & deducervi 
rom; summam, rationes, to redfcoiiy to 
leeoimlt. 

^ERE sibii labore, to Jpore, &c. a caxli- 
orhear ; aurum natb) Virg, 
ESCERE rei alicui, v. re alioua, in v. 
to be aeeustomed; menrem, jJurilnM k, 
wee,Itor. Animis beUa^ Virgr. to tuxuttom. 
isco rei v. re ; iiwuevit hoc me pater, Hor. 
yERE legem, to vote, to decree ; hence 
am. 

;b&b reg^him nomea, to auwme ; socios 
tocietatem soeleris, to duodaie; ritus 
08, to <utopf. 

18CE1UB mortem v. neeem siIn, to kUl 
■; fiigaai tibi, to fiee, liv. 
SRE aliquid ab aliquo, v. apod aUqoem, 
I re, or wiUwut ex : Dcdisoere, to forget 
kath learned; Ediscere, to get i^ heart. 
upERB de palatio, prstidio, ndibas ', m 
uriam, campum; ad aocosandum, ad 
d eztrema, to have recourse to, Cic. 

DO. 
;RE ale&, V. -am, to play at dice ; par 
I even ami odd ; operam, to toje one'* 

»Eitx alicin, ad aliquem : CoUudere ei, 
iUodere ei, eum, in eum, in ea ; id, to 

^ERE ingidias, -iis, ve/ ex, to eicape ; in 
mount : Hec quorsnm eradant, nescio, 
hey will turn out ; clarus evasit, became. 
;R£ multa multis de suo jure, Cic. Bona 
yast lo yieldf whence cessio bonorum; 
;o, de, a, ex loco, v. locum, to give place; 
ta decedere, to die ; foro, to turn bank" 
■reditag cedit mihi, faUs to ; Cedit in 
im, becomes. 

)ERE oppidum,,-do, ad v. in oppidoro, to 
; ad conditioned, to c^ee to ; CJieeroni, 
$, V. ad sententiam ejug, to agree with ; 
)ncm, to go to ; ad rempublicam, to §eiir 
orship, or tfie J^tt public office ; ad ami- 
hilippi, to gain the fiiendtkip of Nep. 
nala hoc mihi accedit etiam, added, Ter. 
:cc8git aetati, Cic. Animi acceggere host!, 
corporis firmitatem plura animi bona 
uit, JVep. 'Accedit plurimum pretio; 
accedit quod, %f*added. 
EDSRE aliciii rei ; aliquem^ rarely alicui, 

DERE ei aliquid &de aliquo ; paulum de 
; tempug ad rem, to grant; aboculig, 
im, in exilium, in hiborna, to retire, to 
naturae, vitii, to die ; in gententiam ejos, 
into one's measures; in conditiones, to 
Liv. 

)ERE transvergum, & latum uDguem, v. 
I re, to depart in the least. 
;epere legi, to give a negative agamsl, 
a law ; pecuniam pro al^uo, to Secopte 
ntercedit mihi tecum amicitia vol inter 
its, be. 

DERE ei, in lecum ejug, to succeed ;Taiaro, 
i ; ad nrbem ; sub prinNtm aciem ; in 
to come to. 

RE alt^, abalto; in terram, to fall; 
mMiI&, in judicio, U litem perdeve, to 
t cause^ to be east; in v. sub ganam, 



ocnlof, potMtalaiB, &c. in moriwa, h incidBM, 
Cic. Non cadit in whnsm boatna neatiri^ it io* 
capable of , €^. Homini lachrymc caduniy qaaii 
puero, gaudio, Ter. 

AccioBRE genibui, v. ad genua, to jW at ; 
aorftMis V. ad anres, to came to; alkoi, caw, 
pnetcr opinionem, to happen; acddit la te isliid 
▼erbum, empties, Ter. 

TENDERE veU, to stretch; inridiai, letiR, 
{>lagag, &c. to lay snares ; arcum, to hefnA; Her, 
cursum, to direct ; ad idtiora, in cmbmi, to mtm 
at ; extra vallum, sc. tabemacuhim, to pMs « 
tent : Manibog tendit diveilere Modoi, trikf Vhrg. 

Attehdo te, Cic. tIbi, PHn. de hac re, ad haac 
rem, to take heed; animum ad rem ; res hoetioaik 
8aU. 

CoKTSHOERS uervof , onnibus neMris, to «Xfrf 
one's self; aliquid ab aliqao, 4o ask emmesdy; 
iuter se ; amori, poet for cum amore, to strtooi 
caugag, sc. inter ge, to compeare, Cic. AKqaid ad 
aliquid, cum aliquo, & alicui. 

CoMPRSHEiTDBRE natuTam remm, to under- 
stand; rem pluribus k. Incalmtioribns verbis, to 
express ; aliquem humanitate, amicitia, to g«iii ; 
rem fictam, to discover. 

IiTTEirDERB animum rei, ad v. in rem, iotipply: 
Intendi animo in rem, Lio. Vooem, nenros, to 
exert ; arcum, to bend ; actiooem, r. Uteos alicvi 
V. iu aliquem, also impiD|;ere, to rotie a law suit 
against one; telum ei, v. m eum, to Aoot at; wul- 
num v. digitum in aliquid, to poml ed ; aliqiio.jp. 
ire, to go to; officia, to overdo, to do most iMtt 
is required, Sail. 

Obtendsre velum rd, v. rem velo, iomter^ to 
veil. 

PENDERE pecuniam, to pay; pcsnas, to suf- 
fer ; id parvi, to value it Httte. 

SugpEMDERE aliquem arbori, de, in, ,v, ex 
arbore, to hasig; expectatioae, vel suspensiun 
detinere, to keep m s uspe n se ; edifiduns, to mreh 
a house ; nago adunco, to sneer at, Horat. 

ABDERE ge Kteris, in literag, to hide orskut%q^ 
one's self amon^ books; se domnm, ms, &c. 
domo, Pvg. in silvas, lenebras, &c. 

CoNDERE urbem, to build ; fimctm, to lay up ; 
in i^rcerem, to vKuprimm ; eaanoMk^ to eomp o at ; 
lumina, to clou, Ov. Jura, to establish; tonft, 
gepulchro, m gepolchro, to bury. 

Dedere se alicui, in ditionem alict^jof^ ad 
aliquem, to surrender : Deditns pneceptori, Ml 
studiis,/ofMl of; vino epolisque, engaged ui, Nep. 
dedh& oper&, on purpose. 

Edere lifairum, & in Incem, to publidi ; ovum, 
to lay; gonos, cantus, risus, gcmitnsy ^estot, 
hinnitum, pugnam, stragem, to sound, wing, lie. 
munus gladiatorium, to exhibitashow of^adut^ 
tors; nomen, to mention; foetus, to bring forth; 
extremum spiritmn, to die; exeropla crudatAs 
in aliquem, to inJHet exemplary torture, 

Obdebs pesgnlnm toHbus, to bolt the door, 

Prodere arcem hostibus, to betray; aliquid 
posterig, v, memoris, to band down; -genus ab 
aliquo, to derive; flaminem, interrcgon, toup' 
point; aliquot di^sttuptin, to jnc<q^» Ter. exem- 
plum, to gwe to posterity, Liv. 

Reddere animum, se sibi, to revive; aniwaw 
V. vitam, to die ; Latin^ verbum verfoo, to /miif> 
late ; maarem, I. e. letorre, to resemble; episto- 
1am alicai,;to ddiver, 

SuBOXBB calear aqoo, to spwr; sptrilus alicui, 
to encourage, 

Crsdbrb rem ; boninl, to believe; «Uq«id 
alicui, to irtitr; pecooiam •^■per iyngr«pliMi, 



Iti2 VARIOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSlBUCTlON OF VEPBS. 



<o Uni Ml band or !nU ; nunoribof credi non 
opoKtet: Itatmie cieda, si, kc. Isuppaae^Clc, 

FUNDERE aquam, to pour out; bostes, to 
••oaf. 

Eftuxoxbe fhigM, copiam oratorum, to pro- 
diuo; ■rarittiui to spend; odium, I. e. dimittere, 
to drip ; gntiam coiiectam, i. e. pcrdere : oimua> 
qua tacuomt, to tell. 

GO. 

JDZIGERE so cum aliquo,aUcui, & adaliqiMUy 
dtMtioimitOMtrm ; eqnos currui; amnem poutCy to 
nmtomkndgt- 

. AojiiattXBB acoeBsiooem adibof i to buUd an 
addilimn to one** Howe ; animum ad studiai to 



^^OTttN^ 



(GERE cultnuDi gladhimi ensem, to 
dram; fnodeSf to lop qjf; glaiidest baccasy to 
beat down; rcmi to vmde one's fortune, Hor. 
Uttus, to touch, to brush or grose tqnmt Virg. 

TANOERE rem acu, to hit the naU on the 
head. 

Attingsbx Brittaniam navflniiy to readi; re- 
ges, res summas, to menlton, Nep. Aliquem cog- 
natioiMi affinitatey to be rekuA to; forumy to 
reach mianhood, Ck. Res Don to atUngit, concerns. 
• JINGERE oratMMem, to polish ; oratorem, to 
•ftrm; te ad arbitrium alterius, to adopt : Vultus 
a^mente ingitur, lingua fingit vocemy Cic. Sui 
e wqae mores finguai fortuuamy A'ep. 

FRANGERE nucem, to break; uavem, to suf- 
Jer shifwreck ; foedus, fidem, to violate ; sentea- 
tiam ems, to refute, Cic. Lostem, to subdue. 

AGERE gratias, to give tfiatUcs; vitam, to live; 
pnsdafi to vlunder; fabulaju, to act a play; 
triumphum de aliquo, ex aliqua re, to iriumpli ; 
Dogasy to tr\flie; ambogesyto beat about the bush; 
stationcm, custodiam urbiv, to be on guard ; ri- 
mas, to c/Mb, to leak, to be rent; causam, to 
plead; dc roy to speak; radiceiiy to take root; 
.coniculoey to undermine; undam, to raise a steam; 
auimamy to be at the last gasp ; alias resy to be 
inattentive; festom diem, uatalem, ferias, &c. 
to keepf to observe; actum, v. reni actam, to laitour 
in vasn; censuuiy &t habere, to make a review of 
'the people, mait estates, &c. forum, to hold a court 
to try causes; lege in aliquemy & cum aliquoy to 
go to law u/Uh one ; hence actory a plaintiff; ua 
Liereditatemy to claim ; cum populo, to treat with, 
to lay before) decimum agit annumy he is ten 
years old; id agitur, that is the auestian; libertas 
agitur, V. de libertate, is at stake ; actum est de 
libcrtatey is lost; actum est iiicety all is over; 
actum est de pace, was treated aiioul ; cum illo 
bene actum est, he has beett lucky or well used; 
boc age, mind what you are about : Civitas Ista 
agere, for erat. Sail. 

Adigere mUites sacramento, ad r. in jusju- 
nmdum, in sua verba, per Jusjurandumy to /oree 
to enlist; arbitrum, i. e. agere v. cogere aliquem 
ad arbitrum, to force to swfmit to an arbitratioin, 
Ck. 

Cogere copias, to bring together; ad militiamy 
to force to enlist ;^ senatum, to assemble ; in sena- 
tum, sc. miais pignoribus captls, &c. to force to 
attend; agmen, to rally, to bring up; lac, to 
curdle ; jus ciriie diffusum b dissipatum, iacerta 
genera cogeroy to digest, to arrange. 

ExioERx foras, to drwe out, to divorce; aliqoid 
ab aliquo, to require; sarta tccta, jc. et, i. e. sarta 
et tecta, ot sint bene reparata, to require that the 
public works be kept in good vwtratton, Cic. sup- 
plicium de aliquo, to inflict; sua nomina, to 
demand or call in on/t's debts; mwum, vitaiti, 



annosy to ^pend; aliquid ad iionMBh to fry or 
exawt>ie;co hmm a itt adpeipendl ca iM D yte<]»p^ 
the plummet, to su if U be straight; nMsnu- 
mentunty to finish, Hor. tempas b asedi uny /« 
settle. Virg. comflediamy to dise^pprove, toMss efff, 
Ter: 

Redigsrb aliquid in memoriam alicujusy te 
bring back; peeunimn ex bonk venditisy to raise 
mon^ ; bostes sub imperiumy to recbifle. 

LEGERE oramy Itttus, to coeaiidong: Ycla, 
to furl the saHs ; halitum, to eatak ont^s breath; 
milites, to. enlist ; aliquem in aenatamy in Patres, 
to choose; sacray to steal, to comsttil saenlegct 
Hor. 

HO. 

TRAHERE obsidionem, beUum, to prolong- 
purpurasy to* spin; aliquid in religi^Miu, t» 
scruple ; navem renralco, to tow. 

Detraberb aliquemy to draw dawn ; dicui vd 
de aliquo, de famay to detraetfrotn, to lesson oneU 
fame ; aliquid aUcul, to take Ay force; Imdca, 
V. de laudibus : novem partes mulUe, to ttkifhm 
the fine, Nep. 

ExTRAHERE diom. Iff spin out, to ^ftnd; ee^ 
tamen, bellum, judicium, to prolong. 

VEHERE, vefacnsy invehensy invectas conn^ 
quadrigisy Uc. riding in a charitd ; invefai m fss' 
tum ex altoy to enter; in idiquem, to ms«ig^ 
against; provehi loagii^, to proceed too for. 

LO. 

CONSULERE reo^ v. de le, to consult about, 
eum. ta^ ask his advice ; ei, to consult for hii 
good; de salute sua; gravius in aliquem, tepea 
a severe serdenu agmmst ; in commune, pubUcum, 
medium, to proviae for the common good; verbs 
boniy to take in good part; ego consulory my air 
vice is oAed; auhi coosulitur, my good ii eon- 
suited ; mihi consaltiiB ac provuum est, jor a 
moy Ihaxe taken care, Gk. 

AFFELLERE classe in Ualiiuny vd dasaesB, 
to land on; se aliqu^ Tor, ad villam nostram 
navis appelletury Ctc. animiim ad pUkMopliiim 
to apply. 

AJNTECELLERE eiy rarely earn: ezodlefe 
aliisy MpCTy intery prster alios aliqua rey «.iDre, 
toexceir 

TOLLERE animos suosy to take eowroge, 
aaimos aUcuiy to encourage ; aliqaem landibiuif 
& laades ejus in astra, to extol; indnciayy to break 
a truce; damores, to cry; fiUuaiy to edueete; 
devele medio, to kill. 

MO. 

ADIMERE elates uxori, to divoree ; aaniilun 
V. equum equiti, to take away from m kmg^ '^ ' 
ring or horse given him by the pubHe, to digroM- 

DiRiMBRE Htemy controversiaTOy to ii elOTWtf ' 

EuMkRE diquem servitioy ndx» e vinoelii) * 
culpa, de numero pfoscriptomniy obsSdioae, <* 
,free; de dolio, to draw out; diem dicemloy i» 
waste in speaking. 

Ikterimere se, to kill. 

Redimere captivosy to ransom; pecuarit de 
censoribus, to loie or ^brvi the public pas(»ei. 

SUMERE in aianiis; diem, tempos ad deli- 
berandum; exem|dnm exy v. de eo, to <fl^' 
pcenas, supplidum de aliquo, to pwush; pecu- 
nias mutuas, to borrow; togam virdem, topid9» 
the dress of a man; sibi inimicitiasy to ed ^ 
will; operam in ref veZ In rem Insumerey to Mi^ 
pains ; sumo tantumy vel hoc mihiy / tote) ^ 
upon me. 

PREMERE caieamy to make ehiose; f«c?> 
to be silent; dolorem cerdey to conceal; mf^ 



iOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF VCBBS. 168 



lUow; littqty to €ome near; pollkeiii» 
^iadiator; libmm ia nonum annunii to 
Uiftingf Hor. 

JERE succum, tomrets otU ; risum alicui ; 
ab aliquo, to /oree from ; effigieu, to 
t lift; verbttin verbo, de vertx), e veiix>i 
1, de GrsBcisy &c. to tramUUt l»>rd for 

ERS aliqoid animo, in aifiniO) v, in ani- 

;ekb fe> b reprendere v. retlnerei to 

NO. ^ 
IE spem in homine i;.' re, & habere ; 
pitch ; vitem, to plant ; vitam, to dU ; 
\f ; insidias aliciu ; panem convivis, not 
Bonam amici, to lay ande the character 
i ; prsmia, to propose; pocula, to ttake 
idium, tempus, multum Opens in aliqua 
loy, to bestoiff: aliqoid in laude, in vitiis, 
neficii) to reckon ; ferocia corda, to lay 
iquem in gpratiam v. gfratia, i. e. efficere 
I apud olterum, Cic, ventos, to cairn ; 
coloribus, saxo, to painty engrave^ Hor. 
. in fcetiorc, to lay out at inierett ; tem- 
Ud, Virg. Venti- possuere, are hudiedf 
me 6886 victum eum, Ter, Poiitum sit, 
yant, Cic. 

HERE carmen, literas, &c. to compose ; 
'.tile; bellum, tofiniA by treaty; parva 
licta cum facUs, to compare; mauus 
to join, Virg. 

ERE r. ponere togam preteztam, to lay 
dress of a boy ; imperium in demittere, 
on a command. 

ERE rem, to eel forth or expUdn ; fru- 
to expose to sale, Cic pueros, fcetus, to 
etish, Liv. exercitum, se, in terram, to 

SRf onus alicui v. in aliquem : aliquem 
, to set upon; personani v. partes du« 
to lay a task or duty on, one ; alicui, to 
;, to deceive, Nep. hoaorem ei, to confer; 
am ei, to force to gite bail, Nep. manum 
V. extremam rei alicui, in aliqua re, to 
•ontem flumini, to make a brufgCf Curt, 
libet inierponere, to insert, Nep. 
KKE 8e periculis & ad perkula, to ex- 
^nori, to pledge; manum fronti, ante 
• put, Ovid. 

NERE aliquid sibi facere, exempla ei ad 
in, to proj^ose, to set before; edicta, 
publicum, 1. e. public^ legenda effigerc : 
.m, to promise a largess, a gift of com 

f 

!fER£ ova gallins, to set a hen; teste- 
V. subjicere, to forge. 
jkE aliquem, to praise; signa, etassi- 
Uicum, i. 6. ad arma conclamare, to 
I, alarm, to give the signal for battle; 
rarely um, to sound a retreat; tibia, to 
he pipe; ad tibiam, to sing to it; pali- 
to utter a recantation. 
NERE lectos, to spread or cover the 
equos, to harness; viam, to pave; 
calm, Virg. 

PO. 
ERE agmen, to cutcff the rear; som- 
tera, to sleep; viam, iter, to go, Virg. 
terius, to censure; labores, virtutes, to 
or obscure, Hor. 

ERE fidem, foodus, atnidtiam, to tio- 
cm V. silentiom, to ^^eakf Virg, 



Erumpbbx ez tenebris, caitris, kc we portls, 
to break out; stomacfaom in «liqiieiB» to vent 
passion ; nubem, to break, Virg, 

RO. 
QUi£R£RE booam, gratiam wU^ toiedk or 
gain, Cic. senkkonam, to beat about f or CMiwrM- 
t%an, Xer. rem mercaturis fademdiSy to tiifljbf a 
fortune by merchandise ; ex afiqnoy %t Id riliiiimn, 
de re aliqua per toraenta, to put ia tiu radt, 
in dominum de serro qoaui nolneniiift Boamii, 
Cic. 

IffODiRKRX aliquid, to sear^ ^P^i ■UqMto 
capitis, V. -te, to accuse or ifjfftr a eapiiai crime. 

GERERE resy to perform) nefotinan maSk, to 
manage; consulatum, to hear', to mosMtge; se 
. bene vel nudk, to Itehave ; exercitum, to conduct, 
Sallust. morem ei, vel morigerari, to ktamwr; 
civem, se pro cive, personam alictgus, to pan far, 
to bear the character of; iniodcitias vel simulfateni 
cum aliquo, to be at enmity or varianu viith. 

Ikgerbrk convida ei, in eum, to im^dglh 
against. 

SuGOERERE aliquid ei, to tumest, to hisU; 
sumptus his rebus, to supply or e^jSrd; IJoraidum 
Bruto, to choose in place of, to put afticr, Uv. 

SERERE crimina in eum, to rout, to ^preotf 
accusations. 

CoNSERERE oianus, inand, cerfamen, pagtmm, 
. cum ho8tibu8, inter se, to engage. 

AssERERE aliquid, to ajmn; aliqoem manu, 
ab injuria, in libertatem, to free ; in servitutem, 
to reduce ; divinam majestatem, to dahn. 

TO. 

PETERE aliquid alicui ; id ab eo, rarely eum ; 
iu benefidi gratiseque loco, Cic. to oak; oribem 
Roinam, moram, montes, to gp to, to wike for ; 
aliquem tagittl^ lapide/ iaofi^at; omulatiim 
pffinas ab aliquo, repetere, to ^gumsh, 

CoMFkTERE animo, to be tn omie*a sentet; io 
eum competit actio, an action liee against lam, 
Cic. 

Repeter£ res,- to demand restitution; bona 
lege. V. prosequi Ute, to recover bp law; castra, 
oppidum, hue, to retym to ; aliqiiid memori&, to 
call to mind; ahk, to trace fiam the hegjaamg. 
Mihi nihil suppetit, mulU supp^Umty / haxe ; si 
vita suppetet, t/ life shall romaen, Cic 

MITTERE alicui, v. ad aliquem; ui tuffragia, 
to Hnd the people to vote ; aulseum, mappam, to 
drop the curtain; talos, to throw the dice ; • sena- 
tum, to dismiss; timorem, to lay aside ; in acta, 
to reftister, to record.; sanguinem, vel emitterei to 
let Mood; nosam, to forgive ; signa timoriSf to 
show; Tocem, to utter, to speak; habenas, v. ve- 
toi^re, to sladken; manu, et ^mklere/ tofru a 
slave J fifium, emancipare, to free a son from the 
power of his father ; sub jugum, to wkoke to pa«/ 
under the yoke; inferias toanibus dlls, to sacrifice 
to the infernal gods ; irem, v. de re. to omit ; mitto 
rem, / say no&iTig of fortune, Ter. in posses- 
sionem bonorum, io gwe the potsemon qf Ike 
debtors effects; misit orare, ttt veanrem; i. .e. 
Aliquem ad orandum, Ter» 

Amitterb liteiA, v. canaj^; vHam, sedeu) 
luniiua, aspectum, lo lose, Cic, 

Adhitters in cubic^um, to admit ; equum 
immittere, & permittere, to gaOop; delictum in 
se, to conunit a fault ; wee non admisenmt, Aore 
not given a favourable omen, Liy. 

CoMMiTTXRE faduus, to commit; se alicui, v. 
in fidem aliayusi to mstrust; pndhna, to engage ; 
exerciCtini jMgamflttm. in casmn andpitis eveiuAs 
preeliij ionAa hat^; JAr, iv. 27. aliquem 



164 VARIOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OP VERBS. 



aliqoDi homines inter •<»> to m/ ol varianee or bjf 
ifu tan; rem eo, to Invng thai to pan; gladintores, 
pugUeS) Grecoo com Latinby to wudeh or pair; 
committere> iit| to eauae; incommoda sua legibus 
& judteiis, to uek redmt bif law. 

C^OHFROMiTTXEB. Candulati compromuerunif 
H. 8. qaingenis in singulos apud M. Catonem 
depositis, petere ejus arbitratUi ut qui contra 
fecissety ab eo condemnaretury made a compro' 
nUae or agrumtnif &c. 

DiMrrrEKE ezercitumy to duband; uxorem, U 
repodiare, nuutium v. repudium ad earn reinlt- 
tere, to divorce, 

Pbomittebx id ei, to prwmite ; capillumy bar^ 
bami to iet grow, Liv. 

Peru rrTBRB alicui, to allow ; divis cietera, to 
/save, Horat. se in fiidem v. fide! ejus; tela 
ventis ; equum in hostem ; rem suffiragiis populi, 
to let the people decide; tribunatum vezaindis 
consulibus, to give up, to employ, Lit. 

RxMiTTSRE animum, to eate ; calces, tela, to 
throw back ; ex pecunia, de supplicio, tributo, 
Itc. to abate; debitwui iras alicui, to give up, to 
fargwe ; justitium, to diieoiniimiA ; pugnam, to 
<todcen ; remittit ezplorare, negUett, SiQlust 

SuBioTTBiUB fasces populo, to lower; se v. 
animum, to submit, to humble; percossores alicui, 
to wbem auoMains, 

TKAwmrmRB in Africam, neut. to pau over, 

VEBTERE in fbgam, to put to JHghi; terga, 
to Jlp; ab imo, to overthrow; solum, to go Siio 
banuhment; id ei vitio, v. crimini, & in crimen, 
to blame; in superbiam, to impute; Platonem, 
Latini Gneca, Grssca vel ex Gmsds in Latinum, 
to tranilate ; poUicem, to doom m gladiat&r to 
death bjf turning up the thumb ; terran^ toplouf^; 
crateram, to effuMfy, Virg. Stilum, to correct, 
Horat. Salus vel causa in eo vertitur, depends; 
ibrtuna verterat, Lxv. Annus yertens, awAoie year^ 
Nep. Res bene vertat, Di bene vertant, prosper. 

Arimadterterk id, to observe ; in eum ver- 
beribus, morte, &c. to punish, 

Adverterb agmen urbi, to bring up to, Virg. 
orasi to arrive at; aures, mentes, animum v, 
animo ad aliquid, monitis, to attend to; in aUquem, 
oftener animadTertere, to punish. 



AiiTBVERTERB ei, to «MRe bcf Oft ; dsuDBna- 
tionem veneno, to prevent; rem rei, to prefer, 
Plant. 

IivTBRVERTBRE pocuniam alicnjus, b afiqaem 
peconift, to embesade, to dual ; canddabmm, to 
steal, to pilfer; promissum h. receptnm, se,- Do* 
lobcAse consulatum intenrertit, ad seque transtn- 
lit, treacheroudy withheld, Cic. 

Prjeterterb, & -ti, dep. ventos corsu, to out' 
strip ; desiderium plebis, to prevent ; metnm sup- 
pHcii morte voluntari&, lAv. Aliqoid alicui rei, to 
pui before,' Id. 

8ISni*£RE Tadimonium ; le m judido, to ap^ 
pear in eeurt at one*s trial; nee sisti posse, ner 
could the state be saved, Liv. 

AssisTERE ei, to jfoniC by; md fores; contra> 
super eum. 

CoNsiSTERB in digitos, to stand on Hptoe ; isa 
anchoris, ad anchoram, to ride atandkor; fri- 
gore, to be froeen, Ovid. Spes in velis consiste- 
bat, depenSkd on; virtus m actione consistit, 
Cic, 

IvsisTBRB jacentibus, to stand upon; vestii^ 
ejus ; viam, v. vift ; in re ali4|ua, in rem, «. rei ; 
in dolos, negotinm, to innd upon^ to urge, 
Plant. 
Obsistere ei, to sti^, to oppose, 
Rbsisterb ei, to resist, 
SuBsisTERE, to stand still; somptui, to bear. 

VO. 
SOLVERE pecuniam ei, to pay; versnri, ie 
pay a debt by b o rrow ing from amSher, Ter. Fi- 
dem, to break a promise, or according to pthen, 
toperform, Ter. And. IV. 1. 19. Htem aestimatssB, 
to pay the fine imposed on Mm, Nep. Votam, to 
dischirge ; obsidi<niem urbis, v. urbem obsidioiie, 
to raise a siege; navem e pcnrtu, to setsaU; Cipii- 
tolam, V. resignare, to break open; aliquem le^- 
bus, legum vinculis, to free from; sfdvitor m 
somnos, Virg. Oratio sofuta, i. e. libera, numeni 
non astricta k. devicta, jircMe ; solve metus, du- 
miss, Virg. 

DissoLYBRX societatem,'to break, 
Rbsolybrb vocem, v. ora, to break silence, 
Virg. jura, to violate ; vectigtd, to take ((fftaxest 
Tacit. In pulverem, to reduce to 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



AUDIRK aliquem, aliquid ex v. ab aliquo, to 
hear from one; de aliquo, about one,, also from 
one, as, sspe boc audivi de patre, for ex patre, 
Cie, Audire bene v. mal^ apud socios, ab omni- 
bus, to be well spoken of, to have a good charac- 
ter; rexque paterque audisti, have been adled, 
Hor. AJitigonus credit de suo adventu esse 
aoditum, JVep. 

VENQIE ad finem, aures, pactionem, certa- 
men, manus, nibilum, &c. in suspicionem, odium, 
gratiam, &c. in jus, to eo to Imo, Liv. in circu- 
lum, into a eomnany, Nep. Hsreditas ei venit, 
he has succeeded to an ettate ; ei usu venit, hap- 
pened, Nep. Quod in bnccam venerit, scribito, 
occurs, Cic. 

Advehirs & adventare ei, urbem, ad nrbem, 
to come to. 

Ahtbvbnire aliquem, et antevertei^, SaU. rei, 
Plaut. tempus, consilia et itinera. 

CoirvENiRE in coHoquium; fratrevi, to meet 
with, to speak to; ego et frater conveniemus,copie 



convenient, will meet together; convenit mihi 
cum fratre de bac re, inter me et fratrem, inter 
nos ; bsc fratri mecum conveniunt, / and mjl 
brother are agreed; s»vis inter se convenit um 
Juv. Ipsi secum non convenit, vel ipse, he is in- 
consistent ; pax convenit, vd cooventa est, it 
agreed^ upon; rem conventuram pntamus, Cic. 
conditiones non convenerunt ; mores conveniont; 
agree ; caloei pedibus v, ad pedes conveniuot,^! 
suit; hoc in ilium convenit. Cadlinam interiec- 
tum esse convenit, ought to have been stain, Cic. 
Convenire in manum, the usual form ofmmrimt 
named Coemptio, whereby teamen were eeued 
matres-famllias. 

SENTIRE sonorem, colorem, &c. toperceae; 
cum aliquo, to be of one's opinion; bene vd 
melk de eo, to think well or Utefhkn, 

CoNSENTiRE tibi tecum, inter se ; alicui rei, ^ 
V. in aliqua re ; ad alicniid peragJmdum,toaH|rB< 
So dissentire ; et ab siUqno, fodMome; ne fil» 
orauom dissentiat, Seme, 



VARIOUS SIGNIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF VERBS. 165 

DEPONENT VERBS. 



PROFITERI philosophiam, to profeu, to Uaeh 
^wUrfy; ae candidatum, to declare himtelf a 
rtHJini efor an qfflee ; pcconias, agros, nonmia, 
fcc apod caaaoruDi to give an account of, to de- 
dmt\&m miicA on£ has; indicium^ ta promise to 
mAt a Useobery. 

UXmi cum aliquo, inter se, sometimes alicui, 
U f . apud aliquem ; aliquid, de aliqua re. 

SEQuI leras; sectam Cctarity to be of his 
imtgf CIc. Anequi, coosequi, to owriake; ^io- 
riuBi if aUain. Coiuaqui luBreditatem,logtl,.Cto. 



PaosEqui aliquem amore, laudibus, &c. to lave, 
praise, &c. 

Nin hastt; in cubituni,/o lean; ejus consOio, 
eo, to dqiend on; ad glonam, ad v. in smnma, 
to aim at ; in ▼etituniy in advenum, contra 
aliquem, pro aliquoi to strive; gradibnii to 
asund. 

Un eo famUiariter, to be familiar with 
one; ventis adversis, to have have cross winds; 
honore usin, one who has enjoyed a post of 
honour. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



£S8£ magni roboris, v. -no -re ; ejuf oplni- 
wm, 0. en opinione ; in maxima gpe : in timore) 
InetOy opfelotWi itinere, &c. cmn tdo, in vel com 
ioperio; macno periculo, v. in pericido ; in tuto ; 
ipod we,inms senses; sui juris, v, mandpiii sui 
polois, r. in ina poteitate, to be at his oion dis- 
jMri : Res est in vado, is safe, Ter. Est animus, 
K,mtif I lutveamindfVlrg. Est ut, cur, quamo- 
bnm, quod, quin, &c. There is cause; bene, male 
at nihi, vnm me ; nihU est mihi tecum, / have 
mtkm^ to do with you: Quid est tibi, se. rei, 
fHiat u the matter with you? Ter. Cemere 
cnt, one $mght see ; religio est mihi id facere, / 
tcnjple todoii; tA est, ut facere vclit, ut facturus 
lit, at admiserit, be. for si velit, &c. Ter. Est 
ut firo vir latins ordinet arbusta sulcis, it hap- 
Jieu, Hor. Certum est facere, se. mihi, / am 
resstsed, T6r. Non certum est, quid faciam, / 
em imeertotm, Id. Cassins qnnre re solebat, Cui 
Boito ruxRiT : Omnibus bono fuit, it was ofaA- 
vsR/fl^jCic. 

Adessb pngnae, in pugna, ad ezercitum, ad 
tempwy in tempore, cum aliquo, to be present : 
•Gcni, to favour, to assist; scribendo, r. esse ad 
wribendnm, to subscribe one's name to a decree 
of the senate, Cic. consilio utrique, to be a coun- 
*tUor to, Nep. 

Abessk domo, urbe, a domo, ab signis, to be 
fibtent; alicvi, v. deesse, to be wanting, not to 
etsist; a sole, to stand out of the sun; sumptus 
Aineri defnit, he had not money to bury him, Liv. 
Abette a persona principis, to be inconsistent with 
^ character, Nep. Paulum v. parum abfuit quin 
QH)em caperent, quin occideretur, be. they were 
tcflr taking, &lc. Tantum abest nc enervetur 
^tio, ut, £c. if so far from being, &c. Cic. Tan- 
ttim abfuit a cupiditate pecunise, a societate 

•ceteris, &c. Aep. 
Ihtebesse convivio, v. in convivio, to be at a 

ftad; anni decern interfnerent, intervened; stulto 

iQleOigens quid interest, Ter, Hoc dominus, & 

l>Wer interest id. Inter hominem & belluam hoc 

interest, Cic. difer m this, this is the difference; 

>>Hdtum interest, utrum, it is of great importance. 

3^ons inter eos interest, is between, Cic 
P&Bxssx exerdtoi, to eomanimd; comitiis, 

Jttdicio, qocstioiii, to preside in or at. 
Obssse ei, to kmi, to hinder. 
SupEBXssx, to be over and above ; alicui, to 

survive; modo vita supersit, se. mihi, if iUve; 

*Qpcr est, ut, it remains, that. 

IRE ad arma, ad saf^, to go to wtar; in jus, to 

^toUm; pedibus in sententiam alicuju8,to agree 

^^&k; Viam r. vift ; res bene eunt, Cic. TempoSf 

^itt, mensis H, passes. 

Abies magistratu, to lay down an ojfee, a 

^^^MpoctDi to Tfftre from eompanff. Id cm 1»- 



minmn, to be in every body*s mouth; ab emptione, 
to retract his bargain; decern menses abiemnt, 
have past, Ter. mn hoc tibi sic abibit,'i. e. non 
feres hoc impune, Ter. Abi in malam rem, a 
form of imprecation. 

AoiRB periculum capitis, to run the hagard of 
one*s life. 

ExiRE yitSL, e, v. de vita, to die ; tare alieno, 
Cie. Verbum exit ex ore, li. tela, to avoid, Vwg. 
Tempus indudarum cum Vejenti populo exierat, 
had expired, Liv. 

Inirx magistratum; suflragium, rationem, 
consilium, pugnam, viam, &c. to enter upon, to 
begin ; pratiam ejus, apvid eum, cum vet ab eo, 
to gmn his favour : Ineunte sstate^ ▼ei'c,' aono, 
&c. in the oeginning of; but we seldom say, In- 
eunte die, nocte, uc. Ab ineunte state, from 
oisr early years. 

Obibb diem edicti, vel auctionis ; judicium, va* 
dimonium, to be present at ; provinciam, domos 
nostras, to' vutt, to go throu^, Cic. negotia, res, 
mnnns, oflkdom, legationem, sacra, to perform ; 
pugnas, Virg. mortem, vet mort^^ diemsupre- 
mum V. diem, to die. *' 

P&siRE alicui, to go before ; verba, carmen, 
vel sacramentnm alicui, to repeat or read over 
before; alicui voce, quid judicet, to prescribe of 
direct by crying, Cic. 

Prooibb in publicum, to go abroad; mm pne- 
terit te, you are not ignorant, Cic. Dies induci- 
arum prsteriit, if past, Nep. 

Rbdire in gratiam cum aliquo, to become 
friends again ; ad se, to come to himself, to re- 
cover his senses. 

Subire mnrum, vel -o, ad montes, to come up 
to; laborem vel -i, onus, posnam, periculum, 
crimen, to undergo ; spes, timor subitt aaimwn, 
came into. 

VELLE aliquem, sc. alloqui vel conventum, to 
desire to meak with; alicui, ejus causa, to wish 
one*s good; tibi consultmn vmo; nihil tibi ne- 
gatum volo, / wish to deny, Liv. Quid sibi vult > 
What does he meanf Volo te hoc facere, hoc a 
te fieri : si quid recte curatum velis ; illos mooi- 
tos etiam atque etiam volo, sc. esse, IwiU ad^ 
monish them agmn and again, Cic. noUem ftic- 
tnm, / am sorry it was done; nollem hue exitma, 
je esse a me, / wiih I had not come out here, 
Tot. 

FERRE legem, to propose or make; privil^i- 
um de aliquo, to propose or pass an act of im" 
peaehment agednst one,Cie. rog^onsmsApopa- 
lum, to bring in a bill; conditiones ei, to q^er 
terms; sufflragium, to vote; sententiam, to give 
an opinion; centinriam, tribum, to gedn the vote 
of; perdere, to lose it ; victoriam ex eo ; omne 
pnnciEiuD, omnia suffiragia, to gain all the votes ; 



166 



FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 



tvpnlsAm, to he reeded : fractum hoc fnictf, to 
reapt Ter. tethiun de re» to rejotee ; pr» se, to 
prtttnd w detUtre operdjf; alienam penonnm, to 
tU^ruite one*s self; . m ocolisi to be fond of, Ter. . 
i^anusy in jmelia, to engage, Virg. acceptum et 
cspeofunii to mark dawn at rueived and tpent 
Of U1U9 ae J}r, and Cr. CSc. anjnnis, opinio fert, 
ineftncff ; tempufy res, causa fert, allowi, reawres, 

Covr^ARB benerolfntiain aHcai> in vet erga 
Qliquemy to thew ; beneficiay culpam in eini, to 
confoTj to ktjf ; operam, tempus, studiii'M, ad vei 
i» mm, & Impenderei to appty ; capl'A inter se, 
consilia f luii to lay their headt together, to eon- 
*^> iigna, arniay maniw, to engage i omne bel« 
hxm cirai CoT HBthu m, JVep. pedem, to wet foot to 
fifii; rationefly to eatt up aeonuUi: cutra caitrii, 
to woamp over agamd one mmiktr; le io, vel 
m4 aiben, to go to; tributa, to pay; te alicui, 
vei cam aliqnoy to compare ; neminrai cam illo 
confe r en du ra pietate potO) Cic, Hiec coaferunt 
ad aliqnid ; oratori futurO| etrve^ are useful' fo, 
<|ainct 

OirsRSE tipilamvel sitellam, to bring tlie 
badiot bo* ; aliqyid ad aliquem, to carry wmrd, io 
tell; rarely alkcui ; caosam ad patrooos ; honores 
el ; gabemacula rei publiciB in eum ; f ommam 
verum ad eum> to confer ; in beneficii? ad sra- 
rianiy to rtcommend for a public scrvjcef Cic. 
■QqiiiBni 9oi|iltft9| de ambitu, nomcn alicajus ad 
pnet o re TO iapo^ magittratumi to aceute of bribery; 
primati ee, pfrtes e\$ to give hhtk tkfi prefercnee, 
Cic. 

DiTFERBX vel transferre rem io ^nnnm ; poft 
bellumi diem 8ohitioDi8| to jnA tff; |rnmoreS| to 

i ; a]b fdiqoo, alici|i, mter M| moribasi to 

in character; amore, cupiditatep dokw^ui, 
ri, to be didrofted or torn aaimdert Cic. b 
Tcr. 

Effbriik frugeSf to produce ; verbai to utter ; 
▼erbom de verbo ezpressum, to trandate, Ter. 
ped^ doroo, to go out; corpus amfdo ftmere, it. 




ctim funerey to bury; ad honorem, ad cortnm 
lau<libu8, to raite, to extol; foras peccatam, to 
dirulge. 

Inferbe bellam patria ; vim, manos, necem 
alicui, to 6rtng upon ; ngnn, se, pedem> to ad- 
vance; litem rel periculnm capitis alicai, vel in 
aliquem, to bring one to a trial for MtUfe. 

Offerre se mortiy ad mortem, in diacrimepy 
to, expotCi to present. 

pERFSRRE legem, to earr;y throwh, topau ii^ 

Prjeferbx lacem ei, to carry before ; saluteaa 
ei reipublioB nSs commodis, & anteferre, ante- 
ponere, to pr^hr. Prelatus eqno, riding before . 

PROFERRB u upei Ju m, pomcerium, terroinos, to 
enlarge; in nediam, in apertam, in lacem, to 
publuh ; nupttai diem, to delay; diem Illo, to 
defer the destruction of Hor. 

Referre alicui, to anstoer; te, gradun r. 
pcdem, to retreat ; gratiam alicuiy to ntake a re- 
quital ; par pari, Ter. Tictoriam ab, vel ef. all- 
qpo, et reportarc, to gain ; institutdm, to renetc; 
judicia ad equestrem ordinem, to reaiore to the 
EquHes the right of judging; aliquid, de aliqua 
re, ad senatum, ad consilium, ad f apientes, ad 
popalom, to lay brfore; aliquid in tabulam, codi> 
ceip, album, commentarium, lie. to mark down; 
aliquid acceptum alicui, if, in acoqptum, /o ire. 
knowledge one** self indebted; peconias acccptM 
& espensafl ; nomina vel smnmaf ir| epdjpem ar- 
cepti et expensi, to mark d^wnaeeaimtsi flieooi 
mores ad suos, to judge of by; in v. Imer tsntr 
rarios, to reduce to theunoesl tUus; in npmenmi 
deorum, in vei inter deot, & reponere, to rank 
am^ng; pugnas, res g^tas, to relate; patrem 
ore, to resemble; amissos colores, to r«fsm, 
Horat. 

Traitsferre nttiones in tabulas, to pod entt 
booksf state accounts: in Latinam linguam, ts 
tranUate; Tcrba, to uie metaphorically ; culpam 
in eum U rejicere, to togr the blame on him. 



n. FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 

A figure is a manner of qpeaking diffcrpnt from the ordinai:y and plain way^ used 
for the sake of l)eauty or force. 

The figures of Syntax or Construction may be reduced fo these threc^ EOiptUj 
FUonoMiy Biid Hifperbdton. 

The two first respect the constituent parts of a sentence 5 the Host respects only the 
arrangement of the words. 

1. Eli^ifsis. 

ELLIPSIS is when one or more words are wanting to complete lli« sense; as, Akmt, 
ferunty dicunty perhibenty scil. homines; Dicmihty DanuBtOy cuJHmpecus; that is, 
Die (tu) niihiy DcanoEtay (eum hominemj cujum peats ; (est hoc pecus.) Aberant 
aduiy setter vel itinere. Decies sesterttum, sc. centerta miUia. Qtdd nmUa? sc. 
dicam, AnHyuum ohtinesy sc. morcm, v. institutumy Plaut. Hodie in ludum occm 
ire Uterariimy temas jam scioy sc. UteraSy i. e. AMO, Id. Triduo fibs te nuUat 
acceperamy sc. literasy i. e. epistolamy Cic. Brevi dicam sc. sermone: So CfmpHecH, 
respondercy &c. breve. Dii n^UorOy sc. faciant : Rhodum voloy inde AthenaSy sc. 
irty Id. BeUicumy v. classicum canerey sc. signum, Liv. Civicd donqtus^ sc. corond: 
So obsiditmtdemy muraJem adfphtSj &c. Id. Epiitola Ubrarii manuesty sc. stripto, 
Cic 

^^en a conjunction is to be supplied, it is called Asyndeton; as, Detts optimt 
mttximuSf sc. ei; Sartwn tectumy cohservarey i. e. sartufn et tectum; S(K4biity exeef 
sit, eotuie, erupity C^c. Ferie ciH flammtfSy date vekty impdUte remosy Virg. VeHf 
laHsyScseu. 

To ^8 figure may be reduced most x>f those Irregularities in Syntax, as they are 



FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 167 



calied, which are variously classed by grammarians, under the names of Enall&os, 
i. e. the changing of words and their accidents, or the putting of one word for another ; 
Antiptosis, i. e. the putting of one case for another ; Hellenism or Giuecism, i. e. 
[ imitating the construction of the Greeks ; Stncsis, i. e. referring the construcdim, not 
to the gender or number of the word, but to the sense, &c. thus, Samnitium duo nuUid 
coti, is, Duo miUia Hiominum) Samnitium (fuerunt homines) cobm, Li v. So Sermtia 
immemoresj Liv. monstrum qua, scil. mulier, Hor. Sceh» qui^ sc. homo^ Ter. 
Omua Mercurio similisj scil. secundum, Virg, Musi magnis de rebuM uterque^ legati ; 
i*e.ilfim legati (et) uterque (legatus missus) de magnis rebuSy Horat. Sermtia 
rtfuiiabai cujusy scil. servitii, SaU. Cat, 51. FamiUa nostra^ quorum, &c, sc. 
hommmH, Sail. Concursui popuUj mirantium, Liv. Ilhtm ut mvat optaniy for ut 
tife vivaif Ter; Popubtm me regem, for regnantemj Yirg. Expediti militumj for 
mi7ttet/ Cktssis stahat Khegiiy for ad Rhegiumy \iv* Latium Capuaque agro 
4Kftaf», 8C hominesy Id. Utraque formoswy sc. muMereSf Ovid. Aperite afiquis 
ottku^ Ter. Sensit delapsusy for delapsum, sc. se esse, Yirg. 

Wfioi a writer frequently uses the Ellipsis, his style is said to be elliptical or 
coQcise. 

2. Pleonasm. ^'^' *J * 

PLEONASM is when a word more is added than is absolutely necessary to expres* 
the sense ; as. Video oculisy I see with my eyes ; Sic ore Jocuta est ; adest prasens : 
Nusqumm gentium ^ vivere vitam; servire servitutem ; QuidmiM Celsus agitf Fac 
lite ttf 9ciamy isc, Suo sibi gladio kunc juguhy Ten Suo sihi succe vivant^ 
Plant. 

Wb^ a conjunction is iised apparently redundant, it is called Polystnp^ton ; as, 
tXna EnruBque Notusque ruunty Yirg. 

When diat which is in reality one, is so expressed as if there were two, it is caUed 
Revdiadys; as, Pateris lihamus et aurOj for aureis paterisp Yirg. 

When several words are used to exprem one things it is called PERtPHRASis ; as, 
Urbs TrojcBj for Trq^a, Yirg. Ret ffchptatem^ for pob^atesy Plant, tlsuf pur- 
puraruMy for purpura; Genus pisdumj forpisces; Fhres rosarum^ for rosa, Hor. 

3. Htperbatojt. 

HYPERBATON is the transgression of that order or arrangement of words whicli 
is commonly used in any language. It b chiefly to be met with among the poets. The 
various sorts into which it is divided, ^x^jAnnstHipikefHysieronprot^ron, HypallagSy 
SyncMsiSy Tmesisy and Parenthesis, 

1. Anastrophe is the inversion of words, or the placing of that word last which 
should be first ; as, Italiam contra ; His accensa super ; Spemque metumque inter 
dubii; for contra ItaHamy super hisy inter spemy &c. Yirg. Terram sol fadt are, 
^arefacity Lucret. 

2. HYSTeaoN protcron is when that is put in the former part of the sentence, 
whichy according to the sense, should be in the latter ; as, Valet atque mpU^ for vivit 
otque valety Ter. 

3. Hyp ALLEGE is the exchanging of cases ; as, Dare classibus austros, for disre 
classes austrisy Yirg. 

4. Synchosis is a confused and intricate arrangement of words ; as, Saxa vocant 
ItaU mediis quoe in ftuctihus aras; for Qum saxa in mediis fluctibus ItaU vocant 
^'^tUy Yirg. This occurs particularly in violent passion ; as. Per tibi ego kmc juro 
fortem castumqite cruoremy Ovid. Fast. ii. 841. Per vos Kberos atque parentesy sc. 
^^f^ vos per liberosy &c. Sallust. Jug. 14. 

5. Tmesis is the division of a compound word and the interposing of other words 
^^etwixt its parts; as, Septem subfecta trioni gensy for Septentrioniy Yirg. Qme meo 
^^tcnotfe mdmo Ubitum est facercy for qumcunquey Ter. Quern sors dierum cunque 
^^ohtif lucro Apponcy Horat. 

6. pAHBNTHesis is the inserting of a member into the body of a sentence, which is 
^^tfaer necessary to the sense, nor at all affects the constructioD ; as^ Tityre^ dum rideo^ 
V^^revis est via,) iMtfce cape^, Yiig. 



16$ ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION 

in. ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. 

The dMBcahy of translating either from English into Latin, or from Latin into 
English, arises in a great measure from the different arrangement of irordi whkh takes 
place in the two languages. 

In Li^ the various terminations of nouns, and the inflection of adjectiyes and 
verbs, point out the relation of one word to anotiier, in whatever order they arej^bced. 
But in English the agreement and government of words can only be determined from 
the particular part of the sentence in which they stand. Thus in Latin, we can either 
gay, Alexander vicit Dariumy or Darium vicit Alexander ^ or Alexander Darium vidtf 
or Doriiffii Alexander vicit ; and in each of these the sense is equally obvious: but in 
English, we can only say, Alexander conquered Darius. This varie^ of arrangement 
in Latin, gives it a great advantage over the English ; not only in point of energy apd 
vivacity cf expression, but also ui point of harmony. We sometimes, indeed, for the 
nkfB of variety and force, imitate in English the inversion of words which takes place 
in Latin ; as. Him the Eternal hurPdy Miltim. Whom ye ignorantly worship, him 
declare I unto you. But this is chiefly to be used in poetry. 

With rmird to the proper order of words to be observed in translating from English 
into Li^, the only certain rule which can be given, is to imitate the Classics. 

The order of words in sentences is said to be either simple or artificial }. or, as it is 
othonrise expressed, either natural or oratoriaL 

The Simple or Natural order is, when the words of a sentence are placed one after 
another, according to the natural order of syntax. 

Artificial or Oratorial order is, when words are so arranged, as to render them moit 
striking, or most agreeable to the ear. 

AllLatm writers use an arrangement of words,, which appears to us more or leu 
artificial, because difierent from our own, although to them it was as natural as ours is 
to usr In order, therefore, to render any Latin author into English, we must first 
reduce the words in Latin to the order of English, which is called the Analysis or 
Ktsohition of sentences. It is practice only that can teach one to do this with readiness. 
However,, to a bc^ginner, the observation of the following rule may be of advantage. 

Take first the words which serve to introduce the sentence, or show its dependence 
on what went before ; next the nominative, together with the words which it agrees 
with or governs; then^ the verb and adverbs joined with it; ^nd lastly , the cases 
which the verb governs, together with the circumstances subjoined, to the end of the 
sentence ; supplying throu^ the whole the words which are understood. 

If the sentence is compound, it must be resolved into the several sentences of which 
it is made up ; as, 

VsU igiturf mi Cfieeroj Hbi^u persuade esse te omdem mihi carissirmtm; sed muliofore eariormt 
si talilmt monumenliM prseceptisque Uetabire, Cic. Off. lib. 8. fin. 

Farewell theni my Cicero, and assure yourself that you are indeed yery dear to me ; but will 
be much dearer, if you shall take delight in such writings and instructions. 

This compound sentence may be resolved into these five simple sentences ; 1. Igitur, mi (fill) CieerOt 
(tu^ Mt/e, 2 et (tu) vemioete ftm (ipsi) te esse quidem (filium) earissimum mihi : 3. sed (tu persuade 
tibi ipsi te) fire (filium) eariorem (mihi in) mii//o (negotio, 4. si (tu) leetabere itdibus mommeniisi 
5. ^ (ai tu UBtabere talibus) prteceplis. 

1. Fare (jfou) well then, my (son) Cicero, H, and assure (you) yourself that you are indeed (a son) 
vnv dear to me ; 8. but (assure you yourseif that you) will be (a son) much dearer (lo me) 4. if you 
shul tak» delight in such writings, 6. and (if you shall take delight in such) instructions. 

It may not be improper here to exemplify Analogical Analysis, as it is called, or (he 
analysis of words, from the fmregoing sentence, V^e igitur, &c. thus, 

VaUf icfl. tu; Fare (thou) well. Second person singular of the imperative mood, active voice, 
from the neater verb, VaUo, valtdf vaKtumi valere, to be in health ; of the second conjugatioo, not 
us^ in the passive. Vale agrees in the second person singidar with the nominative <«, by the second 
rule of syntax. 

ftftur, then, therefore, a conjunction, importing some inference drawn from what went beibn. 

Mif Voc. sing. masc. of the aiyective pronoun, meuf, -a, -urn, my ; derived from the substantive 
pronoun JEjgo, agreeing with Cteero, by Role 1. deerOf voc. sing, from the nominative Cieero, -OidSi 
a proper noun of the 4hird declensioii. 

Eti and, a copulative conjunctioB, which connects the verb jveritiiicie with the verb M^e, by Bide liB. 
We turn mie Into et because quA never stands by itself. 
. Psnumt tciL Im, persuade fltoui second person iBiogular of tiie imperative active, from the verb 
V^^fWi^d^Qi sif twn, dire, to persuade ; compounded of the preposition per, and suadeo, -si, -sum, to 



V'^ 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF STYLE. ifig 

df'ue, used impersonally in the passive ; thus, Persuadetur nttM, I am persuaded ; seldom or sever 
^^ penuadear. We say, however, in the third person, Hoc persuadeitw mihi, I. am pemiaded of 
till. 

TUn, dat slag, of ^ personal pronoun tuy thou ; governed by persuadet according to Role 88. 
\ aecasatiTe tmg. of Iti, put before este, according to Rule 42. 
Em, present of the infinitive, from the substantive verb turn, fuh tut, to be. 
Qmitm, indeed, an adverb, joined with cantnmvm or tue, 

Qmimmum^ accusative sing. masc. from carimmui, -a, -urn, very dear, dearest, superlafiva 
sgiee of the adjective earwi '^h "^'^i dear; Comparative degree* corior, umor, ettrmi, deaSer, mfrie 
our: agreeing with te or Jilium understood, by Rule 1. and put in the accusative by Rule 5, . 
MUd, to mei dat. sing, of the substantive pronoun £Jgo, I ; governed by earisrimiumf by Role 13. 
Sed, but, an adversative conjunction, joining esse and fore. 

■Fsre, the same with esie ftuurum, to be, or to be aliout to be, pnfinitive of the defective verb 
"irtin, -res, -ret, &c. governed in the same manner with the foregoing esse, thus, te fore, Rule 42. or 
HH, eoe Md fore. Sm Rule 28. 

iitdU, tcil. ntgjoHo, ablat. sing. neut. of the adjective multus, ••, -tfm, much, pat in the ablative, 
coordinf to observation 6. Rule 20. But multo here may l>e taken adverbially m the same-maniier 
ith mum in English 

Cviortm, accus. sing. masc. from earwr, -or, -us, the comparative of carus, as beforei agreeing 
Hh te mfiium understood. Rule 1. or Rule 6. 

Si, if, a conditional conjunction, joined either with the indicative mode, or with the wiljittMtive, 
^rding to the sense, but oftener with the latter. See Rule 60. 

Le^taih'e, Thou shalt rejoice, second person singular of the future of the indkatrve, firom the 
ponent verb Uetor, ketatus, Uetdri, to rejoice : Future, Idst'Obor, abiris or dbire, ObUur, &c. 
TaUbus, ablat. plnr. neut. of the adjective talis, taKs, taH, such ; agreeing with momsmenHs, the 
^t. flar. of the substantive noun monumentum, -ti, ueut a monument or writing, of the second 
dension ; derived from moneo, -ui, -itum, -ire, to admonish ; here put in the ab£tive, according' 
Role 62. Et, a copulative conjunction, as before. 

^seetptii, a substantive noun in the ablative plural, from the nominative prtsceptum, -ti, neut a 
VMpt, an instruction ; derived Arom praeipio, -dpi, 'Ceptiim, -cipire, to instruct, to OTder, com- 
iiwded of the preposition pr€B, before, and the verb eapto, dpi, eaptum, capire, to take. The d of 
i simple is changed into t short ; thus, pnedpio, prmdipis, wc. 

The learner may in like manner be taught to analyze the words in. English, and in doing so, to 
irk the different idioms of the two languages. 

To thb may be subjoined a Praxis, or Exercise on all the different parts of grammar, particularly 
th regard to the inflection of nouns and verbs in the form of questions, such as tibese. Of Cicero ? 
'€erdms. With Cicero ? Ciperdnt. A dear son ^ Carus Jilitu. Of a dear son ? CarifiUL & mf 
^ar son .' Mi or meus care fili. Of dearer sons .' Cariorum JUifinan, &c. 

Of thee ? or of you ? Tui. With thee or you P te : Of you ^ VestrUm or vestri. With you ? Voibis 
They shall persuade? Persuadebunt. I can persuade.' Perstiadeam, or much more frequently 
^ssum persuttdere. They are persuaded.' Persuadetur, or persuasum est iUis, according to the time 
pressed. He is to persuade ? Est persuasurus. He will be persuaded ? Persuadebiiur, or. persuamm 
it ilti. He cannot be persuaded ? Jion potest persuaderi illi. I know that he cannot be persuade .' 
no non posse persuaderi itli. That he will be persuaded ? Ei persuasum iri, &c. 

When a learner first begins to translate from the Latin, he should keep as strictly to 
16 literal meaning of the words as the different idioms of the two languages will 
ermit. But after he has made further progress, something more will be requisite. He 
bould then be accustomed, as much as possible, to transfuse the beauties of an author 
'om the one language into the other. For this purpose it will be necessary that he foe 
cquainted, not only with the idioms of the two languages, but also with the different 
inds of style adapted to different sorts of composition, and to different subjects; 
>gether with the various turns of thought and expression which writers employ, or 
'hat are called the figures of words and of thought; or the Figures of Rketoric. 

IV. DIFFERENT KINDS OF STYLE. ' 

The kinds of Style (generce dicendi) are commonly reckoned three ; the low, 
humiley mhmissum, tenue;) the middle, (mediuinf temperatumy omatum^ jhridum j) 
nd the sublime, ( sublime , grande.) 

But besides these, there are various other characters of style ; as, the diffuse and 
yncise ; the feeble and nervous; the simple and affected^ &c. 

There are different kinds of style adapted to different subjects and to different kinds 
f composition ; the style of the Pulpit, of the Bar, and of Popular Assemblies ; the 
tyle of History, and c^ its various branches. Annals^ Memou? or Commentariei| 
nd Lives; the* style of Philosophy, of Dialogue or Colloquial discourse, of Ejnstles, 
[^ Romance, &c. 

There is also a style peculiar to certain writers, called thehr Mamiter; as the styik of 
'icero, of Livy, Of SaUust, &c. 



170 FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

But what deserves particular attention is, the difference between the style of poetry 
and of prose. As the poets in a manner paint what they describe, they employ various 
epithets, repetitions, and turns of expression, which are not admitted in prose. 

The first virtue of style (virtus orationis) is perspicuity, or that it be easily under- 
stood. This requires, in the choice of the words, 1 . Purity y in opposition to barbarous, 
obsolete, or new coined words, and to errors in Syntax : 2. Propriety, or the sdection 
of &e best expressions, in ooposition to vulgarisms or low expressions : 3. PrecMum, 
in oppositioh to superfluity or words, or a ^tnr wtyh* 

llie things chiefly to be attended to in the structure of a sentence, or in the dispo- 
sition of its parts, are, 1. Clearnessy in opposition to ambiguity and obscurity: 

2. Unity and Strev^k, in opposition to an unconnected^ intricate, m6 feeble sentence : 

3. Harmony J or musical arrangement, in opposition to harshness of sound. 

The most common defects of style (vitia orationis) are distinguished by various 

names: 

1. A BARBARISM is when a foreign or strange word is made use of; as, crofixs, 
UxageUus; rigorosus, for rigidus or severus; aUerarCy Ux mutare, S&c* Or when 
the rules of Orthography, Etymology, or Prosody are transgressed ; as, chorus, for 
carus; stavi, for steti ; tibicen, for tibicen. 

2.' A SOLECISM is when the rules of Syntax are transgressed ; as, Didt Ubroi 
httos iri, for kctum iri» A barbarism may consist in one word, but a solecism requires 
several words. 

3. An IDIOTISM is when the manner of expression peculiar to one language is 
used in another ; as an Anglicism in Latin, thus, I am to write, Ego sum scriSerej fox 
ego sum scripturus; It is I, Est ego, for Ego sum: Or a Latimsm in English, thw^ 
&t sapieniior me. He is wiser than me, for than I; QMcm dicuni me esse f Whom do 
they say that I am ? for who, &c. 

4. TAUTOLOGY is' when we either uselessly repeat the same words, or repeat the 
same sense in different words. 

5. BOMBAST is when high sounding words are used without meaning^ or upon 8 
trying occasion. 

6. AMPHIBOLOGY is when, by the ambiguity of the construction, the mcaniog 
miay be taken in two different senses ; as in the answer of the oracle to Pyrrfaus, Aio 
te, JSacide, Romanos vincere posse. But the English is not so liable to this as the 
Latin. 

V. FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

Certain modes of speech are termed Figurative, because they convey our meaning 
under a borrowed form, or in a particular dress. 

Figures (figures or schemata) are of two kinds; figures of words, (figune verborum,) 
and figures of thought, (Jigura: sententiarum,) The former are properly called 
Tropes ; and if the word be changed, the figure is lost. 

1. Tropes, or Figures of Words. 

A Trope (conversio) is an elegant turning of a word from its (nroper signification. 

Tropes take their rise partly from the barrenness of language, but more from the 
influence of. the imagination and passions. They are foimded on the relation which 
one object bears to another, chiefly that of resemblance or similitude. 

The principal tropes are the Metaphor, Metonymy, Synecdoche, and Irony. 

I, METAPHOR (translatio) is when a word is transferred from that to which it 
properly belongs, to express something to which it is only applied from similitude or 
resemblance; as, a Aar^ h^-art; a «q/i^ temper ; \ie bridles his anger; ajoj^ti/ciop; 
ndet ager, the field smiles, &c. A metaphor is nothing else but a sh(Ht comparisoo. 

We likewise call that a metaphor, when we substitute one object in the place of 
another, on account of the close resemblance between them; as when^ in8tee4 ^ 
youth, we say, the morning or spring time of Ufe; or when, fai speakii^ of a family 
GOittiected with s^ common parent,, we use the expressions which propi^y belong to a 
tree^ wliose trunk and branches are connected with a common roof. When^tbis 
attuMB b carried on through several sentences^ or through a whole dtscourte, and die 
principal subject kept out of view, so that it can <iniy be discovered by its resm 



FIGURirs OF RHETORIC. 171 

fiance to the subject described, it is called an Alleoort. An example of this we 
ioKfe in Horace, book 1. ode 14. i!i4iere the republic is described under the allusion ot 

AN ALLEGORY is only a continued metaphor. This figure is much the same with 
the Parahky which so often occurs in the sacred scriptures ; and with the Fabhj such 
as those of iBsop. The Mmgma oir Riddle is also considered as a species of the 
Alkgoiy ; as likewise are many ProverbSf Proverbia vel Adagia; thus, In^yJnam 
Jignaferrej Horat. 

Metaphors are improper when they are taken from low objects ; when they are 
forced or far-fetched ; when they are mixed or too far pursued ; and when &ey have 
not a natural and sensible resemblance ; or are not adapted to th? subject of discourse, 
or to the kind of coropontion, whether poetry 'or prose, - 

When a word is very much turned from its proper signification, it is called CatO' 
chrisUf (abusio;) as, a XezS of paper y ofgold^ &c. the empire flourished; parriddOf 
for any murderer; Vir ^e^* tpse caper y Virg. AUum sedificant caput j Juv. Hunc 
vciis deridendum propino, for triuJo, Ter. Eurus per Siadas equitavit tmdaSy Hw. . 

When a word is taken in two senses in the same phrase, the one proper and the 
odier' metaphorical, it is called SyHepeis^ (comprehengio;) as, Galatea thymo mfd 
M6xx Hybkej Vug. Ego Sardois videar til^i amarior herbigy Id. 

2, METONYMY (mutatio nomms) is the putting of one name iot another* In 
which sense it includes all other tropes ; but it is commonly restricted to the following 
particalars : — 1. When the cause is put for the efiect; or the inventor, for the thing 
mvented ; or the author for his works ; as, Bourn labores^ for com; Mars^ fcnr war ; 
thus, JEiquo marte pugnatum e«f, with equal advantage, lAv. Ceres, for grainy or 
^nad; Bacchus, for wine; Venus, for love; Vulcanus, for Jire ; thus, Sine Cerere, et 
^Qcchojfriget Venus, Ter. Furit Vulcanus, Virg. So a general is put for hb army-, 
Cicero, Virgil, and Horace, for their works; Moses and the Prophets for their books ^ 
% beautiful Raphael, Titian, Quido, RAeni, Rembrant, Reubens, Vandyke, &c.-for 
thdr pictures. — 2. When the efiect is put for the cause ; as. Pallida mors, Pcde death, 
^eeause it makes pale ; atra cura, &c.-— 3. The container for what is contained, ai^ 
sometimes the contrary ; as, Hausit pateram, for vinum, Virg. He loves his botUe, 
W drink : Secundam mensam serms dispertiit, i. e. fercula in mensa, Nep. So 
^toma, for Romani; Europe, for the Europeans; Heaven, for the Supreme being;- 
^ecemit Evropen ab Afro, fcnr Africa; In arduos toUor Sdbinos, for in agnim 
^ahinorum ; tncolumi Jove, for CapitoUo ; Janus, for the temple of Janus, Hor. 
^roadmus ardet UcaUgon, for domns Ucalegontis, Virg. So Sergestus, for his shipf 
fd. ^n. v. 272.-4. The sign for the thing signified ; as. The crotm, for ro^cd 
ttAhority ; palma or laurus, for victory ; cedant arma togce, that is, as Cicero hmi* 
^If expiains it, beUum concedat pact. Ferri togasque concilia, consultations about 
svar and peace, Stat. Sylv. v. 1. 82.'— 5. An abstract, for the concrete ; as, Scebts, for 
icekstus, Ter. Audacia, for audax, Cic. Custodia, for custodes, Virg. Servitus, 
for servi; nobilifas, for nobiles; Jttventus, for juvenes; vicinia, f<Mr vidni; vires, 
Tor strong men, Hor. Furta, for stolen oxen, Ovid. Fast i. 560.— -6. Tte parts of the 
body, for certain passions or sentiments, which were supposed to reside in uem; thus, 
cor, for wisdom or address; as, hdbet cor, vir cordatus, a man of sense, Plaui, But 
^ith us the heart is put for courage or affection, and the head for wisdom ; thus, a stout 
heart; a warm heart; a sound headj &c. So, to have a teeU hung tongue, for to 
^peak with ease, &c. 

When we put what follows to express what goes before, or the contrary, it is called 
Metdlepsis, (transnuttatio ;) thus, desiderari, to be desir^ or regretted, for to he 
dead, lost, or absent: So Fuimus Troes, et ingens gloria Dardani, i. e. are no 
WKJTej Virg. JEn. ii. 325. * 

3. SYNECDOCHE (camprehensio or conceptio) is a trope by which a word k 
i^ade to si^fy more or less than in its proper sense ; as, 1. When a genus is put for a 
^fecies, or a whole for a part, jftnd the contrary; thus, Mortales, for homines; tumm t K 
^*>'bor, for summaparS arboris; priusquam pahula guHdssent l)rqf(B, JTimf iii pfiift 
^hissent, for partem pabuU, and Jbanims Jianthi, Virg Nat uncta carim, for 
'^vis : centum puppes, a hundred sail, or a hundred ships; tectuMp the roof, for tha 



n^ FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

whole house; capita or aninuBy for homines ; ungukiy for equus or equiy Horat. Sat. 
i. 1* 114; the door, or even the threshold, for the house or temple, turn forihusXva^ 
for tft templo div€By Virg. Tempcy for any beautiful vale, &c. 2. When a nngularii 
put for a plural, and the contrary ; thus, HostU, milea, pedea^ equesy for hotii^^ Sgfi^ 
mUUeSy a thousand tunes, for many times* S. When the materiak are put for the thhigB 
made of them; as, jlE% ojr argentumy for money; asroy for vases of brass trumpets^ 
ancs, &C. ferrumy for a sword; taurusy^far a buU's hide, Virff. 

When a common name is put for a proper name, or the contrary, it is called 
AmUmomaaiay (pronondnaHo ;) as, the FhiJosophery {ox Aristotle $ the Oratory for 
Demosthenes or Cicero; the Foet, for Homer or Virgil; the Wise man, for Sohmom^ 
AstUy for Athens; Urbsy die city or town, for the capital of any country; FcanUy for 
Hannib<d; JYero, for a cruel prince; Mascenasy for a patron of leamiiig; as, jSin^ 
Macenatesy nondeerunty FlaccSy Marones, i.e. sint munifici patroniy nondeerunt 
boni poetiB* Martial, viil. 56, 5. 

An Antonomasia b often made by a Feriphrasis; as, Felopis parens^ for Taaitahs; 
Anpti reuSy for Socrates ; Trojani beUi scriptoTy for Homer; Chironis AbtmnuSy for 
Achilles ; Potor Rhoddniy for GaUus ; Jubce tellusy for Mauritaniay Horat. &c. or 
by a patronymic noun ; as, Anchisiades^ for Mneas ; Tynddrisy <disy for Helina, 
&C.— or by an epithet ; as, Impius reliquity for MneaSy Virg. — sometimes with the 
noun added ; as, FataUs et incestus judexy famosus Jiospes, for Faris, Hor. 

4. IRONY is when one means the contrary of what b said; as, when we say 
of a bad poet, he is a Virgil; or of a profligate person, Teriius a Cado cecidU 
Cato, 

When any thing is said by way of bitter raillery, or in ai> insulting manner, it is 
called a SARCASM ; as, Satia te sanguine, Cyre, Justin. ItaUam metire jaceaiy 

When an affirmation b expressed in a negative form, it b called Litotes ; aSp He 
is no fooly iox he is a man of sense; Non humiUs muUery for nMUs or superha; 
non indecoro puhersy for decoroy Horat. When a word has a meaning contrary fa iU 
original sense, it b called Aniiphrasis ; as, aurt sacra fameSy for execrabiUsy Vug* ^ < 
Pontus Euxini falso nomine tUctuSy i. e. hospUaliSy Ovid. 

When any thing sad or offensive is expressed in more gentle terms, it is called 
EupHEMisMus ; as, Vitd fundusy for mortuus ; conclamare suosy to give up for lost, 
tdv. Valeanty for abeant; mcu^arCy or ferircy for occidere; Fecerunt id sent 
MihniSy quod suos quisque servos in tali re facere vohnssety i. e. Clodiwn inter- 
fecerunty Cic. This figure is often the same with the Periphrasis. 

The Periphr&sis, or CitcumlocutUmy is when several words are employed to express 
what might be expressed in fewer. Thb is done either from necessity, as in translating 
from one language into another ; or to explain what is obscure, as in definitions ; or 
for the sake of ornament, particularly in poetry, as in the descriptions of evening and 
morning, &c. 

When after explaining an obscure word or sentence by a periphrasis, one enlarges 
on the thought of the author, it b called a Paraphrase. 

When a word imitates the sound of the thing signified, it b called Onomatopfna, 
(nominis fictio;) as, the whistling of winds, purling of streams, buz and*^^ of 
msects, hiss of serpents, &c. But thb figure b not properly a trope. 

It is sometimes difficult to ascertain to which of the above-mentimied tropes certain 
exmressions ought to be referred. But in such cases minute exactness is needless. It is 
sufficient to know in general that the expression b figurative. 

There are a great many tropes peculiar to every language, which cannot be literally 
expressed in any other. These, therefore, if possible, must be rendered by other 
figurative expressions equivalent; and if thb cannot be done, their meaning shook) 
be conveyed in simple language ; thus, Interiore notd Palemiy with a dass of old 
Fakmian wine : Ad umhilicum ducerCy to bring to a conclusion, Horat* These^ aiid 
other such figurative expresuons, cannot be mroperly eipbuned without undarstaodiQg 
the peartictthur customs to l^hich tiiey refer. 



FIGURES OF RHETORIC. ITS 

2. Repetition of Wobds. 

Various repetitions of words are employed for the ^ake of elegance or force^ and 
le dierefore also called Figure% of works. Rhetoricians have distingui^ed them by 
■aeot names, according to the part of the sentence in which they Uke place* 

WIkd the same Terb m repeated in the beeinouig of any member of a sentence, it is caOed 

NAPHORA ; asi JWiiine U noetumum prtuiaium ptUaUif nUiU urhit vigilixt &c. Cic. Te duki9 

Mmxy le solo in iUtore teeumt Te venienie die, te aeteendenU eanebaij Virg. 

When the iTpctition is made in the end of the member, it is called EPISTROPHE, or cDWerms; 

S Pmnot Populw Romanw jutlitid vicit, armis vieitf Kberalitate vicU, Cic. Sometimes both 4he 

roMT •occur in the same sentence, and then it is called SYMPLOCE, or Camplexio; as, Q^u 

nm tuHi f RuUus. Quif, &c. RuUw, Cic. 

When the same word is repeated in the beginning of the first clause of a sentence, and in the 

id of the latter, it is called EPAN ALEPSIS ; as, l^imut victoriam tuam prieliorum exf/u termt- 

lAm ; gladium vagind vacuum in nrbe non vidimut, Cic. pro Marcello. 

Ilie reverse of the formeV is called ANADAPLOSIS, or Reduplieaiio ; as, Hie tamen vivU : 

mi! imd in tenatwnvenit f Cic. « 

When that which is placed first in the foregoing member, is repeated last in the following, and 

e contrary, it is called EPANODOS, or Regremo; a»,Crudeli8 tu ^que mater; Cnidelis maier 

ttjpt an puer imprdbut Hie f Imprifimt ille puer, erudelis tu quoque materf Virg. 

The passionate repetition of tlie same word in an^ part of a sentence, is call^ EPIZEUXIS ; as, 

teitate, exeitate eum ab inferit, Cic. Fuit, fuU %da virtui, &c. Id. Me, me, adsum qui feci, in 

t wweriite ferrum, Virg. Bella, honida bella, Id. linmus, ibimut, Hor. 

When we proceed from one thing to another, so as to connect by the same word the subsequent 

urtof a sentence with the preceding, it is called CLIMAX, or Gradatio; as, Jifrieano virtutem 

iuttria, virtus gloriam, gloria iemwos eomparavit, Cic. 

When the same word is repeated in Tariotu cases, moods, genders, numbers, &c. it is called 

DLTPTOTON ; as, Pleni sunt omneslibri, plerue sapientium voces, plena exemphrtanvetuslas, Cic. 

'itora littoribus contraria, fluclibus undas imprecor, arma armis, Virg. To thu is usually referred 

bat is called STNONYMJLA, or the using of words of the same import, to express a thing more 

ronghr ; as, Hon feram, non potior, non sinam, Cic. Promitto, recipio, spondeo. Id. And also 

XPuLlTIO) which repeats the same thought in difierent lights. 

When a word is repeated the same in sound, but not in sense, it is called ANTANACLASIS ; 

} Amari jucundum est, si ewretwr ne quid insit amort, Cic. But this is reckoned a defect in 

vie, rather than a beauty. Nearly allied to this figure is the PARONOMASIA, or Agnominatio, 

ben the words only resemble one another in sound ; as, Cioem bonarum artium, bonarum partium; 

mssd pravo anhno et parvo ; De oratore orator f actus, Cic. Amantes nmt amentes, Ter. This 

also called a PUN. 

When two or more words are joined in any part of a sentence in the same cases or tenses, it is 

tiled HOMOIOPTOTON, i. e. similiter eadens; as. Pallet auctoritate, eircuv^uU opibus, abundat 

nieis, Cic. If the words have only a similar termination, it is called HOMOIOTELEUTON, i. e. 

niliter desinens ; as, JSon ejusdem est facere fortUer, et vioere turpUer, Cic. 

3. FiGUBES OP Thought. 

It is not easy to reduce figures of thought to distinct classes, because the same figure 
employed for several difierent purpose. The principal are the HypeMhy ProsO' 
ypeiaj Apostrophe^ SimUej Antithesis^ &c. 

1. HYPERBOLE is when a thing is magnified above the truth; as, when Vir^l, 
»eaking of Pofyphemus, says, Ipse ardtniSy altaque puUat sidera. So Contracta 
sees cequora sentiunty Hor. When an object is diminished below the truth, it 

called Tapeinostis. The use of extravagant Hyperboles forms what is called 
ombast. 

2. PROSOPOPCEIA, or Fersomfication^ is when we ascribe life, sentiments, or ac- 
3ns, to inanimate beings, or to abstract qualities ; as, Qum (patria) tecumy CatiKnaj sic 
rity &c. Cic. Virtus sumit out ponit secures^ Hor. Arbore nunc aquas ctdpanie. Id. 

3. APOSTROPHE, or Address^ is when the speaker breaks ofi* from the series 
* his discourse, and addresses himself to some person present or absent, living or 
3ad, or to inanimate nature, as if endowed .with sense and reason. . This figure is 
sarly allied to the former, and therefore, often joined with it; as, Drqfeique nunc 
ares, PrianUque arx aUa maneresy Virg. 

4. SIMILE, or Comparison^ is whoi one thing is illustrated or heightened by com- 
iring it to another ; as, Alexander was as hold as a Hon. 

5. ANTITHESIS, or Oppositionj is when things cootranr or different are om- 
asted, to make them appear iti the most striking tig^; as. Hanmbtd was cunnings 
it FaMus toas cautious. Cmsar heneJkUs ac nam^icentid nuxgmis htdfebatWy rnte" 
'i.tate viUBy CatOy &c. Sail. Cat. 54. Ex hac parte pudor pn^ua^ ilHne petukmHtiif 



174 FIGURES OF BUETOBIC. 



Ac Ck. Similar to this figure is the Qxwmironj L c mcutl dichtm^ as, Jmki 
mtititftn adtamty &c. Cic h^ittaiemm mif Ovid. Ntm c&fHfoimen cajp^ Ym 

6. INTERROGATION, (Graec. EroieMj) u a figure i^iiereby we do not HBiiry 
ask a question, but express some strong feding or afiection of the mind in that fona; 
as, Quousque tatukMj &c. Cic CnMU otfedot hotimf Viig. Hem/ gme me 
aoMora po8$uni acciperey Id. Sometimes an answer is returned, in whkh case it is 
called Subfectio^ as, Quid ergo? audacunmus ego ex owmibuB? mimnAj Cic Nearlj 
allied to this is ExpogtukUioH^ when a person pleads with offenders to return to their 
duty. 

7. EXCLAMATION, (Ecphonigisy) as, O nosieft duke UberiatU! &c Cic 
tempora^ O maree ! Id. Opabria! O Divum domme Bum I &c Viig. 

8. DESCRIPTION, or Imagery, (HyjHAypotiSy) when any tiung is painted in a 
lively manner, as if done before our eyes. Hence it is also called Vision; as, Videor 
miki hone urbem mderCy &c. Cic. in Cat. iv. 6. Videre magnoejam videor ducesy 
Non indecoro pulvere sordidos, Hor. Here a change of tense is often used, as tbe 
present for the past, and conjunctions omitted, &c. Virg. xi. 637* &c 

9- EMPHASIS is when a particular stress is laid on some word in a sentence ; as, 
Hannibal, |ieto|Micem, Liv. Prokf Jupiter ibit hic! Virg. 

10. Epanartiiosis, or Correctiouj is when the speaker either recalls or corrects 
what he had last said; as, Filium habuiy ah./ quid dixi habere me? imd kabuiy Ter. 

11. Paralepsis, or Omissiotiy is when one pretends to omit or pass by, what he 
at the same time declares. 

12. ApARfrHMesis, or Enumeration, is when what might be expressed in a fev 
words, is branched out into several parts. 

13. Synathroismus, or Coacervatio, is tlie crowding of many partiiculars together; 
as, 

" Faces in contra tuUssem, 

Implessemque foroa JUuttmis, natumque, patremque 
Cum genere extinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem. Vhg. 

14. Incrementumy or CLIMAX in sense, is when one number rises above another 
to the highest; as, F acinus est vincire civem Romanumy scehis verberarey parriddium 
necarcy Cic. When all the circumstatnces of an object or action are artfully exaggerated, 
it is called Auxesis, or AmpUJication. But tliis is properly not one figure, but tbc 
skilful (employment of several, chiefly of the Simile and the Climax. 

15. Tkk:^^it\os (metabdsis) is when a speech is abruptly introduced ; or when a 
writer suddenly pa^sses from one subject to another ; as, Horat. Od. ii. 13. 13. In 
Strong passion, a change of person is sometimes used ; as, Virg. .£n. iv. 365, &c. xi. 
406, &c. 

16. SuspENSio, or Sustentatioy is when the mind of the hearer is long kept in sus- : 
pense ; to which the Latin inversion of words is often made subservient. 

17* CoNCESsio is the yielding of one thing to obtain another; as. Sit fur, dt 
sacrilegusy &c. at est bonus imperatoTy Cic. in Verrem, v. 1. Prolepsis, Prevent ; 
or Anticipationy is when an objection is started and answered. AnacoiK5sis, or ■ 
Ckrtnmunicationy is when the speaker deliberates with the judges or hearers ; which is >|; 
also called Diaporesis or Addubitatio. Ljicentia, or the pretending to assume more ' 
freedom than is proper, is used for the sake of admonishing, rebuking, and also flatter- 
ing ; as. Vide quam non reformidem, &c. Cic. pro Ligario. Aposiopesis, or C<mcet^ \ 

menty leaves the sense incomplete ; as, Quos ego sed prtestai motos componen 

Jluctus, Virg. 

18. Sententi A, (gnomCf) a sentiment, is a general maxun concemingGfe or maimerS) 
which is expressed in various forms ; as, Otitun sine Uteris mors est, ^neca. AdtoiA 
teneris assuescere muUum est, Virg. Probitas laudatur & alget; Misera est nuigW) 
custodia census; Nobilitas sola est cCtque unica virtms, Juv. 

As most of these figures are used by orators, and some of them only in certain parts . 
of their speeches, it will be prc^r that the learner know the parts mto which a retular 
formal oration is commonly divided. These are, 1. The Iniroduction, the ExonSm 
or Procemium, to gain the good will and attention of the hearers : 2. The Narn^ 
or Ea^lication : 3. The argumentative part, which uicludes Con^rmoffOfi cr ptocf 



THE QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES 17« 

Buid Confutation or nMmg the objecdons and aiguments of an advcnaiy. %he 
sources from whkh argumento are drawn, are called Xod, topics; and ara ddnr 
intrinsic or extrinsic; common or peculiar. 4. The FeroraHon^ Ej^hgm or 
(kmckution. 

THE QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES. 

Tbe quantity of a syllable is the space of time taken up In pnmouncing it. 

That part of grammar \diich treats of the quantity and accent of Syllables, and of 
the measures of verse, is called PROSODY. 

Syllal^, with resplect to their quantity, are either long or short, 

A long syllable in pronouncing requires double the time of a short ; as, tendire. 

Some syllables are common; uiat is, sometunes long, and sometimes short; as the 
second syllable in volucriB. 

A vowel b said to be long or short by nature, which is always so by custom, or by 
the use of the poets* 

In pdysyllaiiles or long words, Uie last syllable except one is called the Penufttma, 
or, by contraction, the PetiuU; and the last syllable except two, the j4nt^penuJ^imieL 

^^en the quantity of a syllable is not fixed by some particular rule, it is said to be 
long or short by authority ; that is, according to the usage of the poets. Thus i!e in 
H^ is said to be short by authority, because it is alwajrs made short by the Latin poets* 

In roost Latin words of one or two syllables, according to our manner of pronoun- 
cing, we can hardly distuiguish by the ear a long S341able from a short Thus te in H^ 
and Ugi seem to be sounded equally long ; but when we pronounce them in compo- 
sition, the difference is obvious ; thus, perlegOf perlegi; relegOy -^re; relegOy -drey &c. 

The rules of quantity are either Utneral or Special. The former apply to all 
syllables, the latter only to some certain syllables. 

GENERAL RULES. 

I. A vowel before another vowel is short ; as, 
Meu8 alius : so nihil; h in verse being considered only as a breathing. In like manner 
in English, criate, hkhave. 

Exc. 1. I is long in fiOy fieham^ &c. unless when followed by r; asy fiirif 
flerem; thus, 

Omnia jam fient, ftSri qua posse neg^bam. Ovid* 

Exc. 2. £ having an t before and after it, in the fifth declension, is long; as, imetUi* 
So is the first syllable in oer, diusy eheuy and the penultima in auldiy terrdiy osc in 
Pompeiy Cdif and such li|^e words ; but we sometimes find Pompei in two syUables^ 

Horat. Od. U. 7' 

Exc. 3. The first syllable in oAe and Diana is common ; so likewise is the penult of 
genitives in ius; as, illitiSy uniusy &c. to be read long in prose. Alius^ in the genitive 
is always long, as being contracted for aJiius; aUertitSy short. 

In Greek words, when a vowel comes before another, no certain rule concerning its 
quantity can be given. 

Sometimes it u short : as, Dan&e, Id^i SophVa, SymphonTa, Simdis, Hyades, Pbfion, DeacalXbn, 
Pyg^mallon, Thcbftis, &c. 

Often it is long: as, Lycaoa, Machaooi Didymaon ; Amphiooi Arioa, Isloii* Pandion ; N&isy LAif^ 
Achaia ; Brisets, Cadmeis ; LatOus; &, LatAis, Myrtdus^ Nerelusi Priam^His ; AcbeldlUs, MinOlus ; 
Archel&us, Menel&usi Araphiar&ns, Mn&aSy Pen^usj EpSus, Acrisioneusy AdamantSus, PhoeMus, Oi- 
gantdus ; Darius, Basirius, Eugenius, Bacchlus ; Cassiop^y Cesar^a, Chftron^a, Cvtherta. GaMteat 
I<acvdicea, Medea, Panthea, Penelopfia; Clio; Enifo, Elegia, Iphigenia, Alexandria, Thalia, Antiochia, 
Idololatria, litanla, politia, &c. Lfiertes, D€Iph6bus, DSljanlra, TrOes, herOes, &c. 

Sometimes it is common : as. Chorea, platea, Malea^ Nereides, canopeum, Orion, Geryon, Eos, 
£6as, kjc. So m foreign words, Michael, Israel, Raphael, Abraham, kc. 

The accusative of nouns in etts is usually short; as, Orphia, Sabnortilat Ctqiharia, &c. but sometimes 
long ; as, Idomenea, JlunHOf Virg. Instead of EUgta, Cyth^riOf we find EUg&a, C^thiriUh Ovid. 
Bat the quantity of Greek words caanot be properly understood without the knowledge ^^Gmk. 

In Engltth, a vowel before another is also sometimes len^^tfaened ', as, ttUneSt idia, 

. II. A vowel before two consonants, or before a double consonant, is long; 
(bypositiony as it is caBed;) as, 

^tmoy faUoy dxisy gdzUy nu^: the compounds otjwgum excepted; as, l^iigus, 
9*odrijuguSy &c. 



176 QUANTITY OF THE CREMENT OF NOONS. 

When the foregoing «wd ends in a Ami To^rd, and the fo]lofwiD|r iieging with tvio conoMOta 
or a double one, that fowel is lometiaMs lengthened bj the potHioA; ai» 

Ferte eiti flammatf date veld, teandite mum, Vfary. 

But this rarely occurs. 

IT A vowel before a mute and a liquid is common ; 

as in the middle syllable in volucris, tenebrcBf thus, 

Et prini6 similis volOcri, moz Tera volucris. Ovid» « 

Nox tenebras, profert, Phoebus fugat inde teatfbrat. M. 

But in prose these words are pronounced short. So peragrot phmtlm^p 9i B f p m ^ d Un ffmt ^Mntf 
latebrtCy &c. 

To make this rule hold, three things are requisite. The vowel must be natnnlhr shorty Ae nrte 
■nist go before the liquid, and be m the same pliable with it. Thus a in ]Mlrtt ii nade chmm 
in verse, because a in paler is naturally short, or always so by cnsioai; but a ia flMrfrii MrJi ii 
ali^ays long, because long by nature or euttom in ino/er and aeer. In l&e manner the pcafldtiB 
mlAtnrU, anUHUdcntm, is uways long, because they are deriired from sobity Mtififir, and amMMMm. 
So a in arte, abluo, &c. is long by position, because the mute and the liquid are in dUferent wflMa. 

L and r only are conndered as liquids in Latin words; m and n do not take place 
except in Grreek words. 

III. A contracteid syllable is long ; as, 

Nily for nihil; ml, for tidki; cogOj for todgo; oKum, for aUiw; iibicen, for tibiken; 
iiyUxiit; B^des^ for «t audea; nolo^ for xoit voio; IngcBf kitbifugm; sciSfee(|for 
scire Ucety &c. 

IV. A diphthong is always long ; as, 

Aurumj Ckeaar^ Euha^ &c. Only jpne in composition before a vowel is commoolj 

short; eiSj praircy praiwftus ; thus, 

Nee tot& tamen ille prior preecunte carin&. Virg^ 
Slipitibus durus agitur sudibusque prsnistis. Id, ' 

But it is sometimes lengthened ; as, 

cum vacuus domino praeiret Arion. StaHut. 

In English we pronounce several of the diphthongs short, by sinking die sound of one vowel; 
but then there is properly no diphthong. 

SPECIAL RULES. 

I. Concerning the First and Middle Syllables. 

Preterites and Supiiies of Tivo SyUablea, 

. V. Preterites of two syllables lengthen the former syllable ; as, Fetu, vidif 

Except bUfiy scidi from scindoy fidi from findoj tulij d^j and «f ^h' , which are 
shortened. 

VL Supines of two syllables lengthen the former syllable; as, Finun, 
casum^ motum. 

Except s&tunif from sero ; cLtum^ from cieo; Utunij from Uno; situm^ from nno; 
stSiuMy from sisto; itum, from eo; ddtumj fsom do; rutuiUf from the compounds of 
ruo; qintuniy Trom queo; rdiua, fit)m reor. 

Preterites which double the first syUabie. 

VIL Preterites which double the first syllable have both the first syllables 
short; as, 

C^cidiy t^Hgifp(^p&liypeperi, didid, tutudi: except dUiUdiy torn ccedo; p^pedi, from 
pedo ; and wbien two consonants intervene ; as, fifdH^ tUends^ &c. 

Incbease of Nouns. 

A noun is said to increase when it has more syllables in any of die obliqiffi cases 
than in the nominadve^ as, rexy regis. Here re \s called tiie encrease or eremeaif 9Sid 
so through all the other cases. Tbe last syllable is never esteemed a crement. 

Some nouns have a douMe increase, dwt is, increase by more i^ilabkB Aan one; 
as, iteTf iHneris, 



QUANTITY OF THE CREMENT OF NOUNS- 



177 



Ain in the plural is said to increase^ when in any ease it has more syllables Aan 
itive singular ; as, gener^ generij genir&rum. 

IS of the first, foumi, and fifth declensions, do not increase in the singidar num- 
less where one Yowel comes before another 5 as, fructuSy fruduis re«, rii; 
'all under Rule I. 

Third Declension. 

[. Nouns of the third declension which increase, make a and long ; ^, 
« short ; as, 

Pietdtisy honoris ; muliiris, laptdisy murmuris, 
chief exceptions from this rule are marked under the formation of the genitiye 
bird declension. But here perhaps it may be proper to be more particuSur. 

A. ■ 
n in A shortens a(is in the genitive ; as, dogma^ -iltis; potman 'dtis. 

O. 

rtens \nis, but lengthens etiit and onis; as, Cardoy 'Xnis; Virgo, -);tttf ; Ama, init; CicerOt 
ircntile or patrial nouns vary their quantity. Most of them sbortea the genidve ; bm, MaeSiBf 
axoj -dnis. Some are long; as, SuestUineij Vettdnes. Britionet m common. 

I, C, D. 

tens tiis; as, Hydromilif -ttu. Ee len^ens -ect<; asj HaltCy ids, 
n in D shortens the crement ; a8> Davtd, Adis. 

L. 

ilines in AL shorten Hits; as, Salf salit; Hannibal, -dlis; Hatdrubal, -iUit; but neafen 
it ; as, animal, 'dHa. 

from sol is long; also Hebrew words in d; as, Midiael, 'ilis. Other notms in L shiMrtai 
lent ; as, Vigil, -Ilis ; consul, -iUis, 

N. 

t in ON vary their crement. Some lengthen it ; as, Helicon, -onis ; Chiron, -Ms. Some 
it ; as, Memnon, Snis ; ,^mon, -dms. 

x>rtens inis ; as, Jlumen, 'tnis: tibicen, -tnu. Other nouns in N lengthen the penult. AN 
, Titan, -dnis: En inis; as. Siren, -inis : In inis; as, delphin, "fnis. YN ynis; as, Pfwreyn^ 

a- 

iters in AR lengthen aris ; as, calear, "dris. Except the following, hacehar, -itns ; jyHboff 
ictar, -itris : Also the adjective par, p&rU, and its compounds, i/npar, -ihris; dispar, -ilrts, &c. 
e following nouns in R lengthen the genitive : Jfar, JVdrtf, the name of a river ; /Ur, flris; 

: Also Recimer, -iris; Byzer, -iris; Ser, Siris; Iber, -iris; proper names. 
3ek nouns in TER lengthen teris ; as, crater, -iris ; character, -iris. . Except tether, -Ml. ^ 

lengthens oris; as, amor, -dris. Except neuter nouns ; as, nMnor^ -jSris; teqiior, ^^viij 
3uns in tor ; as, Hector, -Ifris ; Actor, Srts ; rhetor, -Sris : Also, or&or, -^tris, and memor, -drii, 
ler nouns in R shorten the genitive ; AR aris, masculine ; as, Ctssar, -dris; HJamile&r, 9ri$: 
I. £R eris of any gender; as, aer, airis ; mtUier, -iris; cadaver, -trii; iter, anciw^ 
Iniris; verbiris, from the obsolete verber. UR iirif ; as, vultur, -Mt; murmur, -Uris, TR 
, Martyr, Iris. 

AS. 

uns in AS, which have atis, lengthen the crement ; as, pieias, 'dtit; Mmdnas, 'Hit. Ex* 
s, -dtis. 

ler nouns in AS shorten the crement ; as Greek nouns having the genitiye in ddis, itis, and 
us, Pallas, -ddis; artocreas, -edtis ; Melas, -dnis, the name of a river. So vas, vddis; mat, 
tut vas, vdsis, is long. 

ES: 



ortens the crement ; as, miles, -^tis; Ceres, -iris; pe9,piuUt, 
•t loc&ples, -itis; quiea, 'itis; manmes, -itit; hmres, -idis: m 



mtreea, -idis. 



IS. 



I in IS shorten the crement; as, lapis, -\dis; sang^itf -fnw; PhyUiu -liKf. 

)t Glis, gHris; and Latui Boims which have fib; ai, Ki^ m; ilji, Me; QiMrfi^ -»»; 

-itis : But Charis, a Greek noun, has ChmrtHe. 

>Uowing also lengthen the crement : Crems, -idis; Aopftir, -ftKf ; Akfi^ 4ii9; proper aanos 

idi nouns in is, which have also m ; as, SaUtmkf or tilt aolmtlNlfc 

08. 

(in OS lengths the cnmeiit; asjWpoh'^tti^sM'ii. 
HBos, bHvit; comp9tt'9Ht; and wyw, ■ffiii, 

US. 

ortens the crement ; aS} temput, -Vrie; tr^pnh -<^ 
M 



17^ THE QUANTITY OF FINAL SYLLABLES. 

Except nouns which hare udit, ioit, and utit ; asi itwaty -Hdis ; jw, /firif ; foiic^ "*<*»• B*** -UP" 
has lA^tris; the obsolete pecu«, j^ecfiiltf ; and tn/ercui, -i2<is. 
The neuter of the comparative has dris; asi mtliuty -oris. 

YS. '. ^ . • 

YS shortens ydiroryvZot; |U5, ehlamysf ^is or yJo*; and lengthens yws; Wi Trocfcyf, -jiiM. 

BS, PS, MS. 
Nouns in S, with a consonant going before, shorten the penult of the genitive ; as, «cleA|f -tUs; 
inopt, "Spis ; hiemSf hiimu. . t j 

Except Cyclops, -dpis ; seps, apis : gryps, gryphis ; Cecropsr -opts ; pUbs, plibts; hydropBf -ifs^ 

T. 

T shortens the crement ; as, eapuiy -Xtis. 

X. 

1. Nouns in X, which have the genMfe in gw, shorten the crement; as, eonfux, -Hgis; remeXj 
-igis; Allohroxy -dgja; Phryx, Phrygis. But lex, legis, and ex, rigis, are long j and likewise /i^. 

2. EX shortens ids ; as, vertex, -ids : except vibex, 'ids, 

3. Other nouns in X lengthen the crement; as, pax, pdds; radix, -ids; vox, vods; lux, luds; 
Pollux, -udSf &c. 

Except fieis, nfds, vids, prids, cahds, cihcis, pids, forrOds, nivis, CappadUds, dUds, nUdt, er&eis, 
triids, 07iychis, Eryds, masiyx, -ychis, the rosin of the lerUisctu, or mastich-tree, and manj others 
whose quantity can only l^e ascertained by authority. 

4. Some nouns vary ^e crement ; as, Syphax, -dds, or -ids ; Sandyx, -Xds, or -ietf ; Bebryx^ -y^» 
or -yds. 

Incretxae of the Plurai Number. 

IX. Nouns of the plural number which increase, make A, JE7, and O long^ 
but shorten / and U; as, 

musdrum, reruMy dominorum; regthuBp jportuhus : except hobus or huhua^ contracted 
for h6mbu8. 

Increase of Verbs. 

A verb is said to increase, when any part has more syllables than the second person 
singular of the present of the indicative active; as, amasy amamusy where the seccHid 
syllable ma is the increase or crement; for the last syllable is never called by that 
name. 

A verb often increases by several syllables; as, amcUy amdhdmni; in which case it 
is said to have a Jirsty second, or third increase, 

X. In the increase of verbs, a, e, and o, are long ; t and «, short ; as, 

Amdrcy docerCy amdtote ; legimusy sumusy volumus* 

The poets sometimes shorten didirunt and sUUrunt ; and lengthen rimus and ritis, in the ftiture 
of the subjunctive; as, transieriiis aquas, Ovid. All the other exceptions from this rule are marked 
in the formation of the verb. 

The first or middle syllables of words which do not come under any of the foregoing 
rules, are said to be long or short by authority ; and their quantity can only be dis- 
covered from the usage of the poets, which is the most certdn of all rules. 

Remarks on the Quantity of the Penult ov Words. 

1. Patronymics in IDES or ADES usually shortei| the penult; Wi PrianOdes, Atlamiiitdts, &c. 
Unless they come from nouns in eus; as, Pelides, Tydides, &c. 

2. Patronymics, and similar words, in AIS, EIS, ITIS, OIS, OTIS, IJ^E, and OJV£, commonly 
len^en the penult ; as, Achdis, Ptolemdis, Chrysiis, ^nds, Memphis, Lat6is, leari&tis, JferHie, 
Artsidne. Except ThebiHs, and PhocHis ; and Nereis, which is common. 

3. Adjectives in ACUS, ICUS, IDUS, and IMUS, for the most part shorten the penult; as, 
X^gyptiikus, aeademictts, leptdus, legHtmm ; also superlatives ; as, fortis^mus, i^c, "Except opOeus, 
amicus, apricus, pudicus, mendicus, posticus, fidus, infidus, (but perfidus of per and fides, is short;) 
bimus, quadrimus, patrimus, matritnus, qpimus; and two superlatives, imus, primus, 

4. Adjectives in A LIS, ANUS, ARIIS, IVUS, ORUS, OSUS, len^en the penult; as, ibttKf, 
urbdnus, avdrus, iBslivus, decdrus, arenosus. Except barbSrus, opipHrus. 

6. Verbal adjectives in ILIS, shorten the penult ; as,^ c(g)(2», fadUis, &c. But dertvatvM from 
nouns usually lengthen it ; as, aniZtf, dvilis, herilit, &c. To these add e:Mis, subtilis; and muncf 
of months, Aprilis, Q^ineHlit, SexlUis : Except hvmXlis, parilis; and also nmUis, But all jidjectives 
in o/t'/if, are short; as, versdlUis, volaHlis, umbraffSUs, &c. 

6. Adjectives in INUS derived from inanimate things, as plants, stones, &c. also from adverbs of 
time, commonly shorten the penult ; as, amaratXnus, eroOnus, eedknus, fo^^tnus, okagmus, ddaman- 
Hnus, cristdllinus, erasRnus, prisRnus, perendinus, &c. 

Other adjectives in INUS are long ; as, agranus, austrinus, binuti dandislHius, Latinus, marfmi, 
mpmus, nespertinus, &c.. 



>»•. 



t' PENULT OF PROPER NAMES. THE QUANTITY, &c. 1T9 

7. Diminutives in OLVS, OLA, OLUM; and ULUSy ULA, ULVM, always shorten the penult ; 
aS| ureeHUUi JUidla, musadlum ; Uctulus, ratiuncula, corcHlttm, &c. 

8. AdverlM in TIM lon^hen the penult j as, oppidtUinif virUimt tributim. Except aJpUim^ per- 
jUlim, and tUUim. 

9. Desideratives in URIO shorten the antepcnultima, which in the second or ^ird person is the 
pamh 'y as, eifinb, esSris, uarit. But other verbs in urio lengthen that syllable } as, lig&ruf, liguru; 

Penult op Proper Names. 

2^ following proper names lengthen the penult : Abdera, ALfdus, Addnis, ^s6pus, JEtAluii^ 
Ahftla, Alaricus, Alcides, Ainyclas, Audronicus, Anubis, Archimedes, Ariar&thes, AriobarzaneSy 
Arlstldes, Aristobulus, Aristogiton, Arpinuni, Arlubanus ; Brachmanes, Busiris, ButhrOtus } Cethegusy 
ChalcMon, Cleobulus, Cyrene, Cythera, Curetcs ; Darici, Demonicus, Diomedes, DiOres, Dioscuri ', 
Elbodes, Eriplifle, Eubulus, Euclldes, Euphrates, Eumedes, Euripus, Euxinus, ; Garg&nus, Gstfihis^ 
Granicus ; Hciiogab&lus, Henricus, Heraclides, Heraclitut, HippOnax, Hispanus ; Irene ; Lacfdas^ 
LatAoa, Leucata, Lugdunum, Lycdras ; Mandane, MausOlufl, Maximinus, Mele&ger, Messala, Meg- 
sfina, Miletus ; Nasica, Nicanor, Nicetas ; Pachj^nus, Pandora, Peldris k, -us, Pharsalus, PhcenicCf 
Polltes, Polyclctus, Polynices, Priapus ', Sarpcdon, Serapis, SinOpe, Stratonice, Sufi^tes ; Tigr&nesy 
Thessalonica ; Verdna, Veronica. 

ne following are short : Am&thus, Amphipdlis, Anabdsis, Anticf ra, Antig^nus, ii -ne, Antildchwr^ 
Antidchus, Anti6pa, Antlpas, Antipiiter, Antiphiincs, Autiph&tes, Antiphlla, AntTphon, Anftug^ 
ApQlus, Areop&gus, ArimTnum, ArmSnus, Athdsis, Att&lus, Attica; Bitiirix, Bruct£ri ; Cal&beri Call- 
criites, Callistr&tus,' Cand&ce, Cant&bcr, Came&des, CherTlus, Chirsostdmus^ Cleombrdtus Cleo' 
mtoes, Corl^cos, Constantinopdlis, CratSrus, Crat^lus, CrcmSra, CrustumSri, Cyb^le, Cyclfidesy 
Cyzlteus; Dalm&t«, DamOcles, Dard&nus, Dejdces, Dejot&rusy DemocrlfUUy DemlTpho, Didfmut^ 
Diogifines/ Drep&num, Dumndrix ; En^[>ed0cle8, Eph^sus, Everg^es, EumSnes, Eurym^ou, Enri- 
p^lus ; Fucfous ; Gery6ncs, GySU^s ; Hecyra, HeliopMis, Hermi6ne, Heroddtus, Hesi5du8, HesiAney 
Hippocr&tes, Hippot&mos, Hyp&ta, Hyp&nis ; IcSrus, Ic^tas, Illf ris, IphVtnsi Ismftrus, Ithftca ; Lao' 
dfee, Laom^on, Lamps&cus, Lamj^rus, Laplthse, LeucretHis, LibSnus^ Lip&re, v. •«, Lysimftchus^ 
Longimftnus ; MarHthon, Men&lus, MarmarYca, MassagSts, Matr6na, Meg&ra, MelTtus^ & -ta, Me^ 
tropdlis, Mutifna, Mycdnus ; Nedcles, NerTtos, NorYcum ; Omph^e ; Patfira, Pegfisus, Pharn&ees^ 
PisbtrSUus, Polyd&nias, PolyxSna, PorsSna, or Porseona, Praxiteles, Pute6li, Pyl&des, PythagOras; 
Sarm&ts, SarsYna, Semite, Semirftniis, Sequ&ni, & -a, Serlfphos, SicOris, Socr&tes, Soddma, Sot&deSf 
Spart&cus, Sporftdes, Strong^le, Stymph&lus, Syb&ris ; Taygetus, Tcleg6nus, TelemSchus, TenMosy 
Tarr&co, Theoph&nes, Theophilus, Tom^rus ; UrbYcus ; VenSti, Volog^sus, Volusus ; Xenocr&tes^ 
Zodus, Zopj^rus. 

The penult of several words is doubtful ; thus, Batdvi, Lucan, BaUtvi, Juv. & Mart. FortuUUgf 
Horat. Fortuitus, Mart. Some make fortuitus of three syllables ; but it may be shortened like 
gralmtuSf Stat. Pattimus, malrimus, prastolor, he. are by some lengthened, and by some short • 
ened ; but for their quantity there is no certain authority. 

Final Syllables. 

XL w3, in the end of a word declined by cases, is short ; as, Musa, temptSf 
Tydedy lampadd. 

Exc. The ablative of the first declension is long ; as, Musd, JEned 5 and the voca 
tive of Greek nouns in as ; as, O ^ncd^ Palld, 

A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long; as, Amd^ frustr&f 
pratered^ ergd, intrd^ 

Exc. Itdy quid, ejd, posted, putd, (adv.) are short ; and sometimes, though mor* 
rarely, the prepositions corUrd, ultra, and the compounds of ginta; as, trigintd, Sec 
Contra, and tUtra, when adverbs, are always long. 

XII. E, in the end of a word, is short ; as, 

Nat^, sedile, patre, curre, nempe, ante., 

Exc. I. Monosyllables are long; as, me, te, si; except these enclitic conjunctions^ 
que,vi,ne; and these syllabical adjections, pte, ci, te; as, suapte, hujusce, tuti, 
but these may be comprehended under the general rule, as they never stand by 

themselves. ^ ^ ^ y 

Exc. 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declension are long 5 as, Cauidpe, AncJUse, 
fide. So rc-, and die, with their compounds, quare, hodie, pridie, po8tridie,quotidii: 
Also G>eek nouns which want the singular, Cete, mele. Tempi ; and die second person 
smgular of the imperative of the second conjugation; as, Dodi woite; but cave^ vak, 
and vide, are sometimes short. 

Exc. 3. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declension are 
long; BS,placide, pukhre, valde, contracted for ndUde; to these add /emc, fere, 
and ohe ; also all adverbs of the superlative d^[ree 5 as^ doctissimij fortiasime : but 
hne and male are short. « 



.«.-- 



180 THE QUANTITY OF FINAL SYLLABLES. ^* 

L 

XIII. /final is long ; as, Domini^ palrt^ doceri. 
Exc. 1. Greek Tocatives are short ; as, Alexiy AmaryUi. 

Exc. 2. Tlie daAve of Greek nouns of the third declension which increase, is com- 
mon ; as, PaOadij MMidi. 

Mihij Hhij mbiy are also common : so likewise are t6t, nisiy ubiy quaH; and cut, 
when a dissyllable, wMch m poetry is seldom the case. SicuH and necubt are always 

short. 

O. 

XIV . O final is common ; as, Virgo, Amo^ quando. 

Exc. 1. Monosyllables in o are Jbog; as, o, dd, gto, pro. The dative md ablative 
sing, of the second declension, are long ; as, Hbro, domino: also Greek nouns, as, Dido^ 
and Atho the genitive of Athos, and adverbs derived from nouns \ as, cerfo, fahoy 
peado. To these add quOy eo, and their compounds, quovtSy qudcunqucy adeo, ideo ; 
likewise, ilioy idcircOy dtroy introy retrOy ultro. 

Exc. 2. Tlie following words are short ; Egdy scioy cedd a defective verb, komdj 
citdy iUicdy tmdy dudy amboy tnoddy with its compounds, quomodffy dummoddy post' 
modd : but some of these are also found long. 

Exc. 3. The gerund in DO in Virgil is long ; in other poets it is short. Ergdj on 
account of, is long ^ ergOy therefore is doubtful. 

17 and Y. 

XV. U dual is long; Y final is short ; as, Vvitu, Molp^ 

By Dy Ly My Ry T. 

XVI. By D, Liy Ry and T, in the end of a word, are shoi^ ; as, 

Aby apudy semeJy precdry caput* 
The following words are long, sdly soly nil; jpdr, and its compounds, impoTy dispar^ 
&c. ySr, Idry Nar cur fur; also nouns in er which have iris in the genidve; as, 
Crater, vir^ Iber likewise aery (ether; to which add Hebrew names; as, Joby 
Daniel, DavUl, 

M final anciently made the foregoing vowel short ; as, MUit&m oetOt Ennius. But by later poets, 
m in the end of ft word is always cut off, when tlie next word begins widi a vowel; thilS} Milil, 
oelo ; except in compound words ; as, cire&magOt cire&meo. 

C, N. 

XVII. C and JV, in tlie end of a word, are long ; as, 

Ac, sic, non, Sd Greek nouns in n ; as, Titan, Sireny Sahzmiuy JEnednf Anckmny 
Circetiy Lacefkemdny &c. 

The following words are short, nic and donic ; forsitdny In, forsany tam^ny c^, 
vidin^; likewise nouns in en which haveUis in the ffenitive ; as, carmSn, crimen; 
together with several Greek nouns ; as, i?td», Pyldny Alexin. 

The pronoun hicy and the verb facy are common. 

ASy ESy OS. • 

XVIII. ASy ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long; as, Mds^ quUsr 
bonds. 

The following words are short, anasy is from sumy and penis ; dsy Imving OSM^ li ^ 
the genitive, compdsy and impds; also a great many Greek nouns of all diese jl|^ 
terminations ; as. Areas and ArcdddSy herods ; Fhrygis; Aroadik, TMSM^ JDrn^ 
&c. and Lathi nouns in esy having the penult of Sie genitive increarawjdioit; SMp 
AUsy hebSsy obsis. But Cerisy pariisy ariesy abieSy 9ndpes with its cai/ua^UfidBj are 
long. 

ISf US^ YS. 

XIX. ISy. USy and YSy in the end of a word, are short ; as, 

Turrisy tegisy leg^m^y €mn&Sy (kg^s, 
-Kmc. X. Plant cases in is and us are long ; as, jPemtt^, KbrtSf noiU, emfifii for 



THE QUANTITY OF DERIVATIVES AND COMUPUNDS. ISi 

9mn$$^ fructisy manus : also the genitive singular of the fourth declension j as, partus. 
But bus In the dative anH ablative plural is short ; as, jloribiuy fructibde, rebus. 

Pxc. 2. Nouns in is are long, which hfive the genitive in UiSf inis, or entis ; as, 
lis, Samnis, SalamiSy Simois. To these add the adverbs gratis and forU; the noun 
gU9^ and mSf whether it be a noun or a verb; also is in the second person singular, 
whea the {rfural has itis ; as, audisj abis, possts. Ris in the future of the subjunctive 
is common. 

Exc. 3, Monosyllables in t<« are long; a&, gruSy sus: also nouns which in the geni- 
tive have um, udisy utisy untisy or odis; as, tettiiSy incusy virtusy am&thusy tripus. 
To these add the genitive of Greek nouns of the third declension ; as, Clius, Sapp)v&Sy 
Mantus ; also nouns which have u in the Vocative ; as, Panthus. 

Exc. 4. Tethys is sometimes long, and nouns in ysy which have likewise yn in the 
nominative ; as, PhorcySy Drachys. . 

IT The last syllafble of every verse is common 

Or, as some think, necessarily long on account of the pause or suspension of the 
voice, which usually follows it in pronunciation. 

THE QUANTITY OF DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND WORDS. 

1. Derivatives. 



XX. Derivatives follow the quantity of their primitives ; as, 

Decdroy • from 



Xmicus, 

Aucti6nor, 

AuctOro, 

Auditor, 

Ausplcor, 

CaupOnor, 

Competitor} 

Comicor, 

Custddio, 

Decorus, 



from 



&mo. 

auctio, -Onis. 
aiictor, -dris. 
audltum. 
auspexi -Tcis. 
caupo, -Cnis. 
compStltum. 
comix, -Ids. 
custos, •Odis. 
decor, 'Oris. 



Exdlo, 

P&vidus, 

Quirito, 

RadicUus, 

Sosplto, 

Natura, 

M&temus, 

L^gebam, inc. 

L^geram, &c. 



Exceptions. 



D^ni, from decern. 

FOmes, fbveo. 

Humanus, hdmo 

Regula, r£go. 



Arena and Crista, 

Ndta and nOto, 

V&dum, 

Firdes, 

S6por, 



from 



1. Long from Short. 

Susplcio, from sugpTcor. 
Sedes, sMeo. 

S^ius, s^us. 

F^nuria. p^nus. 

2. Short from Long. 

f 

trco. Lticerna, 

ndtus. Dux, Qcis, 

vado. St&bilis, 

fido. Drtio, 

sOpto Qu^illus, 

2. Compounds. 



decus, -drif . 
exu], -filis. 
pftveo. 
Quiris, -Itis. 
radix, -Icis. 
sospes, -Itii. 
n&tiu. 
mfiter. 
ISgo. 
ICgi. 



Mobllis, from mttreo 

HCiinor, hdmua. 

JAmentutn. jfivo. 

Vox, v&cis. v5co, lie. 



from 



luceo. 
duco. 
stabam. 
dis, ditis. 
qu&liu, &€. 



XXI. Compounds follow the quantity of the simple words which compose 
them; as, 

DiducOy of diy and ducq. So prqferoy anteferoy consolory dendtOy depecuhr, 
deprdvoy desperoy despumoy desqudmoy enodoy erudioy exudoy exdroy exp&ceoy 
inciroy inkumoy investigOy prcegrdvoy prcmdtOy rigiloy appdroy appdreoy concdvuSy 
K P^^Bgrdmtf^ desoloy suffoco & suffbcoy difftdit from diffindoy and diffidit from diffidoy 
uAx?, and in^co,jperfftane^ irom permaneoy waApermdnet from permdnOy effddity in 
utrpceseniy and ejvdit in the perfect ; so, exedit and exedit; devinit and devenit ; 
devMmus 9nd devenmus s reperimns wnd repeHmus ; ejfugit sokd effugity &c. 

The change of a vowel or diphthong in the compound does not siter the quantity ; 
as, ifuMdo from in and cddo / incido from in and ccedo ; suffoco from sub wa^faux^ 
faucis : unless the letter following make it fall uader some general rule ; as, dSuito^ 
perceliOf dioscuhry prdhibeo. * 

Exc. 1. Agmtumy cognUuMy dejiroypef^roy tntMa^promUfay tnakdlcuSy veridkus^ 
nihihtmy semisopUus ; horn noiusy jUiro, nObOy ^co, hihmy and sdpio: amfntuSj a 



X82 ^ ACCENT. VERSE. 

participle from ambio, is long; but the substantives amWftw and amMHo Bxe Aort. 
Connuhium has the second syllable common. 




long. Fro in the following words is doubtful : propago, to propagate; propino^ pro- 
fundoy propellOf propulso, procuroy and Proserpina. 

Exc. 3. The inseparable prepositions SE and DI are long; 9^, sepdroj MveUo : 
except dirimoy diaertua. Re is short; as, remitto, rlftro: except in die impersonal 
yerb refertf compounded of res and ftro. 

Exc. 4. Ey If Of in the end of the former compounding word are usually shortened ; 
OS, treoeniif nefas, neque, patefacioy &c. CapricornuSy omntpotens, agAcdlOy sigM' 
fico, Mformis, aUger, THviaj tubicerif &c. Duodedmy kddiey sacrdsamctuSy &c. But 
from each of these there are many exceptions. Thus i is long when it is varied by 
cases ; as, quidaniy quivis, tantidem, etdeniy &c And when the compoundiiffi words 
may be taken separately ; as^ ludimagistery lucrifadoy siquisy &c. Idem in tne maS" 
culine, is long; in the neuter, short : also, ubiquey ibidem. But in tdnvis and td^icunquey 
(h^ I is doubtful. 

ACCENT. 

Accent is the tone of the voice with which a syllable is pronounced. 

In every word of two or more syllables, one syllable is sounded higher than the rest, 
to prevent monotony, or an uniformity of sound, which is disagreeable to the ear. 

When accent is considered with respect to the sense, or wnen a particular stress is 
laid upon any word, on account of the meaning, it is csJled Emphasis, 

There are three accents, distmgiiished by their diiSerent sounds; acutCy gruvCy and 
pireumflex, 

1. The acute or sharp accent raises the voice in pronunciation, and is thus marked 
[']; as, proferoy proffer. 

2. The grave or ba^e accent depresses the voice, or keeps it in its natural tone ; and 
is thus marked [ ^ ] ; as, d6cth This accent properly belong^ to all syllables which 
have no other. 

The ciraimjlex accent first raises and then sinks the voice in some degree on the 

same syllable ; and is therefore placed only upon long syllables. When written, it has 

this mark, made up of the two former [''] ; as, amdre. 

The accents are hardly ever marked in English booksi except in dictionaries, grammars, spelling- 
books, or the liko, where the acute accent only is used. 

Tlie accents arc likewise seldom marked in Latin books, unless for the sake of distinction ; as, 
in these adverbs, aliqudf continud, docU, undtj &c. to distinguish them from certain cases of adjec- 
tives, which are spelt in the same way. So poitdy glorid, in the ablative : frud^f tumuUHtt, in the 
fenitive : nostrdm^ vestrHmt the genitive of nos and vos : ergd, on account of; occtdit, he slew ; 
*Qmvtli, for Pompilii ; amdriSf for amaveriSf &c, 

VERSE. 

A verse is a certain number of long and short syllables, disposed according to rule. 

It is so called, because when the number of syllables requisite is completed, we always (tint back 
to the beginning of a new line. 

The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have its just number of syllables, are called 
Feet. 

A verse is divided into different feet, rather to ascertain its measure or number of sjrllablety than 
to regiilatc its pronunciation. 

Feet. 

Poetic feet are either of two, three, or four syllables. When a single syllable is tafcisn fay fttelfy 
U is called a Cae^tflrat which is commonly a long syllable. ^'. 

1. Feet of two syllable** • t^^/f 

^ond&uSf consists of two long ; as, dmnii. 
PyrrhichiuSf two short ; as, deHs. 

lamlnUf a short and a long ; as, itrndm, 

Trochasus, a long and a short ; as, s&rv&s. 

2. Feet of three syllables. 

DaclyluSf a long and two short ; as, scrUfgrH, 

Anapttstus, two short and a long ; as, p&tds. 

Jimphimitcerj a long, a short, and a long , as, chdrttds 

TrwrHehySf three short ; as, ddrnXnUs, 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 



188 



The following are not so much used : 
Molossus, delectdnt. 

Amphibrachys, hdnori. 

Bacchius, ddldrSs. 

Antibacchius, pelluntiir. 

3. Feet of four s]/llables. 
Froceleusmaticus, homtntbus. 
Dispondeus, orOtores. 

Dljmmhva, dnuBnUds, 

Choriambus, pdnltpU^s. 

Ditrochseus, cdntUend. 



Antispastus, 
louicus major, 
lonicus minor, 
Paeon primus, 
Paeon secundus, 
Paeon tertius, 
Paeon quartus, 
Epitritus primus, 
Epitritus secundus, 
Epitritus tertius, 
Epitritus quartus, 



klexdnd£r, 

cdledffbHs. 

prQpir&hdnt. 

tempGr'Uttig, 

pSUniUl. 

HnXmdius. 

cuierUda, 

vSlkpidtii, 

p€Btaiinti$. 

ditcdrdid*, 

fortundlUs. 



SCANNING. 



The measuring of verse, or the resolving of it into the several feet of which it is eomposedi is 
called Scanning. 

When a verse hag just the number of feet requisite, it is called Versus Acaialectv^i or Acataleettcus, 
an Acatalectic verse : if a syllable be wanting, it is called CatcUecticus : if there be a syllable too 
muGhy HyperccUaleclicust or Hypermiter. 

The ascertaining whether the verse be complete, defective, or redundant, is called DeposUiOf or 
Cimuula. 

DippEKENT Kinds op Verse. 
1. HEXAMETER. 

The Hexameter or Heroic verse consists of six feet. Of these the fifth is a dactyle, and the sixth 
a sjKtndee ; all the rest may be either dactyles or spondees ; as, 

LudSrS I quS vel- | lem c&lS,- | md per- I mislt &- | gresti. Virg. 
infan- | dum RS- | gin^ jd- | bes rgn6- | varS dd- | l6rem. Id. 

A regular Hexameter line cannot have more than seventeen syllables,' or fewer than thirteen. 
Sometimes a spondee is found in the fifth place, whence the verse is called Spondaic : as, 

Car& DS- I um sdbd- | les ma- | gnum Jdvls | incr€- | mentum. Virg. 

This verse is used when any thing grave, slow, large. Bad, or the like, is expressed. It com- 
monly has a dactyle in the fourth place, and a word of four syllables in the end. 

Sometimes there remains a superfluous syllable at the end. But this syllable must either termi- 
nate in a vowel, or in the consonant m, with a vowel before it : so as to be joined with the following 
verse, which in the present case must always begin with a vowel ; as, 

OmnI& I Merctirlf- | 6 slmT- | lis v6- | cemqu£ cd- | Idremque 
Et flavos crines — Virg. 

Those Hexameter verses sound best, which have dactyles and spondees alternately ; as, 

Ludere quae vcllem calamo permisit agresti. Virg. 
Pinguis et ingratae premcretur cascus urbi. Id. 

Or which have more dactyles than spondees ; as, 

Tityre tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi. Id. 
It is esteemed a great beauty in a Hexameter verse, when by tlie use of dactyles and spondees, 
the sound is adapted to the sense ; as, 

Quadrupcdantc putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg. 
Illi inter sese magna vi brachia toUunt. Id. 
Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum. Id. 
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisquc fatiscunt. Id. 

But what deserves particular attention in scanning Hexameter verse, is the Ci£SURA. 

C€Bsura is when, after a foot is completed, there remains a' syllable at the end of a word to begin 
a new foot ; as, 

At re-ginS, gra-vi jam-dudum, &lc. 

The CdMura is variously named, according to the difierent parts of the nexameter verse m which 
it is ftnind. When it comes after the first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, it is called by a Greek 
name, TriemimHris: when on the fifth half-foot or the syllable after the second foot, it is called 
PentkenUmi^: when it happens on the first syllable of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it 
is ddtod HeptheminUris: and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first syllable of the fifth foot it is 
ddlad Eimeemimihis. 

An these difibrent species of the C<Bsura sometimes occur m the same verse ; as, 

IU« la-tus nrv6-um mol-li fid-tus hyft-cinth6. Virg. 
But the most common and beautiful Cmmra is tiie penthemun ; on which some lay a particular 
accent or stress of the voice hi reading a hexameter verse thus composed, whence they caU it the 

Casural pause: as, 

Tityre dum rede- O, brevis est via, pasce capellas. Vtrg, 

When the Caisura falls on a syUable naturally short, it renders it long; as, the last syllable of 
ftUlus in the foregoing example. . u j* iii 

The chief melody of a hexameter verse in a great measure depends on the propw disposition 



184 DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE. 

•f the CiBsura. Without t}iis, a line consisting of the number of feet re<taisite wiU be little else 
then mere prose ; asi 

ROmac moenlii terrOIt impYgSr Hannlbftl armis. Enniits. 

The ancient RomanSf in pronouncing verse, paid a particular attention to its melodj. Thej not 
only observed the quantity and accent of the several sylliUilcs, but also the different stops and pauses 
which the particular turn of the verse required. In. modem times we do not fully perceive the 
melody of Latin verse, because we have now lost the just pronunciation of that language, the people 
of every country pronouncing it in a-manner similar to their own. In reading Latin verse, therefore, 
we are directed by the same rules which take place with respect to English verse. 

The tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regulated by the sense. All the words should be pro- 
nounced fully ; and the cadence of the vene ought only to be observed, so far as it corresponds 
with the natural expression of the words. At the end of each line there should be no fall of the 
voice, unless the sense requires it ; but a small pause, half of that which we usually make at a 
comma. 

2. PENTAMETEB. 

The PentamJHer verse consists of five feet Of these the two first are either dactyles or spondees ; 
the third always a spondee ; and the fourth and fifth an anapsestus ; as, 

N&tu- I ne sSquY- | tflr s^ | nilh& qols- | qu< sfiae. Propert, 
CurmlnT- | bus vi- | ves ttai- | pOs In Om- | nC m&M, Ovid. 

But this verse is more properly divided into two hemistickf or halves ; the former of whidi con- 
sists of two feet, either dactylcs or spondeesi and a casura ', the latter, always of two dactyles and 
another ceesura ; thus, 

Natu- I rae s^ul- | tfir | sSmIn& | qalsqa£ sfi- | sb. 
CarmTnl- | bus vi- | vte | tempfis In | Omni m£- | is. 

The Pentameter usually ends with a dissyllat»le, but sometimes alfo with a polytyOable. 

3. ASCLEPIADEAN. 

I1ie Asclepiad€an verse consists of four feet ; namely, a spondee^ twice a choriambus, and a 
pyrrhichius; as, 

MsBC^ I nis fttftvb I edXie r€- I gibds. Hor. 
But this verse may be more properly measured thus : in tlw first place, a spondee ; in the leoond, 
a dactyle ; then a csei ora ; and after that two dactyles ; thus, 

BIsBce- I nas ata- | vis | edite | regibus. 

4. GLYCONIAN. 

The Glyconian verse has three feet, a spondee, choriambus, and pyrrhlchiat ; as, 

N&vis I qu8B tlbl cr6- | dytOm. Horat. 
Or, it may be divided into a spondee and two dactyles ; thus, 

Navis I qun tibi | creditum. 

5. SAPPHIC and ADONIAN. 

The Sapphic verse has five feet ; viz. a trochee, spondee, dactyle, and two trocheet ; thus, 

Inte- I gCr vl- I t», sc6l«- | rlsquS | purOs. Harat. 

An A4onian verse consists only of a dactyle and spondee ; as, 
Jupiter I urget. Horat. 

6. PHERECRATIAN. 
The Pherecratian verse consists of three feet, a spondee, dactyle, and spondee ; thiu, 
Nigris I SBquSrft | v&itls. Hordt. 

7. PHALEUCIAN. 
The Fhaleucian verse consists of five feet ; namely, a spondee, a dactyle, and thiee trochees; as, 
Sammfim | nee mCttt- | as dl- | €m, n«c | Optgs. Martial. 
8. The GREATER ALCAIC. 

The Greater Alcaic, called likewise Dactylic, consists of four feet, a spondee or iambus, iambus 
and caesura, then two dactyles ; as, 

Virtiis I rfipul- | mq | nescia | sCrdldas. Horai. 

9. ARCHILOCHIAN. 

The Archilochian Iambic verse consisU of four feet. In the first and third place, H has ^H ltf^ a 
spondee or iambus; in the second and fourth, always an iambus ; and in the end, a cmgtm; at, 

N€c sa- I mlt, afit | p(Jnit | 9€cu- | r€s. Horat. 

10. The LESSER ALCAIC. 

The Lesser Dactylic Alcaic consists of four feet ; namely, two dactyles and two trocheee; as, 
ArMtrl- | 6 pdptt- | larts | afiras. Horat. 

Of tiie abo^ kinds of verse, the first two take their names from the number of feet of whidi they 
^nsist. AU ^e rest derive their names from those by whom they were either lint Invented, or 
frequently nsed. ■ «•▼«■»«, w 

Thtfe are several other kinds of verse, which are named ih>m the feet by which tfier are mMt 



F1GUR£S IN SCANNING. 

commoiily measured, such as the dactylic, trochaic, anapcBttic, and iambic. The last of 
is most frequently used. 

11. lABSBlC. 

Of Iambic verse there are two kinds. The one consists of four feet, and is called by a 
name Dimeter; the other consists of six feet, and is called TrimUler. The reason of these 
is, that among the Ghreeks two feet were considered only as one measure in iambic verse; w1 
the Latins measured it by single feet, and therefore called the dimeter qwUenutriut, ar 
trimeter senarttw. Originally this kind of verse was purely iambic, t. e. admitted of no oth 
but the iambus ; thus, 

Dimeter, Inar- | sYt so- | slfid- 1 sQIs. HoraL 

Trimeter, Sdis | «t i- | ps& Rd- | m& vi- | ribOs | rOtt. Id. 

But afterwards, both for the sake of ease and variety, different feet were admitted into the i: 
or odd places; that is, in the first, thinl, and fifth places, instead of an iambus, they used a sp 
a dactyle, or an anapeestus, and sometimns a tribrachys.' We also find a tribraches in th 
places, i. e. in the second place, and in the fourth ; for the last foot must always be an iambus 

Dimeter, CaiirdV | ft trft- | ct&vit | dftpSs. Hwat. 

VYdg- I re pr6p«- | rfaitds | d5m<im. Id. 
Trimeltr, Chidqud | sciie- J sti rttr- | tXs aat | ciir dgx- | tSris. Id. 

Pftvldum- I qu£ ldp6- | r' aut &d- | vfoiam I Iftqu^d | griiem. Id. 

Aim- I bos ftt- I qu« cftnl | biis hdmY- | cid' HS- | ctorem. 

In comic writers we sometimes find an iambic verse consisting of eight feet, therefore 
Titrameter or Octonarius. 

Figures in Scannino. 

The several changes made upon words to adapt them to the verse are called Figures in Sea 
The diief of these are the SynalcBpha, Ecthlipsis, St/rutririt, Duerisis ; Systdle, and Diastdle. 

1. Synalcepha is the cutting off a vowel or diphthong, when the next word begins 
vowel; as, 

Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant. Virg. 
to be scanned thus, 

(MntYca- I ir* dm- | n£s In- | tSntI | qu* Crft tS- | n^bAnt. 
The SyndUnpha is sometimes neglected ; and seldom takes place in the interjections, 6, h 
prohf r«, vahy hei; as, , 

pater, d hominum, Divumque aetcrha potcstas. Virg. 

hong vowels and diphthongs, when not cut off, are sometimes shortened ; as, 

Insulse lonio in magno, quas dira Celeeno. Virg 
Credimus? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingiint ? la. 
Victor apud rapidum SimoCiita sub Ilio alto. 
Ter sunt conati imponere Felio Ossam. 
Glauco et Panopea), et Inoo Melicertse. 

2. EcTHLiPsis is when m is cut off, with the vowel before it in the end of a word, becai 
following word begins with a vowel ; as, 

O curas hominum? O quantum, est in rebus inane ! Pers. 
thus, 

O cii- I rfts hdml- | n', 6 qu&n- | t' ^t In | rebiis In- | an€. 

Sometimes the Synalcepha and £cthlipsis, are found at the end of a verse ; as, 

Stemittir infelix alieno vulnere, ccelumquc 
Adspicit, et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos. Virg, 
Jamque iter emcnsi, turres ac tecta Latinorum 
Ardua cemebant juvenes, murosque subibant. Id. 

These verses are called Hypermetri, because a syllable remains to be carried to the begmi 
the next lino ; thus, 011* Jidspicit ; r' Ardua. 

3. Synjeresis is the contraction of two syllables into one, which is likewise called Crm 
J>fuBthon, for P/iaethon. So, 6i in Theseij Orphei, deinde, Pompei ; ui, in huic^ cut; Oi, in p 
eAy in mired ; thus, 

Notus amor Phsdrse, nota est injuria Thesei. Ovtd 
Proinde tona cloquio, solitum tibi. Virg. 
FiUus huic contrk, torquet qui sidera mundi. Id, 
Anre& percussum virga, versumque venenis. Id, 

So in anteftoc, eadenh alvearia, deeH, deerii, vehemens, anteit, .eodem, alveo, graveolerUiSf 
temkmkniff mmihomOf ftuviorum, totius, promontorium, &c. as, 

Ub^ eddemque vid sanruisque animusque ferentor. Virg, 
Sea lento fuerunt alvesina vimine texta. Id, 
Vilis amicorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. Hor, 
Divitis uber agri, Troiaeque opulentia deerit. Virg, 
Vehemens et uquidus puroque simillimus amni. Uor. 
Te semper anteit dira necessitas. JStleaic. Hor, 
Uno eodemque igiri, sic nostro Dai^uiis amore. Virg. 
Cum refluit campis, & jam se condidit alveo. Id. 
Inde ubi Tenure ad fauces graveolentis Ayemi. Id, 



186 DIFFERENT KINDS OF POEMS 

Bis patriae cecidere manus : quin protinus omnia. Jd 
Coedit semianimis Rutulorum calclbus arva. Id. 
Seinihoininis Caci facics quam dira tenebat. Id. 
Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes. Id. 
Magnaniraosquc duceS) totiusque ex ordine gentis. Id. 
Inde legit CapreaSi proraontoriumque Minenne. Ovid. 

To this figure may be referred the changing of t and u into j and r, or pronouncings them in the 
same syllable ivith the following vowel ; as iu genvaj tenvitf atjetatf tenoia, abjetCf pUvita, p€ajetibu8i 
J^asidjenus; for genua, tenuis, kx:. as, 

Froptcrea qui corpus aqufle naturaque tenvis. Luer. 
. Genva labanti gelido concrcyit frigore sanguis. Virg. 
Arjetat in portas Ik duros objice postes. Id. 
Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenvia Seres. Id. 
^dificanty tectiique intexunt abjete costas. Id. 
FnDcipui sanus, nisi cum pitvita raolesta est. Hor. 
Parjetibusque premimt arctis, &l quatuor addunt Virg. 
Ut Nasidjeni juvit te coena beati. Hor. 

4. DiJERESis divides one syllable into two ; as, auldi, for auUs ; TVOnb, for Trojm ; PertetUf fiur 
Perseus; mUuus, for milvus; tolnii, for solvit; voluit, for voMt; aqtUB, anehUf s^atitf HUVOif 
relangnit, reliqtias, for aqim, tuelut, &lc. as, 

Aulai in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Virg. 
Stamina non ulli dissolQenda Deo. Pentam. TtbtUlus, 
Debuerant fusos evoldisse suos. Id. Ovid. 
Quae calidum faciunt aqa» tactum atque vaporeni. Luer. 
Cum mihi non taatum furesque feraeque sQetflB. Horat. 
Atque alios alii inridant, Vencremque sfladent. Luer. 
Fundat al) extremo flavos Anuilone Sflevos. Luean. 
Imposito fratri moribunda relangait ore. Ovid. 
RcliqQas tamen etie vias in meiite patenteis. Luer. 

5. SystAle is when a long syllable is made short ; as the penult in htlerunt ; thiu , 

Matri longa decem tulCrunt fastidia menses. Virg. 

6. DiASTdLE is when a syllabic usually short is made long; as the lost syllable in amotf in the 
following verse ; 

Considant) si tantus amOr, ct moenia condant. Virg. 

To these may be subjoined the Figures of Diction^ as they are called^ which are chiefly used by 
the poets, tliough some of them likewise frequently occur in prose. 

1. When a letter or syllabic is added to the beginning of a word, it is called Prosthesis; as 
gnavus for navus ; tetuli for tuli. When a letter or sylli3>lc is interposed in the middle of a wordi 
it is called EpentiiSsis ; as, rtlligio, for religio ; induperaior, for imperaior. When a letter or 
syllabic is added to the end, it is called FaragOge ; as, dicier for diet. 

2. If a letter or syllable be taken from the beginning of a word, it is called Aph^bSsis ; ast 
nalus for gnntus; temhrant for letenderant. If from the middle of a word, it is called StncApe; 
as, dixti for dixisti; deihn, for deorum. If from the end, ApocOpe ; as, rtden' for vid4imu ; Jhntoni 
for Antonii. 

3. When a letter or syllable is transposed, it is called MetatbSsis ; as, pisirit for pristu : Lybia 
for lAbya. When one letter is put for another, it is called Antithesis ; taffaciundum mrfaeiendum , 
olli for t^t ; vollis for vuUis. 

Different Kinds of Poems. 

Any work composed in verse is called a Poem, (Poema, or Carmen.) 

Foems are called by various names, from tlieir subject, their form, the manner of treating the 
subject, and their style. 

1. A poem on the celebration of a marriage b called an EPITHALAMIUM ; on a mournful subject, 
an ELEGY or LAMENTATION ; in praise of the Supreme Being, a HYMN ; in praise of any 
person or thing, a PANEGYRIC or ENCOMIUM ; on the vices of any one, a SATIRE or INVEC- 
TIVE ; a poem to be inscribed on a tomb, an EPITAPH, he. 

2. A short poem adapted to the lyre or harp, is called an ODE, whence such compositions are 
called Lyric Poems : a poem in the form of a letter is called an EPISTLE ; a short witty poem, 
playing on the fancies or conceits which arise from any subject, is called an EPIGRAM ; as tliose 
of Catullus and Martial. A sharp, unexpected lively turn of wit in the end of an epigram, is 
called its Pomt. A poem expressing the moral of any device or picture, is called an EMBLEM. 
A poem containing au obscure question to be explained, is called an ENIGMA or KIDDLE. 

When a character is described so that the first letters of each Terse, and sometimes the middle 
and final letters express the luune of the person or tiling described, it is called an ACROSTIC ' 
as the following on our Saviour * 

I nier cuncta micans I gniti stdera cal I, 
E xpellit tenebras E toto Phcsbm ut orb E ; 
S ic eacas removet J£S VS eeUiginis umbra S, 
V ivificans^ simul V ero pnecordia mot V 
S olem justitim, S ese probai esse beati S. 

S. From the manner of (reating a subject, a poem is either Exegetie, DramaHef or Mixt 



KINDS OF VERSE IN HORACE AND BUCHANAN. 187 

The Exegeticj where the poet always speaks himself, is of three kinds, Historical, Didactic or 
iDStructivc, (as the Satire or Epistle,) and Descriptive. 

Of the Dramatic, the chief kinds are COMEDY, representing the actions of ordinary life, 
generally with a happy issue ; and TRAGEDY, representing the actions and distresses of illustrious 
personages, commonly with an unhappy • issue. To which may be added Pastoral Poems or 
BUCOLICS, representing the actions and conversations of shepherds ; as most of the eclogues of 
Virgil. 

The Mixt kind is where the poet sometimes speaks in his own person, and sometimes makes 
other characters to speak. Of this kind is chiefly the EPIC or HEROIC poem, which treats of 
some one great transaction of some great illustrious person, with its various circumstances ; 
as the wrath of Achilles, in the Iliad of Homer ; the settlement of ^neas in Italy, in the ^neid of 
Virgil ; the fall of man, in the Paradise Lost of Milton, Ike. 

4. The style of poetry, as of prose, is of three kipds ; the simplci ornate, and sublime 

Combination of Verses in Poems. 

In long poems there is commonly Hut one kind of verse used. Thus Virgil, Lucretius^ Horace in 
his Satires and Epistles, Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Lucan, Silios Italicus, Valerius Flaccus, 
Juvenal, &«. always use Hexameter verse ; Plautus, Terence, and other writers of Comedy, gene- 
rally use the Iambic, and sometimes the Trochaic. It is chiefly in shorter poems, particularly those 
which are called Lyric poems, as the Odes of Horace and the Psalms of Buchanan, that various 
kinds of verse are combined. 

A poem 'which has only one kind of verse, is called by a Greek name MonocOlon, sc. poemOf v. 
carmen ; or Monocolos, sc. ode : that which has two kinds, DicdLON ; and that which has three 
kinds of verse, TricOlon. 

If the same sort of verse return after the second line, it is called DicOlon Distr5phon; as i^hen 
a single Pentameter is alternately placed after a Hexameter, which is named Elegiac verse, 
(carmen ElegBlcum,) because it was first applied to mournful subjects ) thus, 

Flebilis indignos Elcgeia solve capillos ; 

Ah ! nimis ex vero, nunc tibi nomen erit. Ovid, 

This kind of verse is used by Ovid in all his other works except the Metamorphoses ; and 
also, for the most part, by Tibullus, Propertius, &c. 

When a poem consists of two kinds of verse, and after three lines returns to the first, it is called 
DicHon TnsMyphon : when after four lines, Dicdlon Tetrastrdphon : as, 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 
Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti ; caret invidenda 

Sobrius aula. Herat. 

When a poem consists of three kinds of verse, and after three lines always returns to the first, 
it is called Tricolon Tristrophon : but if it returns after four lines, it is called Tricolon Tetrastrophon : 
as when after two greater dactylic alcaic verses are subjoined an archilochian iambic and a lesser 
jiactylic alcaic which is named Carmen Horatianum, or Horatian verse, because it is frequently 
used by Horace ; thus, 

^ Virtus recludens immeritis mori 
Coelum, negate tentat iter via ; 
Coetusquc vulgares, et udara 
Spernit humum fugiei^e pennii. 

Any one of these parts of a poem, in which the different kinds of verse arc comprehended 
ivhen taken by itself, is called a Strophe, Stanza, or Staff. 

Different Kinds of Verse in Horace and Buchanan. 

I. Odes and Psalms of (myc kind of verse. 

1. Asclepiadcan, See N** 3. p. 208. Hor.L. 1. III. 30. IV. 8. Buch. Ps. 28. 40. 80. 

2. Choriambic .Alcaic Pentameter, consisting of a spondee, three choriambuses, and a pyrrhichius 
or iambus : Hor L. U. 18. IV. 10. 

3. Iambic trimmer, N" II. Hor. Epod. 17. Buch. Ps. 26. 94. 106. 

4. Hexameter, N'' J. Hor. Satires and Epistles. Buch. Ps. 1. 18. 46. 78. 86. 89. 104. 107 

igo 135. 

6. Iambic Dimeter, N** 11. Buch. Ps. 13. 31. 37. 47. 62. 64. 59. 86. 96. 98. 117. 148. 149. 160. 

6. The Greater Dactylic Alcaic, N** 8. Buch. Ps. 26. 29. 32. 49. 61. 71. 73. 143. 

7. Trochaic, consisting of seven trochees and a syllable ; admitting also a tribrachys in tho 
uneven places, i. e. in the first, third, fifth, and seventh foot ; and in the even places, a tribrachySi 
spondee, dactyle, and anapcstus. ^Buch. Ps. 106. 119. 124. 129« 

8. Anapestic, consisting of four anapestuses, admitting also a spondee or dactyle ; alid in the last 
place, sometimes a tribrachys, amphim&cer, or trochee. ^Ps. 113. 

9. Anacreontic Iambic, consisting of three iambuses and a syllable ; in the first foot it has some- 
times a spondee or anapestus, and also a tribrachys.— —Ps. 131. 

II. Odes and Psalms of two kinds of verse following one another alternately. 

1. Glyconian and Asdepiadian, N' 4. and 3. Hor. I. 3. 13, 19. 36. UI. 9. 16. 19. 24. 26. 28. IV. 

1. 3. Buch. Ps. 14. 86. 43. 

2. Every first line, (Dactylico-Trochaie,) consisting of the first four feet of a hexameter verse 



188 KINDS OF VERSE IN HORACE AND BUCHANAN. 

then three trochees or a spondee for the last ; every second verse, (lasnbic Anhilochiartf) consisting 
of an iambic or spondaeus, an iambus, a caesurai and then three trochees.— ——Hor. I. 4. 

8. The first line, Hexameter : and the second, Alcmaman DaciyliCf consistuig of the four last feet 
of a hezametei*. Hor. I. 7. 28. Epod. 12. ^Buch. Fi. 4. 111. 

4. Every first line, Aristophanicy consisting of a choriambus, and bacchhis or araphimacer : every 
second line, Choriambic Alcaicy consisting of epitritus secundus, two choriambusesi and a bacchius 
Hor. I. 8. 

6. The first line, TrocJiaiCf consisting of three trochees, and a caesura ; or of an amphimacer, 
and two iambuses. The second line, Archilochian Iambic, No 9. Hor. II. 18. 

6. The first line. Hexameter ; the second, Daciylic Archilochian, two dactyles and a caesura, Qor 
IV. 7. Buch. Ps. 12. 

7. The first lino, Iambic Trimeter; and the second. Iambic Dimeter ; N^ 11. Hor. Epod. 1,2, 

3, 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, y, 10. Buch. Ps. 3. 6. 10. 21. 22. 27. 34. 38. 39. 41. 44. 48. 63. 62. 74. 76. 79. 

87. 92. 110. 112. 115. 120. 127. 133. 134. 139. 141. 

8. The first line. Iambic Dimeter ; the second Sapphic, consists of two dactyles, a caesura, and 
four iambuses, admitting also a spondee, &c. But this ver^ is commonly divided into two parts ; 
the first, the latter part of a pentameter, N° 2. and the second, iambic dimeter, N" 11. Hor. 
Epod. 11. 

9. The first line. Hexameter ; the second, Iambic Dimeter. Hor. Epod. 14, 16^ ^Buch. Fs. 81 . 

10. Hexameter and Iambic Trimeter, Hor. Epod. 16.~Buch. Fs. 2. 20. 24. 67. 60. 69. 83. 93.95. 
97. 108. 109. 118. 12& 136. 147. 

11. The first line, Sapphic, N° 5. and the second. Iambic Dimeter, N* 11. Buch. Fs. 8. 

12. Sapphic and Glyconian. Buch. Fs. 33. 70. 121. 142. 

13. lanibie Trimeter and Pentameter. Buch. Ps. 36. 63. 

14. The first line, Hexameter ; and the second line, the thr^ last feet of a hexameter, with a 
long syllable or two short syllables before. Buch. Ps. 68. 

15. Hexameter and Pentameter, or Eleguic verse. Buch. Ps. 88. 114. 137. 

16. The first line. Trochaic, three trochees and a syUable, admitting sometimes a spondee, 
tribrachys, &c The second line. Iambic Dimeter. N" 11. Buch. Ps. 100. 

HI. Odes and Psalms of two kinds of verse, and three or four lines in each stanza. 

1. The three first lines, Sapphic; and the fourth, Adonian, M^ 5. Horat. Carm. I. 2. 10. 12. 20. 
22. 25. 30. 32. 38. II. 2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 16. ILL 8. 11. 14. 18. 20. 22. 27. IV. 2. 6. 11. Csrmen Secul 
Buch. Ps. 5. 17. 61. 66. 66. 67. 72. 90. 101. 108. 

2. The three first lines, Atclepiadcan, and the fourth, Glyconian. Hor. Carm. I. 6. 16. SB4. 88. 
II. 12. III. 10. 16. IV. 5, 12. Buch. Ps. 23. 42. 75. 99. 102. 144. 

3. The two first lines, Ionic Trimeter, consisting of three /onset minora ; the third line, Ionic 
Tetrameter^ having one lonicus minor more. Hor. III. 12. 

4. The two first lines have four trochees, admitting, in the second foot, a spondee, dactyle, &c. 
The third line, the same ; only wanting a syllable at the end. Buch. Ps. 66. 

5. The three first lines, Glyconian, N* 4, admitting also a spondee, or iambus, in the first foot; 
tlie fourth line, Phereeratian, N*" 6. Buch. Ps. 116. iSi. 128. \ 

IV. Odxs and Psalms of three kinds of verse, and three or four lines in each stanza. 

1. The two first lines, Aselepiadian, N** 3, the third line, Phereeratian, N° 6, and the fourth; | 
G/^eomVm, No 4. Hor. Carm. I. 5. 14. 21. 23. Ill 7. 13. IV. 13. Buch. Fs. 9. 64. 84. ISO. ! 

2. The two lines, the Greater Dactylic Alcaic, N° 8. The third, Archilochian Iambic, N* 9. The 
fourth, the Lesser Alcaic, N** 10. Hor. Carm. I. 9. 16. 17. 26. 27. 29. 31. 34. 36. 37. II. 1. 3. 5. 7. 

9. 11. 13. 14. 15. 17. 19. 20. III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6 6. 17. 21. 28. 26. 29. IV. 4. 9. 14. 16. Buch. Ps. I 

7. 11 16. 19. 30 46. 50. 56. 68. 77. 82. 91. 123. 126. 140. 146. 

3. The first line, Glyconian ; the second, Asclepiadian , the third a spondee, three choriarobnses 
and an iambus or pyrrhichius. ' Buch. Ps. 16. 

4. The first line, Hexameter; the second. Iambic Dimeter; and the third, two dactyles ond a 
syllable } Hor. Epod. 13.— —-Buch. Fs. 136. Sometimes the two last vertes are joined in one or 
mverted -, as, Buch. Ps. 146 



APPENDIX. 



Of Puncluatioiii Capilalsj Abbrevtations, Numencnl Characttrsy and the Division of the Soman 

Mont/is. 

The different divisions of discourse are marked by certain characters called Points. 

The points employed for this purpose are the Comma (,), Semicolon (;), Colon (:), Ptnod, 
Punctum, or full stop (.). 

Their names are taken from the difTcrent parts of the sentence which they are employed to 
distinguish. 

The Period is a whole sentence complete by itself. The Colony or member, is a chief construc- 
tive part} or greater division of a sentence. The Semicolon^ or half member, is a less constructive 
part or subdivision of a sentence or member. The Comma, or segment, is the least constructive 
part of a sentence in this way of considering it ; for the next subdivision of a sentence would be 
the resolution of it into Phrases and Words. 

To these points may be added tlic Semiperiody or less point, followed by a small letter. But this 
is of much the <amc use with the Colon, and occurs only in Latin books. 

A simple senvencc admits only of a full point at the end ; .because its general meaning cannot be 
distinguished into parts. It is only in compound sentences that all the different points are to be 
found. 

Points likewise express the different pauses which should be observed in a just pronunciation of 
discourse. The precise duration of each pause, or note, cannot be defined. It varies acccMrding 
to the different subjects of discourse, and tlie different turns of human passion and thaaght. The 
period requires a pause in duration double of the colon ; the colon double of the semicolon ; and 
the semicolon double of the comma. 

There are other points which, together with a certain pause, also denote a different modulation 
of the voice, in correspondence with the sense. These are the Interrogation point (.'), the Excla* 
mation or Admiration point (!), and the Parentheait ( ). The first two generally mark an elevation 
of the voice, and a pause equal to that of a semicolon, colon, or a-period, as the sense requires. 
The Parenthesis usually requires a moderate depression of the voice, witfi a pause somewhat 
greater than a comma. But these rules are liable to many exceptions. The modulation of the 
voice in reading, and the various pauses, must always be regulated by the sense. 

Besides the points, there are several other marks made use of in books, to denote references and 
different distinctions, or to point out something remarkable or defective, &lc. These are, the 
Apostrophe r)', Asteris^c {*) ; Hyphen (-) ; Obelisk (\)i Double Obelisk (J); Paralld Lines (||)j 
Paragraph (IT) ; Section (§); Qjuotation (" ") ; Crotchets [ ] j Brace {))', Ellipsis (...or — )\ Caret 
(a) ; which last is only used in writing. 

References are often marked by letters and figures. 

Capitals or large letters, are used at the beginning of sentences, of verses, and of proper names.- 
Somc use them at the beginning of every substantive noun. Adjectives, verbs, and other parts of 
speech, unless they be eniphatical, commonly begin with a small letter. 

Capitals, with a point after them, are often put for whole words; thug, A. maxkBAuluSt C. 
Cains, D. Decimusy L. Lucius, M. Marcus, P. Publius, Q. Qymclim, T. Titus. So F. stands for 
Junius, and N. for JVepos ; as, M. F. Marci Filius, M. N. Mard J^epos. In like manner, P. C. 
marks Patres Conscripti ; S. C. Senatus Consultum; P. R. Populus Romanus; S. P. Q. R. Senahts 
i^opulusque Romanm ; U. C. Urbs Condita; S. P. D. Salutem Plurimam dicit; V.D. D. Dai, dieat, 
dediccU;U. D. C. Q. Dat, dicaf, consecratqve ; II. S. written corruptly for L. L. S. Sesteriius, equal in 
Value to two pounds of brass and a half; the two pounds being marked by L. L. Libra, Libra^ and 
the half by S. Semis. So in modern books A. D. marks Anno Domini ; A. M. Arttum MagitUTf 
Master of Arts ; M. D. Medicime Doctor ; L. L. D. Legum Doctor ; N. B. Abte Bene, &c. 

Sometimes a small letter or two is added to the capital ; as, Etc. Et emtera; Ap. Appius; On. 
Cneius; Op. Opiter; Sp. Spurius; Ti. Tiberius.; Sex. Sextus; Cos. Consul; Coss. Consules ; Imp, 
Xmperator; Impp. Jmperatores, 

In like manner, in English, Esq. Esquire; Dr. Debtor or Doctor; Acct. Account; MS. Maniucript; 
Af SS. Manuscripts; Do. Ditto ; Rt. Hon. Right Honourable, &c. 

Small letters are likewise often put as abbreviations of a word; as, i.e. id est ; h. e. hoc est; e. g. 
exempli gratid; v. g. verbi gratid. 

Capitals were used by the ancient Romans^ to mark numbers. The Letters efnployed for this 
{purpose were C. I. L. V. X. which are therefore called J^Tumcrical Letters. I. denotes one, V.Jive,X, 
fen, L. fifty, and C. a hundred. By the various combinations of these five letters, all the different 
tiumbers are expressed. 

The repetition of a numerical letter repeats its value. Thus, II. signifies two; HI. three; XX. 
twenty ; XXX. thirty ; CC. tuo hundred, &c. But V. and L. are never repeated. 

When a letter of a less value is placed before a letter of a greater, the less takes away what it 
stands for from the greater ; but being placed after, adds what it stands for to the greater ; thus, 
IV. Four. V. Five. VI. Six. 

IX Nine. X. Ten. XI. Eleven. 

XL. Forty. L. Fifty. LX. Sixty. 

XC. Ninety. C. A hundred. CX. A hundred and ten. 



liK) DIVISION OF THE ROMAN MONTHS. 

A thousand is mak-ked thus, ci9, which in later times was contracted into u. Fite hundred is 
maiiLed thus, I3. or by contraction, d. 

The annexing of c to i3 makes its value ten times greater; thus, loo marks fire thousand ; and 
1933, fifty thousand. 

The prefixing of c, together with the annexing of 3, to the number of ci3. makes its value ten 
times greater ; thus, cci33 denotes ten thousand ; and ccci333 a hundred thousand. The ancient 
Romans, according to Pliny, proceeded no farther in this method of notation. If they had occasion 
to express a larger number they did it by repetition ; thus, 0001333, 0001333. signified two hundred 
thousandj &c. 

We sometimes find thousands expressed by a straight line drawn over the top of the numerical 
letters. Thus, in denotes three thousand; i. ten thousand. 

But the modem manner of marking numbers is much more simple, by these ten characters or 
figutesi which from the ten fingers of the hands' were called Digits ; 1 oney 2 /tro, S^threCt 4 foWy 
ofioCf 6 six, 7 seven, 8 eight, 9 nine, nought, nothing. The first nine arc called SigrUficant 
figure*. The last is called a Cypher 

Significant figures placed one after another increase their value ten times at every remove from 
the right hand to the left ; thus, 

8 Eight 85 Eighty-five. 856 Eight hundred and fifty-six. 8566 Eight thousand €ive hundred 
and sixty-six. 

When cyphers are placed at the right hand of a significant figure, each cypher increases the 
value of the figure ten times ; thus, 

1 One. 10 Ten. 100 A hundred. 1000 A thousand. 2 Two. 20 Twenty. 200 Two hundred. 
2000 Two thousand. 

Cyphers are often intermixed with significant figures, thus, 20202, Tweniy thousand two hundred 
and two. 

The saperioiity of the present method of marking numbers over that of the Romans, will appear 
by expressing tiie present year both in letters and figures, and comparing them toge&er; 

CI3|I30C01X1I, or M,DCCCXXII, 1822. 

As the Roman manner of marking the days of their months was quite difi^ent from onrsy it may 
perhaps be of use here to give a short account of it. 

Divition of the Roman Months. 

The Romans divided their months in three parts, by Kalends, Jn'ones, and Idts. The first day 
of every month was called the Kalends ; the fifth day was called the JConts ; and the thirteenth day 
was called the Ides^ except in the months of March, May, July, and October, in which the nones 
fell upon the seventh day, and the ides on the fifteenth. 

In reckoning the days of their months, they counted backwards. Thus, the first day of Januaiy 
was marked Kalendis Januariis, or Januarii, or by contraction, Kal. Jan. The last day of Decem- 
ber, Pridie Kalendas Januarias or Januarii, soil. ante. The day before that, or the 80ch day of 
December, Tertio Kal. Jan, soil, die ante ; or Jinte diem tertium Kal. Jan. llie twenty-ninth day 
of December, Q^arto Kal. Jan. And so on, till they came back to the thirteenth day of December, 
or to the ides, which were marked Idibus Decemoribus, or Decemlnis : the day before the ides, 
Pniit Idus Dec. scil. anit : the day before that, Tertio Id. Dee. and so back to the nones, or the 
fifth day of the month, which was marked J^Tonis Deccmlfribus or Decembris : the day before the 
nones, Pridie JVbn. Dec. &c. and thus through all the months of the year. 

In Leap-year, that is, when February has twenty-nine days, which happens every fourth year 
both the 24th and the 25th days of that month were marked, Sexto Kalendas Martii or Martias . 
and hence this year is called Bissextilis. 

JUNIUS, APRILIS, SEPTEMque, NOVEMque tricenos ; 

Unum plus reliqui : FEBRUUS tenet octo viginti ; 

At si bissextus fuerit, superadditur unus, 

Tu primam mensis lucem die esse kalendas. 

Sex MAIUS, nonas OCTOBER, JULIUS, et MARS, 

Quatuor at reliqui : dabit idus quilibet octo. 

Omnes post idus luces die esse kalendas, 

Nomen sortiri debent a mense sequenti. 

Thus, the 14th day of .^pril, June, Septembery and October, was marked XVIII. Kal. of the fol- 
lowing month ; the 15th, XVII. Kal. &c. The 14th day of January, August, and December, XIX. 
Kal. &c. So the 16th day of MarehCMay, July, and October, was marked XVII. Kal. &c. And 
the 14th day of February, XVI. Kal. Martii or Martias. The names of all the months are used as 
Substantives or Adjectives, except Aprilis, which is used only as a Substantive; 



FINIS.